1
th
2
RATIO & PROPORTION

The ratio of two quantities in the same units is a fraction that one quantity is
of the other.

The ratio a : b represents a fraction

The multiplication or division of each term of a ratio by a same non-zero
number does not effect the ratio, however addition & subtraction changes
the ratio.

The equality of two ratios is called PROPORTION, that is a : b= c : d, we
write a : b :: c : d

n a proportion, first & fourth terms are !nown as EXTREMES, while
second & third terms are !nown as MEANS.
"roducts of means = "roducts of #\$tremes
b
a
3
DIVIDENDO COMPONENDO called is
d c
d c
b a
b a
DIVIDENDO called is
d
d c
b
b a
COMPONENDO called is
d
d c
b
b a
INVERTENDO called is
c
d
a
b
ALTERNENDO called is
d
b
c
a
then
d
c
b
a
have we If
& % &
% '
% (
% )
% *
: ,

+
=

+

=

+
=
+
=
=
− − =
4
b a of ratio triplicate sub is b a
b a of ratio triplicate called is b a
b a of ratio duplicate sub called is b a
b a of ratio duplicate the called is b a
bdf ace is
f e d c b a ratios the of ratio copounded The Ratio Copounded
ab is b a between al proportion Mean proportion Mean
b b a to proportion fourth the is b a to proportion third The proportion Third
c b a to proportion forth the called is d then d c b a If proportion !ourth
: :
: :
: :
: :
% : +
% : + & % : + %, : + :
, , & , , :
. , , , :
. , , , , , : : :
( - * ( - *
( (
) )
− > − −
> − −
− > − −
> − −
=
5
VARIATION
"
# write \$ t cons soe for
"
\$
# if " to al proportion inversel" is #
" # write \$ t cons soe for \$" # if " to al proportion directl" is #
*
& , tan , , , , , % )
& , tan , , , , , % *
∝ =
∝ =
6
MIXTURES OR ALLIGATION

.//0.T12: t is the rule that enables us to find the ratio in
which two or more ingredients at the given price must be mi\$ed to
produce a mi\$ture at a given price.

3ean "rice: The cost price of a unit quantity of the mi\$ture is called
mean price.

3ean price is always less than the dear price and is always more
than the cheap price.

"rice of water is always ta!en as zero.
7

45/# 16 .//0.T12:
 7onsider a vessel containing 8a9 liters of liquid l
*
. 6rom this if 8b9 liters is ta!en
out and replaced with other liquid l
)
. .nd this process is repeated n-times, then,
after n-operations
% + : % + % + : % +
% . . + % +
% + % . . +
% + % +
% +
% + % +
. . .
c d %uantit" Dearer %uantit" Cheaper
cheaper of P C price Mean
price Mean dearer of P C
dearer of &uantit"
cheaper of &uantit"
c d
price Mean
d dearer of c cheaper of
%uantit" unit a of P C %uantit" unit a of P C
− − =

=
− −
n
a
b a
vessel the in li%uid of %uantit" 'hole
operation nth after vessel in left l

=
*
8
 :hen 8\$
*
9 quantity of 3i\$ture 8.9 of cost 7
*
is mi\$ed with 8\$
)
9 quantity of
3i\$ture 8;9 of cost 7
)
, then the cost of new mi\$ture is:
 :hen two mi\$tures 3
*
& 3
)
, each containing ingredients . & ; in the
ratio a : b and \$ : y are mi\$ed to form a new mi\$ture, then the proportion of
the ingredients . & ;, i.e. q
a
& q
b
in the resultant mi\$ture is:

) *
) ) * *
# #
# C # C
C

+
+
=

+

+

+

+
=

+
+

+

+
+

+
=
b a
a
% %
%
% %
%
" #
#
&
&
or
" #
"
M
b a
b
M
" #
#
M
b a
a
M
%
%
b a
a
b a
a
M
M
b
a
)
*
) *
) *
9
SET THEORY

. set is a collection of well defined ob<ects. These ob<ects are called
elements or members of the set.

4#"4#=#2T.T12 16 =#T:

4oaster method: e.g. .=>*,),(,',&?, .= >a, e, i, o, u?

=et ;uilder method. e.g. .= >\$: \$ is a vowel in #nglish alphabet?

T@"#= 16 =#T:

#mpty or 2ull =et: > ?, >A?

=ingleton =et.

6inite =et: .= =et of odd numbers from * to *BB

nfinite =et: .= =et of all integers.
10

T@"#= 16 =#T +7ontd..%:

#qual =ets.

#quivalent =ets.

Subsets of a Set: . is said to be the subset of another set ; if all the
elements of set . are included in =et ;. e.g. .=>),',C? & b=
>*,),(,',&,C?, then we . is a subset of ;, denoted as

#very set is a subset of itself.

#very set has an empty set as its subset.

Total number of subsets of a set having n- elements is )
n.

5niversal =et: . set which contains all the sets in a given conte\$t

"ower =et: The collection of all the subsets of a set.
( A⊆
11
OPERATIONS ON SETS

5nion of =ets, . 5 ;.

ntersection of =ets, . D ;.

