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# Amity School of Business

## Amity School of Business

BBA, Semester IV
Analytical skills building
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INTRODUCTION
Number System Conversion:--

Binary: Base 2 system.
Decimal: Base 10 system.
Octal: Base 8 system.
Hexadecimal: Base 16 system.
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BINARY NUMBER SYSTEM
The binary numeral system, or base-2 number system
represents numeric values using two symbols, 0 and 1.

Binary system is used internally by all modern computers.

The word Binary actually come from the Latin word bini, and
means "two".

Binary digits are most often referred to as bits, short for "binary
digits.

Since binary is a base-2 system, each digit represents an
increasing power of 2, with the rightmost digit representing 2
0
,
the next representing 2
1
, then 2
2
, and so on.
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Decimal number system
The Decimal numeral system (also called base ten) has ten(10) as
its base.

It is the numerical base most widely used by modern
civilizations.

Decimal counting uses the symbols 0 through 9.
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OCTAL NUMBER SYSTEM
The Octal numeral system, or Oct for short, is the base-8 number
system.

It uses the digits 0 to 7.

The main problem with binary numbers is that they take up a lot
of space.

Octal is a shorter method of writing binary. Since the octal base
eight is a power of the binary base two ( 8 = 2 )
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In mathematics and computer science, Hexadecimal is a
positional numeral system with base-16.

It uses sixteen distinct symbols, most often the symbols:--
09 to represent values zero to nine,
and, A- 10
B - 11
C - 12
D - 13
E - 14
F - 15
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CONVERSIONS
CASE 1: Binary Decimal & Decimal Binary
CASE 2: Binary Octal & Octal Binary.
CASE 3: Binary Hexadecimal & Hexadecimal Binary.
CASE 4: Decimal Octal, & Octal Decimal.
CASE 6: Octal Hexadecimal & Hexadecimal Octal.

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DECIMAL BINARY OCTAL HEXADECIMAL
0 0 0 0
1 1 1 1
2 10 2 2
3 11 3 3
4 100 4 4
5 101 5 5
6 110 6 6
7 111 7 7
8 1000 8
9 1001 9
10 1010 A
11 1011 B
12 1100 C
13 1101 D
14 1110 E
15 1111 F
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TYPES OF NUMBER
NATURAL: Numbers like 1,2,3,..,smallest natural no. is 1 but
there is no greatest number.

WHOLE: Numbers like 0,1,2,3

PRIME: A number greater then 1, which contains only two
different divisors, i.e., 1 or itself.

CO-PRIME: Two numbers a and b are said to be co-primes, if
their H.C.F. is 1. e.g., (2, 3), (4, 5), (7, 9), (8, 11), etc. are co-primes

COMPOSITE: A number greater then 1 which contains more
than two different divisors is 4,6,8,9..
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REAL: A number that can be written as a terminating or
nonterminating decimal; a rational or irrational number.

RATIONAL: Each rational number is a ratio of two integers: a
numerator and a non-zero denominator. Any repeating or
terminating decimal represents a rational number. Since
denominator can be 1, hence all integers are also rational no.s.

IRRATIONAL: Irrational numbers include 2, , and e. The
decimal expansion of an irrational number continues forever
without repeating.

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SHORT-CUTS
2
2
2
2
) 1 (
4
.' 1
6
) 1 2 )( 1 (
.' 1
. 1
. 1
2
) 1 (
. 1
+ =
+ +
=
+ =
=

=
n
n
s no cube n st of Sum
n n n
s no square n st of Sum
n n no even n st of Sum
n no odd n st of Sum
n n
no natural n st of Sum
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Factors and Multiples : If a number a divides another number
b exactly, we say that a is a factor of b. In this case, b is called a
multiple of a.

Least Common Multiple (L.C.M.) : The least number which is
exactly divisible by each one of the given numbers is called their
L.C.M.

Factorization Method of Finding L.C.M.: Resolve each one of the
given numbers into a product of prime factors. Then, L.C.M. is
the product of highest powers of all the factors,
HCF & LCM
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HCF & LCM
Highest Common Factor (H.C.F.) or Greatest Common Measure
(G.C.M.) or Greatest Common Divisor (G.C.D.).

The H.C.F. of two or more than two numbers is the greatest
number that divides each of them exactly.

There are two methods of finding the H.C.F. of a given set of
numbers :
Factorization Method: Express each one of the given numbers
as the product of prime factors . The product of least powers
of common prime factors gives H.C.F.
Division Method: To find the H.C.F. of two given numbers.
Divide the larger number by the smaller one
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Formulas
Product of two numbers =Product of their H.C.F. and
L.C.M.

