You are on page 1of 94

Information

Technology
COURSE CONTENT
Chapter 1 - Introduction to
Computers
1. Hardware
2. Software - Systems Software, Application
Software and Packages
3. Introduction to Embedded Software.
4. Fundamentals of operating system-
Windows, Unix/Linux.
5. Introduction to World Wide Web-Internet
operations.
6. Emerging communication technologies.
Chapter 2 Software
Packages
1. Microsoft Word Mail Merge
2. Microsoft Excel Formulas, Graphs, Basic
Statistical Formulae
3. Microsoft Power Point Creating effective
presentations
4. Microsoft Access - Introduction to DBMS
concepts, Creating a database, Basic queries.
5. Tally Journal Entry, Ledger posting,
Preparation of Balance Sheet
Chapter 3 - HTML
Home page designing for each student using
Microsoft FrontPage.
Computer hardware
Input, Output & peripheral devices
History of computers
Introduction to Computers
What is IT??
The study, design, development, implementation,
support or management of computer-based
information systems, particularly software
applications and computer hardware."
IT deals with the use of electronic computers and
computer software to convert, store, protect,
process, transmit, and securely retrieve information.
The combination of telecommunication and
computer science for the capture, storage and
transmission of information to every nook and corner
of the world is said to be IT.
Basic Components of a Computer
System

What is computer?

An electronic device that can accept data (input),
process the input to useful information (process)
according to a set of instructions, store the
instructions and the results of processing (storage),
and produce the information (output).
Other definition:-

A machine that can be programmed to accept data
(input), process it into useful information (output), and
store it away (in secondary storage device) for
safekeeping or later reuse

Process is directed by software but performed by the
hardware
Basic Components of a Computer
System
Information Age
Evolving more rapidly than Industrial Age
Will continue into the current century
Cornerstones of our
Economy
Land
Labor
Capital
Information
Forging a Computer-Based Society:
Jobs
From physical to
mental
From muscle-power to
brain-power
Forging a Computer-Based Society:
A Computer in Your Future
Where used?
Bank withdrawal
Supermarket
Drive the car
Do I need a Personal Computer?
Campaign: One Home, One PC
Many more use at work
Will I use a computer in my future career?
Almost every job will involve use of a computer

Computer Literacy
Awareness
Importance
Versatility
Pervasiveness in our society
Knowledge
What are computers
How do computers work
Terminology
Interaction
Use some simple computer applications
Is computer literacy enough?
Need to be computer literate to manipulate
a computer
Need to be computer fluent on computer
concepts as a basis to build deeper
knowledge
Computer fluency make one able to
continue follow developments as
computers continue to evolve
Basic Information Technology
Concept
Information technology - the use of modern
technology to aid the capture, storage,
retrieval, analysis, and communication of
information.

The various methods of delivering information
are by the use of data, text, image, and voice
for personal or organization needs.

History of Computers
Man from centuries ago used a physical unit or
sets of units to represent numbers or quantities.
A number or a quantity can be represented by a
physical thing, whether it is:

a pebble

a
transistor
a bead of wire a mark on a bit of paper
a mechanical gear wheel
an electrical relay
a vacuum
tube
The Nature of Computers
Characteristics
Speed
Reliability
Storage capability

Results
Productivity
Decision making
Cost reduction
Where Computers Are Used:
Graphics
Graphs and charts
Animated graphics
Visual walk-through
Where Computers Are Used:
Education
Teaching and
testing aid
Learning by doing
Computer-based
instruction
Where Computers Are Used:
Retailing
Bar codes for pricing
and inventory
Shipping
Where Computers Are Used:
Energy
Locate oil, coal, natural gas, and uranium
Monitor the power network
Meter reading
Where Computers Are Used
:Law Enforcement
National
fingerprint files
National files on
criminal
Computer
modeling of DNA
Where Computers Are Used:
Transportation
Cars
Run rapid transit systems
Load containerships
Track railroad cars
Monitor air traffic
Where Computers Are Used:
Money
Record keeping
Banking by phone
Credit cards
Where Computers Are Used:
Agriculture
Billing
Crop information

Feed combinations
Livestock breeding and
performance
Where Computers Are Used:
Government
Forecast weather
E-government
Process immigrants
Taxes
Registration: birth, identity, car etc.