Eis<oints =ets, if . D ; = B.

Eifference of =ets: 6or two sets . and ;, . F ; is the set of all those
elements of . that do not belong to ;. e.g. .=>*,),(,',&,C? & ;=>),',G?,
then . F ;=>*,(,&,C? and ; F . =>G?

7omplement of a =et: f 5 is the universal set and a set . is such that
, then complement of the set . is defined as 5 F ., & is represented as
.9 or .
c.
) A ⊆
12
Laws in set theory
A A A A A A
( A ( A ( A ( A
Law s Mor*an De
A ) A A A
Laws Identit"
C A ( A C ( A C A ( A C ( A
c and ( A sets three an" !or Laws ve Distributi
C ( A C ( A C ( A C ( A
C and ( A sets three an" !or Laws ve Assosciati
A ( ( A A ( ( A
( and A sets two an" !or Laws e Coutativ
= ∩ = ∪
∪ = ∩ ∩ = ∪

= ∩ = ∪
∩ ∪ ∩ = ∪ ∩ ∪ ∩ ∪ = ∩ ∪
∩ ∩ = ∩ ∩ ∪ ∪ = ∪ ∪
∩ = ∩ ∪ = ∪
& . C
% + & % +
: , . &
&
: . '
% + % + % + & % + % + % +
, , : . (
% + % + & % + % +
, , : . )
. &
, : . *
, , , , , ,
φ
13
% + % + % +
% + % + % +
% + % + % + % + % + % + % + % +
% + % + % +
% + % + % + % +
: , ,
% + % + % + % +
% +
% +
,
, ,
, ,
,
,
( A n ) n ( A n
( A n ) n ( A n
C ( A n C A n C ( n ( A n C n ( n A n C ( A n
( A n A n ( A n
( A n ( n A n ( A n
then sets finite three are C and ( A If
( A ( A A ( ( A
( ( A
( A ( ( A
A ( A (
( A ( A
then sets two are ( and A If
∪ − = ∩
∩ − = ∪
∩ ∩ + ∩ − ∩ − ∩ − + + = ∪ ∪
∩ − = −
∩ − + = ∪
− −
∩ − ∪ = − ∪ −
= ∩ −
∪ = ∪ −
∩ = −
∩ = −
φ
14
COORDINATE GEOMETRY

+

+

+ +
− −
− + − =
l
" l"
l
# l#
are l ratio the in e#ternall" " # & and " # P +oinin*
line the divides which R nt poi a of s coordinate The Division E#ternal b
l
" l"
l
# l#
are l ratio the in Internall" " # & and " # P +oinin*
line the divides which R poinT a of s coordinate The Division Internal a
LINE O! DIVI,ION
" " # #
are s coordinate its then P& of poinT id the is R If POINT MID
" " # # P& b" *iven is " # & and " # P
ts poin two between DistAnce POINT, T'O (ET'EEN DI,TANCE
* ) * )
) ) * *
* ) * )
) ) * *
) * ) *
)
* )
)
* ) ) ) * *
,
: : % , + % , +
, , : %
,
: % , + % , +
, , : %
: % (
)
,
)
, : % )
% + % + : % , + % , +
: % *
15
[ ] % + % + % +
)
*
% , + & % , +
%, , + : % C
, % , + & % , +
%, , + sec
sec : % &
(
,
(
% , + &
% , + %, , +
. * : )
. (
sec : % '
) * ( * ( ) ( ) * ( ( ) )
* *
( ) * ( ) *
( ( ) )
* *
( ) * ( ) *
( (
) ) * *
" " # " " # " " # Area are " # C " # (
" # A are vertices whose trian*le of are The TRIAN-LE O! AREA
c b a
c" b" a"
c b a
c# b# a#
are " # C " # (
" # A are vertices whose trian*le a of an*les the of tors bi Internal
the of tion Inter of poinT the is It TRIAN-LE A O! INCENTRE
" " " # # #
are " # C
" # ( " # A are vertices whose trian*le of centroid a of s Coordinate
ratio
the in edian the divides It Centroid called is trian*le a of edians
the of tion Inter of poinT The TRIAN-LE A O! CENTROID
− + − + − =

+ +
+ +
+ +
+ +

+ + + +
16
) (
) (
* )
* )
( ( ) ) * *
) *
) *
*
* )
* )
*
* )
* )
) ) * *
* *
* *
, % , + % , + %, , + % *B
* &
. . , & % H
% + ,
% , + & % , + ) % G
% +
%, , + & % I
# #
" "
# #
" "
then collinear are " # R and " # & " # P ts poin three If
if onl" if pendicular are lines Two
e i e%ual are slopes their if onl" if parallel are lines Two
# #
# #
" "
" " becoes line of e%uation
# #
" "
is
" # & " # P poinTs throu*h in* pass line of slope The
# # " " is line of e%uation then
" # P poinT a throu*h passes it line of slope the is If

=

− =
=

= −

=
− = −