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Introduction to OB

The Nature of OB
• Organizational behavior (OB) is the study
of what people think, feel, and do in and
around organizations.
• The study of OB provides a set of tools—
concepts and theories—that help people
to understand, analyze, and describe what
goes on in organizations and why.
The Nature of OB
• The nature, reasons, aims and features of
behavioral processes are dealt with.
• Behavioral sciences is not normative but
descriptive

The Levels of OB
• It is study of,
– individual,
– team, and
– organizational-level characteristics that
influence behavior within work settings.
Basic OB Model
Model
An abstraction of reality.
A simplified representation
of some real-world
phenomenon.
OB at Individual Level
• Characteristics of individuals (such as
personality, feeling, and motivation) affect how
well people do their jobs.
• whether they like what they do, whether they get
along with the people they work with, and so on.
• personality and ability; attitudes, values, and
moods; perception and attribution; learning;
motivation; and stress and work-life linkages
OB at Group Level
• A group is two or more people who
interact to achieve their goals.
• A team is a group in which members work
together intensively and develop team-
specific routines to achieve a common
group goal.


OB at Group Level
• number of members in a group,
• the type and diversity of team members,
• the tasks they perform,
• and the attractiveness of a group,

to its members all influence both behaviors
of group as a whole and individuals within
the group.
OB at Organizational Level
• Characteristics of the organization as a whole
(such as its culture and the design of an
organization’s structure) have important effects
on the behavior of individuals and groups.
• The values and beliefs in an organization’s
culture influence how people, groups, and
managers interact with each other and with
people (such as customers or suppliers) outside
the organization.
• An organization’s structure controls how people
and groups cooperate and interact to achieve
organizational goals.
Its Relations to Other Disciplines
• Various disciplines exist within the field of behavioral
sciences, especially:
– Psychology-deals with personality systems and people’s
actions. Its aim is understand, predict and control
behavior. Subfileds are experimental, development and
industrial psychology.
– Sociology- deals with social group behaviors and social
processes. The units of study in sociology are societies,
organizations, groups.
– Social-Psychology- deals with the socialization process of
human being.
– Anthropology- deals with the cultural roots of societies.


Contributing Disciplines
to the OB Field
Psychology
Social Psychology
Sociology
Anthropology
Micro:
The
Individual
Macro:
Groups &
Organizations
Contributing Disciplines to the
OB Field
Psychology
The science that seeks to measure, explain, and sometimes
change the behavior of humans.
Contributing Disciplines to the
OB Field (cont’d)
Sociology
The study of people in relation to their fellow human beings.
Contributing Disciplines to the
OB Field (cont’d)
Social Psychology
An area within psychology that blends concepts from psychology
and sociology and that focuses on the influence of people on one
another.
Contributing Disciplines to the
OB Field (cont’d)
Anthropology
The study of societies to learn about human beings and their
activities.
Organizational Behavior
• One of the the subfield of behavioral
sciences is organizational behavior that is
related to also manegarial sciences.
Replacing Intuition with
Systematic Study
Systematic study
Looking at relationships, attempting to attribute
causes and effects, and drawing conclusions based
on scientific evidence.
Provides a means to predict behaviors.
Intuition
A feeling not necessarily supported by research.
Challenges and Opportunities
for OB
• Responding to Globalization
– Increased foreign assignments
– Working with people from different cultures
– Coping with anti-capitalism backlash
– Overseeing movement of jobs to countries with low-
cost labor
• Managing Workforce Diversity
– Embracing diversity
– Changing demographics
– Implications for managers
• Recognizing and responding to differences
Domestic
Partners
Major Workforce Diversity
Categories
Race
Non-Christian
National
Origin
Age
Disability
Gender
Challenges and Opportunities
for OB (cont’d)
• Improving Quality and Productivity
– Quality management (QM)
– Process reengineering
• Responding to the Labor Shortage
– Changing work force demographics
– Fewer skilled laborers
– Early retirements and older workers
• Improving Customer Service
– Increased expectation of service quality
– Customer-responsive cultures
Challenges and Opportunity for
OB (cont’d)
• Improving People Skills
• Empowering People
• Stimulating Innovation and Change
• Coping with “Temporariness”
• Working in Networked Organizations
• Helping Employees Balance
Work/Life Conflicts
• Improving Ethical Behavior
Implications for Managers
• OB helps with:
– Insights to improve people skills
– Valuing of workforce diversity
– Empowering people and creating a
positive work environment
– Dealing with labor shortages
– Coping in a world of temporariness
– Creating an ethically healthy work
environment