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Personality Theories and

Personality Disorder
Personality in Psychology

Personality organizational behavior
concerns the human nature—the basic
operating characteristics of the human
machine.

Most business leaders understand the
importance of personality; witness the
current popularity of motional !ntelligence
in business seminars.
20
th
Century
Conceptual Revolutions in Psychology
PSYCHOANALYSIS
Founded by
Sigmund
Freud

BEHAVIORISM
Pioneers:
John B. !"#on
$Founder%
B. F. S&inner
H'MANISM
Pioneers:
Abr!h!m
M!#(o)
C!r(
Roger#
...a distinctive and relatively stable pattern of behavior,
thoughts, motives, and emotions that characterizes an
individual.
Theories of Personality
"ung and #dler were $%eo&'reudians() who used some 'reudian ideas
but developed many ideas of their own...
#dler
"ung
'reud
Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory
Main *omponents+

Thoughts and behavior are guided mainly
by the unconscious part of the mind.

Personality consists of three parts !d) ego
and superego

,e-ual motivation plays a central role in
everyday life.

*oncept of $infantile se-uality( shape
personality in adulthood.
'reud.s Psychoanalytic Theory
Three /evels of Mind 0topographic model1

*onscious+ everything we are aware of at
the moment; 2ust the $tip of the iceberg(.

Preconscious+ memories that we can bring
to consciousness.

3nconscious+ memories) wishes) and
instincts 0desires1 that are too threatening
or painful to bring to consciousness.
Three Parts of Personality
0,tructural Model1

'reud said that personality is divided into
4 parts) !D) 56) and ,3P756. They
are always in conflict but most of the time
the conflict is unconscious.
!d

*ontains life instincts 0se-) hunger) thirst) etc.1
and death instincts 0aggressive) destructive
tendencies1.

/ibido+ se-ual energy that fuels the entire
personality; needed for everyday life.

Pleasure Principle+ see8s immediate gratification
of impulses regardless of conse9uences.

verything in the id is unconscious 0intensity of
desires) goals that would give the most
satisfaction1.
go

/ogical) rational.

-ecutive of personality+ determines where) when) and
how impulses are e-pressed.

5oal+ to satisfy the id in ways that are socially and
morally acceptable.

7eality Principle+ tendency to delay gratification of
impulses until they can be e-pressed in socially and
morally acceptable ways.

The ego is part conscious and part unconscious. The
unconscious part distorts our perceptions of reality
0including ourselves1.
,uperego

*ontains moral values; not rational; doesn.t
care about conse9uences 0li8e id1.

The superego is part conscious and part
unconscious; if we feel guilty and don.t 8now
why) it.s caused by the unconscious part.
!nfantile ,e-uality

6ral stage 0:&;< months1

#nal stage 0;<&4= months1

Phallic stage 04&= years1

/atent stage 0=&;; years1

5enital stage 0;;&;< years1
'reud.s Theory

#ccording to 'reud) much of what people do) thin8 and
feel is really a way of avoiding an-iety.

#n-iety is the way the body signals us that we face a
threatening situation.

'or 'reud) the threat comes from the unconscious+ an
unacceptable se-ual or aggressive impulse.

Protecting ourselves from this an-iety is normal and
natural. *arried to an e-treme) it becomes a
psychological disorder+
> %eurosis+ a disorder in which one.s efforts to avoid an-iety
interfere with or limit normal human functioning; it involves self&
punishing) self&defeating behavior) and emotional or physical
symptoms.
'reud.s Theory

'reud based his theory mainly on a small
number of neurotic patients. ?e assumed
that they were li8e normal individuals; they
2ust went too far in their efforts to avoid
an-iety.

The theory is harder to apply to a more
severe type of disorder+
>
Psychosis+ an e-treme mental disturbance
involving distorted perceptions of reality and
irrational behavior; basically) a complete
brea8 with reality.
%eo&'reudian #pproach