H.C.F. and L.C.M. of Fractions:

ator deno of HCF
numerator of LCM
LCM
ator deno of LCM
numerator of HCF
HCF
min
min
=
=
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DIVISIBILITY TEST
Divisibility By 2 : A number is divisible by 2, if its unit's digit is any
of 0, 2, 4, 6, 8.
Divisibility By 3 : A number is divisible by 3, if the sum of its digits
is divisible by 3.
Divisibility By 4 : A number is divisible by 4, if the number formed
by the last two digits is divisible by 4.
Divisibility By 5 : A number is divisible by 5, if its unit's digit is
either 0 or 5.
Divisibility By 6 : A number is divisible by 6, if it is divisible by
both 2 and 3.
Divisibility By 7 : Double the last digit and subtract it from the
remaining leading truncated number.
Divisibility by 7 : Make pairs of 3 starting from right, add all even
and odd pairs together, then if the difference of sum of all odd pairs
and all even pairs is either 0 or a multiple of 7.
Divisibility By 8 : A number is divisible by 8, if the number formed
by the last three digits of the given number is divisible by 8.
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Divisibility By 9 : A number is divisible by 9, if the sum of its digits
is divisible by 9.
Divisibility By 10 : A number is divisible by 10, if it ends with 0.
Divisibility By 11 : A number is divisible by 11, if the difference of
the sum of its digits at odd places and the sum of its digits at even
places, is either 0 or a number divisible by 11.
Divisibility By 12 : A number is divisible by 12 if it is divisible by
both 3 & 4.
Divisibility By 13 : Make pairs of 3 starting from right, add all even
and odd pairs together, then if the difference of sum of all odd pairs
and all even pairs is either 0 or a multiple of 13.
Divisibility By 14 : A number is divisible by 14, if it is divisible by
both 2 and 7.
Divisibility By 15 : A number is divisible by 15, if it is divisible by
both 3 and 5.
DIVISIBILITY TEST
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Divisibility By 16 :
CASE 1: If the thousands digit is even, examine the number
formed by the last three digits.
CASE 2: If the thousands digit is odd, examine the number
formed by the last three digits plus 8.
Divisibility By 17 : Subtract 5 times the last digit from the rest.
Divisibility By 18 : A number is divisible by 18, if it is divisible by
both 2 and 9.
Divisibility By 19 : Add twice the last digit to the rest.
Divisibility By 20 : A number is divisible by 20, if it is divisible by
10, and the tens digit is even.
Divisibility By 20 : A number is divisible by 20, if the number
formed by the last two digits is divisible by 20.

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PERCENTAGE
Percent means hundredths.

E.g. x percent means x hundredths, & is written as x%.

To express x% as a fraction: We write, x% = x/100.

To express a/b as a percent: We write, a/b =((a/b)*100)%.

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KEY CONCEPTS
If A is R% more than B, then B is less than A by :--
[(R/(100+R))*100]%.

If A is R% less than B , then B is more than A by :--
[(R/(100-R))*100]%.

If the price of a commodity increases by R%, then the reduction
in consumption so as not to increase the expenditure is :--
[R/(100+R))*100]%.

If the price of the commodity decreases by R%, then the increase
in consumption so as to decrease the expenditure is :--
[(R/(100-R)*100]%.
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Let the population of the town be P now and suppose it
increases at the rate of R% per annum, then :
Population after n years =

Population n years ago=

Let the present value of a machine be P. Suppose it depreciates
at the rate R% per annum, then:
Value of the machine after n years =

Value of the machine n years ago =
n
R
P
(

+
100
1
n
R
P
(

+
100
1
n
R
P
(

100
1
n
R
P
(

100
1
n
R
P
(

+
100
1
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PROFIT & LOSS
COST PRICE: The price at which article is purchased.
Abbreviated as C.P.
SELLING PRICE: The price at which article is sold. Abbreviated
as S.P.
PROFIT OR GAIN: IF SP IS GREATER THAN CP. (S.P.>C.P.)
LOSS: IF SP IS LESS THAN CP. (S.P.<C.P.)
Usually Gain or Loss is expressed as a percentage of C.P.
MARKED PRICE: The price at which an article marked.
Abbreviated as M.P. Usually discount is offered at M.R.P., and
the Discount=M.P.S.P.
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FORMULAES
GAIN=(SP)-(CP).

LOSS=(CP)-(SP).