Where Computers Are Used:
The Home
Educational tool
Record keeping
Letter writing
Budgeting
Drawing and editing
pictures
Newsletters
Connecting with others
Where Computers Are Used:
Health and Medicine
Monitor patients
Electronic imaging
Diagnose illnesses
Tele-health
Where Computers Are Used:
Robotics
Perform jobs that are dangerous for
humans
Factory work
Where Computers Are Used:
The Human Connection
Assist the disabled
Assist athletes by
monitoring their
movements
Where Computers Are Used
The Sciences
Research
Simulation
Connectivity
Communication
Telecommuting
Where Computers Are Used
Training
Airline pilots
Railroad
engineers
Paperwork
Junk mail
Term paper
Record keeping
Computers are all around!
Grocery store
Schools
Libraries
Bank
Mail
Malls
We interact with computers everyday!
What computers cant do yet?
Complex human activities
What else?
Computer System
People
Software
Hardware
People
Computer programmer person who
writes programs

Users or End-users make use of the
computers capabilities
Software
Programs

Set of instructions that directs the
hardware to do a required task
and produce the desired results
Hardware:
Basic Components of a Computer
Computer Components
1. Input Devices
Examples: keyboard and the mouse
Data entered on the keyboard and temporarily stored in the
computers memory and displayed on the monitor

2. System Unit
Contains the electronic circuits that cause the processing of
data to occur
Consists of central processing unit, memory, (RAM and ROM)
and other electronic components
CPU has a control unit and arithmetic/logic unit
RAM temporarily stores data and program instructions when
they are processed

Computer Components
3. Output Devices
Most commonly used output devices are monitor and printer
Monitor :commonly as CRT or Flat Panel Display
Printer: Dot-Matrix, Ink-Jet etc.

4. Secondary Storage Devices
Also known as auxiliary storage devices
Stores instructions and data when they are not being used by
the system unit
Examples : floppy disk and hard disk drive
Computer Components
Input
Process
Output
Data
Information
Storage
How a Computer System Works
How a Computer System Works
Software
- The instructions needed to direct the computer to
complete specific tasks.

The CPU follows the step-by-step instructions in a
program to complete the tasks from user.

Operating system is the system software that
controls the basic, low-level hardware operations
and file management.
Microcomputers
- Also known as personal computers
- Physical sizes : palmtop, desktop and tower case
- Cheaper and smaller in size

Minicomputer
- Also known as departmental computers
- Physical sizes : small to large cabinets
- Support business application


Computer Configuration and
Classification
Mainframe
- Large computers with the capability to process
data at millions of instructions per second.
- Physical size : partial to full room of equipment

Supercomputer
- Most powerful and expensive computers
- Vast quantities of data manipulation
- Physical size : full room of equipment
- No. of users : hundreds of users
Computer Configuration and
Classification
Central Processing Unit (CPU)
- It is the heart of the computer, that is the microprocessor
chip.
- A highly complex, extensive set of electronic circuitry
that executes stored program instructions.
- CPU perform three main tasks :-
Perform arithmetic operations
Perform logic operations
Retrieval and storage of data
- CPU consists of two main units :-
1. Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)
- arithmetic operations e.g. +, -, x, /
- logic operations e.g. >, >=, ==, <, <=
CPU cont.
2. Control unit
- fetches instructions from memory
- decode/translate instructions
- executes the processing tasks
- stores result in memory
CPU cont.

- CU fetches instructions
from memory
- CU decodes/translates
instructions, directs
necessary data to ALU


- ALU executes
arithmetic/logic
instruction
-ALU stores results into
memory

What happens in a CPU?
Memory
- also known as primary storage, primary memory, main storage, internal storage,
and main memory

- Consists of RAM and ROM
1. RAM (Random Access Memory)
- volatile; means the data exists only when power is ON
- two types of RAM, dynamic and static

2. ROM (Read Only Memory)
- non-volatile; means data permanently stored in and
cannot be changed
CPU cont.
Function of Computer System
Data handling

I Input
P Process
O Output
S Storage
Input devices
Accept data or commands and convert
them to electronic form
Getting data into the computer
Typing on a keyboard
Pointing with a mouse
Scanning with a wand reader or bar-code
reader
Terminal
Output devices
Monitor or screen
Text
Numbers
Symbols
Art
Photographs
Video
Printer
Black and white
Color

Convert from electronic form to some other
form
May display the processed results
Usable information
Can you think of any other
input/output devices?
The Processor
Central Processing Unit (CPU)
Converts data to useful information
Interpret and execute instructions
Communicate with input, output and
storage