#lfred #dler

*arl "ung

@aren ?orney

ric Aerne
#lfred #dler
Aasic ?uman Motivation+
Drive for Superiority) the
desire for self&
improvement) an
$upward drive( for
perfection.
Aasic ?uman Problem+
Inferiority Complex)
e-treme feelings of
wea8ness or inade9uacy;
involves an inability to
accept natural
limitations.
#n !nferiority *omple- occurs
when the need for self&
improvement is bloc8ed.
!nferiority 'eelings and
Personality
'eelings of inferiority are a natural part of personality
development. They start in childhood when we
compare ourselves to adults and continue into
adulthood when we discover limitations to our
abilities.
The natural and healthy reaction to inferiority feelings
is *ompensation) efforts to overcome real or
imagined inferiority by developing one.s abilities.
#dler Bersus 'reud
For Freud* ! +er#on,#
+rim!ry mo"i-!"ion )!#
!-oid !n.ie"y/ +eo+(e )ere
#imi(!r "o !nim!(# !nd
m!0hine#1 dri-en by n!"ur!(
2or0e# )i"h no #!y in )h!"
"hey did.
For Ad(er* "he +rim!ry
mo"i-!"ion )!# #e(23+er2e0"ion
!nd e4u!(i"y )i"h o"her#/ "he
em+h!#i# )!# on )h!" m!de
+eo+(e di22eren" 2rom !nim!(#
!nd m!0hine#1 go!(#* -!(ue#*
2ree )i((.
*arl "ung

Ego: conscious level; carries out daily
activities; li8e 'reud.s *onscious

Personal Unconscious: individual.s
thoughts) memories) wishes) impulses;
li8e 'reud.s Preconscious C
3nconscious

Collective Unconscious Collective Unconscious: storehouse
of memories inherited from the common
ancestors of the whole human race; no
counterpart in 'reud.s theory
5 Le-e(# o2 Con#0iou#ne##1
Aasic Personality 6rientations

!ntroversion+ focused inward; the person
is cautious) shy) timid) reflective.

-troversion+ focused outward; the
person is outgoing) sociable) assertive)
energetic.

@aren ?orney.s Theory

?orneyDs theory is perhaps the best theory of neurosis
we have. 'irst) she offered a different way of viewing
neurosis. ,he saw it as much more continuous with
normal life than previous theorists. ,pecifically) she saw
neurosis as an attempt to ma8e life bearable) as a way
of Einterpersonal control and coping.E

,econd) the neuroticDs need is much more intense) and
he or she will e-perience great anxiety if the need is not
met.

Copliance 0moving toward people1

!ggression 0moving against people1

"ithdra#al 0moving away people1
ric Aerne.s theory
Aerne said that each person is made up of three alter
ego states+

Parent $Taught%&uperego' This is our ingrained voice of
authority) absorbed conditioning) learning and attitudes
from when we were young. Fe were conditioned by our
real parents) teachers) older people) ne-t door
neighbours) aunts and uncles) 'ather *hristmas.

Child $(elt%id'6ur internal reaction and feelings to
e-ternal events form the D*hildD. This is the seeing)
hearing) feeling) and emotional body of data within each
of us.

!dult $Thought%ego' 6ur D#dultD is our ability to thin8
and determine action for ourselves) based on received
data.
Aehaviorist #pproach

Aehaviorists believe that people.s actions
depend on the circumstances they are in
rather than on the 8inds of people they
are.
7einforcement Bersus Punishment
0,8inner&Aehaviorist1
7einforcement Punishment
Positive
Stimulus is ...
Presented
Aehavior...
!ncreases
%egative %egative Positive
7emoved Presented 7emoved
Aehavior... Aehavior... Aehavior...
!ncreases
Decreases
Decreases
Stimulus is ... Stimulus is ... Stimulus is ...
Physiological #pproach
@reschmer.s Personality Theory

rnst @retschmer was probably the first
person ever) to observe a correlation
between peopleDs body build and some of
their fundamental behavior patterns. ?e
established 4 personality&types based on
his theory) and named them;
>
Pi8ynic type
>
#sthenic type
>
#thletic type
#thletic
0muscular) large>boned1

-troverts )aggressive)
adventurous) dynamic)
noisy) active) leaders)
careless) competitive)
warriors) dominant)
logical) opposing)
courageous) confronting)
achievers
#stenicG 0thin) small) wea81

!ntroverts) rational)
intellectual) 9uiet) self&
starters) compulsive)
autonomous) observers)
analytical) perceptive)
avoiding) creative) detached)
inventors.

This was seen as a milder
form of the negative
symptoms e-hibited by
withdrawn schizophrenics.
Py8nic 0stoc8y) fat1

!nteractive) romantic)
emotional) tal8ative)
followers) 8ind)
imaginative) accepting)
fearful) 2oiners.