GAIN %=

LOSS%=

Discount=MP-SP

Discount%=
SP
Gain

+ % 100
100
CP
Gain

+
100
% 100
100
CP
Gain
CP
Loss

100
% 100
100
CP
Loss
SP
Loss

% 100
100
SP=

SP=

CP=

CP=
If the article is sold at a gain of say 35%, then SP =135% of CP

If a article is sold at a loss of say 35%. Then SP=65% of CP
100
MP
Discount
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If the trader professes to sell his goods at CP but uses false
weights, then:--

If the CP of two articles purchased is same. One of the two is
sold at a gain of x% and the other is sold at a loss of x%, then on
the whole there is no loss, no gain.

If the SP of two articles is same. One of the two is sold at a gain
of x% and the other is sold at a loss of x%, then there is always a
loss, given as:-
( ) ( ) | |
% 100

=
Error Value True
Error
Gain
( )
100
100
%
2
2
x
Loss
Gain or Loss Common
Loss
=
=
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SPEED TIME & DISTANCE
hr km m m hr km
d s d s
d d s s
is journey whole the in speed average the then hr km s of
speed with km d another and s speed a at d ce dis certain a ers man a If
hr km
y x
xy
is journey whole the during speed average the Then hr km y at
ce dis equal an and hr km x at ce dis certain a ers man a Suppose
a b or
b a
is ce dis same the er to them by
taken times the of ratio the then b a is B and A of speeds the of ratio the If
Time Speed ce Dis
Speed
ce Dis
Time
time
ce Dis
Speed
/
5
18
sec / 1 sec, /
18
5
/ 1 ) 5
) (
: , / ' '
' ' ' ' ' ' tan cov ) 4
/
2
. /
tan / tan cov ) 3
:
1
:
1
tan cov
, : ) 2
tan ,
tan
,
tan
) 1
2 2 1 1
2 1 2 1
2
2 1 1
= =
+
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
= = =
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RELATIVE SPEED
t s t s D d
is d them of both between ce dis t time af ter then resp s s with
other each towards time same the at s po dif f erent two f rom moving start people two If
t s t s d
is t time af ter them by ered ce dis the then resp speed s s with
direction same the in time same the at po same f rom moving start people two If
t s t s d
is t time af ter them of both by ered ce dis the then resp speed s s with
direction opposite the in time same the at po same f rom moving start people two If
v u speed relative
then v u speeds with direction same the in move men objects two If
v u speed relative a at other each f rom away or other each towards
moving be to seem they then resp hr kn v and hr km u speeds at other each
f rom away or other each towards directions opposite in moving are objects two If
=
=
+ =
=
+ =
2 1
2 1
2 1
2 1
2 1
2 1
: ) ( tan , ' ' ., ' ' & ' '
int ) 5
: ' ' cov tan ., ' ' & ' '
, int ) 4
: ' ' cov tan ., ' ' & ' '
, int ) 3
, ' ' & ' ' / ) 2
., / ' ' / ' '
) 1
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CONCEPT OF TRAINS
. ' '
, / ' ' , ' ' ) 5
. , / ' '
& / ' ' ' ' & ' ' ) 4
. cov , , / ' ' &
/ ' ' ' ' ' ' ) 3
. ) ( cov
' ' sin ' ' ) 2
. ' ' cov tan
sin sin ' ' ) 1
hrs
u
y x
long km y
bridge a pass to hr km u of speed a at moving long km x train a by taken Time
hrs
v u
y x
other each cross to trains the by taken time then hr km v
hr km u at direction opposite in moving are km y km x length of trains two If
hrs
v u
y x
train slower the er to train f aster by taken time then v u where hr km v
hr km u at direction same the in moving are km y and km x length of trains two If
metres y x er to train the by taken Time
metres y of object stationary a g pas in long metres x train a by taken Time
metres x er to train the by taken Time man ding s a
or pole a or post gle a g pas in long metres x train a by taken Time
+
=
+
+
=

+
= >
+ =
=
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. , , / ' '
. / ' ' & ' ' ) 7
. , , / ' '
. / ' ' & ' ' ) 6
v u
x
man the pass to train by taken time the then train of opposite direction the in hr km v
of speed the at moving is man a If hr km u of speed a at running is long km x is train A
v u
x
man the pass to train by taken time the then train of direction same the in hr km v
of speed the at moving is man a If hr km u of speed a at running is long km x is train A
+
=

=
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CONCEPT OF BOATS & STREAMS
hr km u d b stream of Speed
hr km u d a water still in man boat of Speed
hr km b a u upstream Speed
hr km b a d downstream Speed
hr km b stream of speed hr km a water still in boat of speed If
UPSTREAM called is stream the against
direction DOWNSTREAM called is stream the along direction water In
/ ) (
2
1
,
/ ) (
2
1
, / ) 3
/ ) ( ,
/ ) ( ,
/ & , / ) 2
'. '
& ' ' ) 1
=
+ =
=
+ =
= =