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Comparative Study on GSM,GPRS & CDMA Technology

Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM)
INTRODUCTION GSM is a mobile telephony network based on the cellular concept. Users can place and receive calls without being fixed to a specific location or wired to a physical connection. To supply this capability, a GSM network consists of four Basic components: •The Mobile Station (MS). •The Base Station Subsystem (BSS). •The Network and Switching Subsystem (NSS). •The Operation and Support Subsystem (OSS).

ARCHITECTURE
PSDN PSDN
AUC AUC

ISDN ISDN PSTN PSTN PLMN PLMN

NSS
EIR EIR

VLR VLR

HLR MSC MSC

A Interface

BSC BSC Abis interface BTS BTS UM interface

OSS OSS

MS MS

SIM SIM

1)Mobile Station- A Mobile Station consists of two main elements i.e mobile equipment or terminal and Subscriber Identity Module (SIM). 2) The Base Station Subsystem -The BSS connects the Mobile Station and the NSS. • 3) The Network and Switching Subsystem-Its main role is to manage the communications between the mobile users and other users, such as mobile users, ISDN users etc. 4) The Operation and Support Subsystem (OSS)-The OSS is connected to the different components of the NSS and to the BSC, in order to control and monitor the GSM system.

FUNCTIONS
1)Transmission. •2)Radio Resources management (RR). •3)Mobility Management (MM). •4)Communication Management (CM). •5)Operation, Administration and Maintenance (OAM). •

SERVICES
1) Teleservices. •2) Bearer services. 3) Supplementary Services

GENERAL PACKET RADIO SERVICE (GPRS) INTRODUCTION
General Packet Radio Services (GPRS) is a standardized packet switched data service for GSM. The GPRS provides us with: 1) Fast coverage rollout, adding packet switching nodes to an existing GSM network. 2) Efficient use of scarce radio resources

GPRS design is to support burst data transfer. Two new elements are added to keep packet data traffic separated from traditional GSM voice and data. i.e. a) The Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) b) The Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN). The migration path from GSM to GPRS requires: a) Additional packet switching nodes b) Software upgrades in the base station subsystem c) Transmission links can be reused d) Station Controllers (BSCs) for both GSM and GPRS.

ARCHITECTURE
PSTN/SST

BTS

MSC

Internet BSC Notebook BTS
SGSN IP Network
IP BASED GPRS BACKBONE

Cisco GGSN

Data Transfer Time { in seconds}

GSM {9.6 Kbps} GPRS {56 Kbps} E-mail Web Page Photo Microsoft Word Microsoft PowerPoint Audio clip Video clip 25 42 83 250 833 1,667 3,333 Data Transfer Comparison 4 7 14 43 143 286 571

ADVANTAGES
Faster Data Transfer Rates Always-On Connection Robust Connectivity Broad Application Support Security Support

CODE DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESS (CDMA) INTRODUCTION
CDMA is a "spread spectrum" technology, allowing many users to occupy the same time and frequency allocations in a given band/space. The spectral spreading of the transmitted signal gives to CDMA its multiple access capability. CDMA is a form of Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum communications

ARCHITECTURE
Public Wired Public Wired Phone network Phone network (PSTN) (PSTN) Wireline Telephone Base Stations Mobile Station Base Stations Controller Switch

Other Cellular Switches

Intelligent Add on Functions & Databases

BENEFITS Outstanding Voice and Call Quality Greatest Coverage for Lower Cost Packet Data Longer Talk Time, Longer Battery Life and Smaller Phones Fewer Dropped Calls Improved Security and Privacy Contd

Greater Capacity Reduced Background Noise and Interference Rapid Deployment

CONCLUSION
GSM has been the catalyst in the tremendous shift in traffic volume from fixed networks to mobile networks. GPRS cost is less than circuit- switched services since communication channels are being used on a shared basis and also the packets are need-based rather than dedicated only to one user. CDMA, for Code Division Multiple Access, is different than those traditional ways in that it does not allocate frequency or time in user slots but gives the right to use both to all users simultaneously.

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