!n a more e-treme
version of these traits)
this would mean for
e-ample that the
obese are predisposed
toward manic&
depressive illness
Personality Disorder at For8

Personality disorder is Ean enduring
pattern of inner e-perience and behavior
that deviates mar8edly from the
e-pectations of the individualDs culture) is
pervasive and infle-ible) has an onset in
adolescence or early adulthood) is stable
over time and leads to distress or
impairment.E
Personality Disorder

#voidant personality

Dependent personality

6bsessive&compulsive personality

#nti&social personality

Aorderline personality

?istrionic personality

%arcissistic personality

Paranoid personality

,chizotypal personality
#voidant Personality

'eelings of inade9uacy and hypersensitivity to
negative evaluation or criticism

These are people who fear people

they are very lonely people

They may develop a small number of close
friendships with peers who are non&threatening

#voidants are usually at a distinct disadvantage
in 2ob roles that re9uire entrepreneurial Epeople
s8ills

Prone to somatizing their distress in the form of
EpsychosomaticE illnesses or E2ob stress
Management ,trategies for #voidant
Personality

5ive him a tas8 to do

@eep the supervision brief and positive

/et him stay out of the spotlight

# well&defined wor8 situation with minimal
interpersonal contact can be compatible with this
personality type

8eep the supervision light) more in line with a
coaching and counseling approach) rather than
as criticism or discipline

!f he canDt tolerate appropriate constructive
criticism) he will eventually 2ust leave the
company.
Dependent Personality

,ubmissive and clinging behavior stemming from an
e-cessive need to be ta8en care of

%eed people and fear only their re2ection or loss of
support

They loo8 to others to provide guidance and direction and
are ready&made followers

their feelings are easily hurt) even by neutral or innocuous
constructive criticism

6verdependence on validation from others)
hypersensitivity to slights and re2ections and overreaction
to real or imagined criticism

an-iety may cause her to overfocus on the impression her
performance will ma8e on others rather than on the
particulars of the assignment itself

/oyalty and high performance based on validation
Management ,trategies for Dependent
Personality

?er need for approval and eagerness to please
would ma8e the Dependent personality the ideal
assistant or subordinate

?e may be given tas8s that doesn.t re9uire
initiation

*omplimenting the good behavior) rather than
criticizing the bad ma8e them feel secure
enough in the wor8 relationship to do a really
great 2ob.

!f you can train her carefully and dose your
approval accordingly) you may have a loyal)
competent and stable employee
6bsessive&*ompulsive Personality

6bsession on orderliness) perfectionism and control

6ver&sensitivity to the details

Tend to e-cel in 2obs that re9uire e-actitude and precision.
they tend to gravitate toward 2obs that ma8e the best use
of their high&level cognitive s8ills and devotion to detail&&
engineering) economics) computer science

They can be sociable) even cordial) when the situation
calls for it. Aut overall social interactions are 2ust another
tool for getting the 2ob done.

-tremely uncomfortable with imprecision) ambiguity or
lac8 of clarity

They are scientists) not artists; planners) not dreamers

Problems arise when spontaneity and sociability are
re9uired

,tress stemming from the $best&one(
Management ,trategies for
6bsessive&*ompulsive Personality

?e must be prevented by directions to get
into details

?e must be directed on what they have to
focus not to lose time

They have to be appreciated
#ntisocial Personality

*onsistent disregard for) and violation of) the rights of
others

,uch individuals seem to have been born literally without
a conscience and without the ability to empathize; for
them) other people are simply sources of gratification

,elfish) immature and untrustworthy people) who are
9uic8 to ta8e advantage of favors and friendships) but
offer little in return

!ntelligence and 9uite intuitive about the needs and
desires of other people) which they then use to
manipulate others to their own ends

#ntisocials Elive for the game.E

Dishonest) e-ploitive and betrayal

More fran8ly confrontational and even violent behavior

Alaming destiny and other people for the problems
Management ,trategies for #nti&social
Personality

The best strategy is prevention 0not to hire1. !n this
regard) the best predictor of future behavior is past
behavior) so study his wor8 record. Ta8e your hiring
responsibilities seriously) screen carefully and chec8 all
references.

Try to ma8e the most of him by giving clear directions
and monitoring his wor8. 'or short) simple tas8s) such
as seasonal postal wor8 or a temporary municipal
construction pro2ect

donDt e-pect long&term follow&through) unless heDs
using your agency for his own purposes

have a well thought&out and carefully documented
system of discipline) so if you do have to fire him) you
minimize your ris8 of him ma8ing a legal hassle for
spite and profit
Aorderline Personality

3nstable interpersonal relationships) fragile self&
image and wide emotional swings

Tendency towards mani&depressive

,ometimes out of touch with reality

,he really believes in&&or convinces herself of&&
whatever version of the truth sheDs telling at the
moment) and she e-pects you to readily go along
with the new version

*hangeability of ideas and splitting people into
two groups good&bad and blac8&white

