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1

th

Amity School of Business

2

RATIO & PROPORTION

The ratio of two quantities in the same units is a fraction that one quantity is

of the other.

The ratio a : b represents a fraction

The multiplication or division of each term of a ratio by a same non-zero

number does not effect the ratio, however addition & subtraction changes

the ratio.

The equality of two ratios is called PROPORTION, that is a : b= c : d, we

write a : b :: c : d

n a proportion, first & fourth terms are !nown as EXTREMES, while

second & third terms are !nown as MEANS.

"roducts of means = "roducts of #$tremes

b

a

Amity School of Business

3

DIVIDENDO COMPONENDO called is

d c

d c

b a

b a

DIVIDENDO called is

d

d c

b

b a

COMPONENDO called is

d

d c

b

b a

INVERTENDO called is

c

d

a

b

ALTERNENDO called is

d

b

c

a

then

d

c

b

a

have we If

& % &

% '

% (

% )

% *

: ,

−

+

=

−

+

−

=

−

+

=

+

=

=

− − =

Amity School of Business

4

b a of ratio triplicate sub is b a

b a of ratio triplicate called is b a

b a of ratio duplicate sub called is b a

b a of ratio duplicate the called is b a

bdf ace is

f e d c b a ratios the of ratio copounded The Ratio Copounded

ab is b a between al proportion Mean proportion Mean

b b a to proportion fourth the is b a to proportion third The proportion Third

c b a to proportion forth the called is d then d c b a If proportion !ourth

: :

: :

: :

: :

% : +

% : + & % : + %, : + :

, , & , , :

. , , , :

. , , , , , : : :

( - * ( - *

( (

) )

− > − −

> − −

− > − −

> − −

=

Amity School of Business

5

VARIATION

"

# write $ t cons soe for

"

$

# if " to al proportion inversel" is #

" # write $ t cons soe for $" # if " to al proportion directl" is #

*

& , tan , , , , , % )

& , tan , , , , , % *

∝ =

∝ =

Amity School of Business

6

MIXTURES OR ALLIGATION

.//0.T12: t is the rule that enables us to find the ratio in

which two or more ingredients at the given price must be mi$ed to

produce a mi$ture at a given price.

3ean "rice: The cost price of a unit quantity of the mi$ture is called

mean price.

3ean price is always less than the dear price and is always more

than the cheap price.

"rice of water is always ta!en as zero.

Amity School of Business

7

45/# 16 .//0.T12:

7onsider a vessel containing 8a9 liters of liquid l

*

. 6rom this if 8b9 liters is ta!en

out and replaced with other liquid l

)

. .nd this process is repeated n-times, then,

after n-operations

% + : % + % + : % +

% . . + % +

% + % . . +

% + % +

% +

% + % +

. . .

c d %uantit" Dearer %uantit" Cheaper

cheaper of P C price Mean

price Mean dearer of P C

dearer of &uantit"

cheaper of &uantit"

c d

price Mean

d dearer of c cheaper of

%uantit" unit a of P C %uantit" unit a of P C

− − =

−

−

=

− −

n

a

b a

vessel the in li%uid of %uantit" 'hole

operation nth after vessel in left l

−

=

*

Amity School of Business

8

:hen 8$

*

9 quantity of 3i$ture 8.9 of cost 7

*

is mi$ed with 8$

)

9 quantity of

3i$ture 8;9 of cost 7

)

, then the cost of new mi$ture is:

:hen two mi$tures 3

*

& 3

)

, each containing ingredients . & ; in the

ratio a : b and $ : y are mi$ed to form a new mi$ture, then the proportion of

the ingredients . & ;, i.e. q

a

& q

b

in the resultant mi$ture is:

) *

) ) * *

# #

# C # C

C

+

+

=

+

−

+

+

−

+

=

+

+

+

+

+

+

=

b a

a

% %

%

% %

%

" #

#

&

&

or

" #

"

M

b a

b

M

" #

#

M

b a

a

M

%

%

b a

a

b a

a

M

M

b

a

)

*

) *

) *

Amity School of Business

9

SET THEORY

. set is a collection of well defined ob<ects. These ob<ects are called

elements or members of the set.

4#"4#=#2T.T12 16 =#T:

4oaster method: e.g. .=>*,),(,',&?, .= >a, e, i, o, u?

=et ;uilder method. e.g. .= >$: $ is a vowel in #nglish alphabet?

T@"#= 16 =#T:

#mpty or 2ull =et: > ?, >A?

=ingleton =et.

6inite =et: .= =et of odd numbers from * to *BB

nfinite =et: .= =et of all integers.

Amity School of Business

10

T@"#= 16 =#T +7ontd..%:

#qual =ets.

#quivalent =ets.

Subsets of a Set: . is said to be the subset of another set ; if all the

elements of set . are included in =et ;. e.g. .=>),',C? & b=

>*,),(,',&,C?, then we . is a subset of ;, denoted as

#very set is a subset of itself.

#very set has an empty set as its subset.

Total number of subsets of a set having n- elements is )

n.

5niversal =et: . set which contains all the sets in a given conte$t

"ower =et: The collection of all the subsets of a set.