#ngriness) fear of lonliness and not to 8now self&
identity
Management ,trategy for a Aorderline
Personality

Ae not all protective but lovingly
supportive authority figure

#s much as possible) try to provide her
with a model of stability and reliability

7eward accomplishment appropriately

5ive constructive criticism in as positive a
conte-t as possible
?istrionic Personality

theatricality in speech and behavior

a nonlogical and impressionistic cognitive style

use of e-aggeration to maintain largely superficial
relationships for the purpose of getting emotional
needs met by being cared for by others

gravitation to careers that put them in front of
adoring crowds+ acting) politics) teaching) sales

they tend to form great first impressions) because
for them this is not an act. They absolutely love
getting attention from people and genuinely en2oy
such positive interactions
Management ,trategies for
?istrionic Personality

if you let the ?istrionic play to her strengths&&as a
salesperson) mar8eter) public relations rep) or front&office
staff person&&she may 9uic8ly become a credit to your
organization because her friendly) helpful style will
genuinely ma8e people feel good about themselves and
your organization

Managers need to ta8e a highly supportive approach in
describing and reinforcing positive) wor8&relevant
behavior

5entle) reality&based guidance may protect the
employeeDs self&esteem while refocusing her efforts on
wor8&related tas8s.
%arcissistic Personality

grandiosity) entitlement) need for admiration) lac8 of
empathy for othersD

not li8ely to e-pend much effort toward self&improvement

difficulty differentiating self from other and wish from
reality

3nder the surface of many %arcissistDs superficially
bloated ego may lie a core of fragile self&esteem and
intense feelings of shame and inade9uacy

6ver&sensitivity to criti9ues and angriness

*oaching) counseling and mentoring are all difficult with
the %arcissistic employee) because his self&inflated view
and sense of entitlement cause him to dismiss out of hand
any advice or direction
Management ,trategies for
%arcissistic Personality

!f the %arcissistic employee is doing an acceptable 2ob)
and there is genuinely room for improvement) a
collaborative) EweDre in this togetherE type of coaching
style from someone the employee respects may be
effective

if the %arcissistic employee spouts forth unrealistic)
nonsensical and purely self&aggrandizing schemes) at
least youDll be able to decide if you want to waste any
more time with him.

Malignant 8inds of those have to be observed and banned
from a-plotiation

Disciplining and) if necessary) firing these wor8ers must
be done carefully and tactfully) and be well&documented
Paranoid Personality

pervasive distrust and suspiciousness

supersensitiveness in pic8ing up verbal and nonverbal
cues of duplicity) hostility and betrayal

being suspicious and always having to 8eep their guard
up

tend to e-ternalize blame generally

Aecause they often have a bent for technical details and
are able to channel considerable energy in the direction of
goal accomplishment) Paranoids may actually achieve
considerable success at wor8

!n highly competitive industries that call for
combativeness against well&defined corporate Eenemies)E
Paranoid personality styles may be 9uite functional) and
they may even emerge as leaders
Management ,trategies for
Paranoid Personalities

!n managing the Paranoid personality) ta8e care
to 8eep wor8place assignments rational and
straightforward. -pect suspicious 9uestioning of
your own and othersD motives

#s much as possible) offer calm) rational
e-planations for wor8 tas8s) and provide forthright
but nonconfrontational reality chec8s for Paranoid
misperceptions or misinterpretations

Paranoids respond better to tight logic than loose
assurances) and use your legitimate authority) so
donDt be afraid to stand your ground as the boss
and ma8e it clear that you e-pect policies to be
followed
,chizoid H ,chizotypal Personalities

avoidance of others) severe deficiencies in social s8ills)
preference toward lonliness) avoidence from sincere
relations

generalized withdrawal from life and sometimes deficits in
perceptual and cognitive s8ills

detachment from social interaction) with a restricted range
of emotional e-pression

distortions of thought) perception and action) including
delusions and hallucinations

due to their impulsivity) poor socialization) impaired contact
with reality) bizarre behavior and general inconsistency)
,chizotypal personality not li8ely to last very long in
traditional employment settings

They could care less what others thin8 of them) so they
ma8e no effort to impress or ingratiate themselves with
others
Management ,trategies for
,chizotypal Personalities

,chizoid personalities may be well&suited to
isolated) low&level 2obs of limited comple-ity

They are good employees under conditions of
both interpersonal distance and 9uiet)
nonthreatening support

monitoring can be impersonal

/et him 8now what you want done) how you want
him to do it) when itDs e-pected to be completed)
and then leave him alone

periodic supportive supervision sessions may be
necessary to monitor and productively focus his
progress