( A⊆

Amity School of Business

11

OPERATIONS ON SETS

5nion of =ets, . 5 ;.

ntersection of =ets, . D ;.

Eis<oints =ets, if . D ; = B.

Eifference of =ets: 6or two sets . and ;, . F ; is the set of all those

elements of . that do not belong to ;. e.g. .=>*,),(,',&,C? & ;=>),',G?,

then . F ;=>*,(,&,C? and ; F . =>G?

7omplement of a =et: f 5 is the universal set and a set . is such that

, then complement of the set . is defined as 5 F ., & is represented as

.9 or .

c.

) A ⊆

Amity School of Business

12

Laws in set theory

A A A A A A

( A ( A ( A ( A

Law s Mor*an De

A ) A A A

Laws Identit"

C A ( A C ( A C A ( A C ( A

c and ( A sets three an" !or Laws ve Distributi

C ( A C ( A C ( A C ( A

C and ( A sets three an" !or Laws ve Assosciati

A ( ( A A ( ( A

( and A sets two an" !or Laws e Coutativ

= ∩ = ∪

∪ = ∩ ∩ = ∪

−

= ∩ = ∪

∩ ∪ ∩ = ∪ ∩ ∪ ∩ ∪ = ∩ ∪

∩ ∩ = ∩ ∩ ∪ ∪ = ∪ ∪

∩ = ∩ ∪ = ∪

& . C

% + & % +

: , . &

&

: . '

% + % + % + & % + % + % +

, , : . (

% + % + & % + % +

, , : . )

. &

, : . *

, , , , , ,

φ

Amity School of Business

13

% + % + % +

% + % + % +

% + % + % + % + % + % + % + % +

% + % + % +

% + % + % + % +

: , ,

% + % + % + % +

% +

% +

,

, ,

, ,

,

,

( A n ) n ( A n

( A n ) n ( A n

C ( A n C A n C ( n ( A n C n ( n A n C ( A n

( A n A n ( A n

( A n ( n A n ( A n

then sets finite three are C and ( A If

( A ( A A ( ( A

( ( A

( A ( ( A

A ( A (

( A ( A

then sets two are ( and A If

∪ − = ∩

∩ − = ∪

∩ ∩ + ∩ − ∩ − ∩ − + + = ∪ ∪

∩ − = −

∩ − + = ∪

− −

∩ − ∪ = − ∪ −

= ∩ −

∪ = ∪ −

∩ = −

∩ = −

φ

Amity School of Business

14

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

−

−

−

−

−

+

−

+

+ +

− −

− + − =

l

" l"

l

# l#

are l ratio the in e#ternall" " # & and " # P +oinin*

line the divides which R nt poi a of s coordinate The Division E#ternal b

l

" l"

l

# l#

are l ratio the in Internall" " # & and " # P +oinin*

line the divides which R poinT a of s coordinate The Division Internal a

LINE O! DIVI,ION

" " # #

are s coordinate its then P& of poinT id the is R If POINT MID

" " # # P& b" *iven is " # & and " # P

ts poin two between DistAnce POINT, T'O (ET'EEN DI,TANCE

* ) * )

) ) * *

* ) * )

) ) * *

) * ) *

)

* )

)

* ) ) ) * *

,

: : % , + % , +

, , : %

,

: % , + % , +

, , : %

: % (

)

,

)

, : % )

% + % + : % , + % , +

: % *

Amity School of Business

15

[ ] % + % + % +

)

*

% , + & % , +

%, , + : % C

, % , + & % , +

%, , + sec

sec : % &

(

,

(

% , + &

% , + %, , +

. * : )

. (

sec : % '

) * ( * ( ) ( ) * ( ( ) )

* *

( ) * ( ) *

( ( ) )

* *

( ) * ( ) *

( (

) ) * *

" " # " " # " " # Area are " # C " # (

" # A are vertices whose trian*le of are The TRIAN-LE O! AREA

c b a

c" b" a"

c b a

c# b# a#

are " # C " # (

" # A are vertices whose trian*le a of an*les the of tors bi Internal

the of tion Inter of poinT the is It TRIAN-LE A O! INCENTRE

" " " # # #

are " # C

" # ( " # A are vertices whose trian*le of centroid a of s Coordinate

ratio

the in edian the divides It Centroid called is trian*le a of edians

the of tion Inter of poinT The TRIAN-LE A O! CENTROID

− + − + − =

+ +

+ +

+ +

+ +

+ + + +

Amity School of Business

16

) (

) (

* )

* )

( ( ) ) * *

) *

) *

*

* )

* )

*

* )

* )

) ) * *

* *

* *

, % , + % , + %, , + % *B

* &

. . , & % H

% + ,

% , + & % , + ) % G

% +

%, , + & % I

# #

" "

# #

" "

then collinear are " # R and " # & " # P ts poin three If

if onl" if pendicular are lines Two

e i e%ual are slopes their if onl" if parallel are lines Two

# #

# #

" "

" " becoes line of e%uation

# #

" "

is

" # & " # P poinTs throu*h in* pass line of slope The

# # " " is line of e%uation then

" # P poinT a throu*h passes it line of slope the is If

−

−

=

−

−

− =

=

−

−

−

= −

−

−

=

− = −

Amity School of Business

17

MENSURATION

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