Two Types of Storage
Secondary storage
long-term storage

Primary storage or memory
temporary storage
Memory / Primary Storage
Temporary storage
Holds input to be processed
Holds results of processing
Contains the programs to control the
computer and manipulate input into
output
Volatile
Secondary Storage
Long-term storage
Non-volatile
Secondary Storage Examples
Magnetic disks read and written by
magnetic disk drive
Hard disk
Diskette
Optical disks read and written by optical disk
drives
CD-ROM
DVD-ROM
Magnetic tape read and written by magnetic
tape drives
Primarily used for back-up
Magnetic Disk
Secondary Storage
It is needed because
Main memory stores data temporarily
Main memory space is limited

Benefits of secondary storage
Space
Reliability
Convenience
Economic
INTRODUCTION TO
EMBEDDED SOFTWARE
Embedded Systems
An embedded system is some combination of
computer hardware and software, either fixed in
capability or programmable, that is specifically
designed for a particular function.
Industrial machines, automobiles, medical
equipment, cameras, household appliances,
airplanes, vending machines, MP3 players, Digital
Watches and toys (as well as the more obvious
cellular phone and PDA) are among the myriad
possible hosts of an embedded system.
Embedded Systems
An embedded system is a computer
system designed to do one or a few dedicated
and/or specific functions

often with real-time
computing constraints.
It is embedded as part of a complete device often
including hardware and mechanical parts.
By contrast, a general-purpose computer, such as
a personal computer (PC), is designed to be flexible
and to meet a wide range of end-user needs.
Embedded systems control many devices in
common use today
Embedded Software
Embedded software resides in read-only
memory and is used to control products
and systems for the consumer and
industrial markets. It has very limited and
impenetrable functions and control
capability.


What is a software?

- The instructions needed to direct the computer to
complete specific tasks.

- Software can be categorized into two types :-

Operating System and Its
Function
System Software
- program controlling the actual operations of the
computer equipments
- the operating system tells computer how to perform
functions such as load, store, execute application program,
transfer data between I/O devices and main memory
Operating System and Its
Function
Application Software

- program that tells a computer how to produce information
- examples of application software :
Business, scientific, educational programs and etc.
Definition of OS :-
A set of programs that control and supervise a
computer systems hardware

Purposes of OS :-
To manage the hardware for efficient utilization of
computer resources

To interface between a user/an application program
with the hardware

Operating System and Its
Function
OS is made up of 2 programs;
Control
Program
Service
Program
Operating System and Its
Function
1. Control program - three main functions

Resource
allocation
allocate processor time, primary storage, input
and output devices
Job management

to monitor, schedule and control programs for
its efficient processing
Data management

-managing access to data for input of
information to printers, disks/displays
- all hardware components activities are
controlled by the supervisor program
Operating System and Its
Function

2. Service programs
- provides services to the user/programmer
- services include language-translator programs and
utility programs
- language-translator program converts instructions from
English-like language to machine-language to be
executed by the computer
- utility program performs loading, saving, copying,
keeping track of files stored on a disk, preparing a
formatted disk
Operating System and Its
Function
Supervisor
Operating System and Its
Function
What an Operating System
does?

1. Checks the functionality of the computers hardware.
It generates an error message (by messages or beeps) if
any components are found faulty.

2. Then the OS control programs will load the supervisor
program into the computers memory booting

3. Once the supervisor control program in memory, the
system displays the prompt sign (C:\>), indicating that
it is ready to work
MS-DOS
DOS is the supervisor program of the computer
It does all the followings
Interface to peripherals How to interpret input, how to
process data, and how to produce output
Application launcher Most programming software,
games etc. use DOS prompt to run application
Utility provider Manage disks and files, prepare disks
for storage, copy files to a disk, to move or rename files,
and to delete files

MS-DOS cont.
Using DOS prompt to get command from user
Examples for DOS operation
DOS version/prompt type
Modify date/time
File and directory contents
Clearing a DOS screen
Going to subdirectory and back to root directory
Searching for specific files
Copy files from A drive / C drive


TYPES OF OS
Microsoft Windows (98,
2000, XP, Vista)
Mac OS (X)
Linux OS (Hundreds of
even thousands of
distros ex: Red Hat,
Ubuntu, Mandrake etc.
Unix OS etc.
Application Software's
Winamp
Windows Media Player
Browsers
TYPES OF BROWSERS
Mozilla Firefox
Internet Explorer
Opera
Safari
Chrome

Firefox is gaining
Popularity over IE

COMPUTER NETWORKING
Definition
A system that uses communications equipment to
connect computers and their resources.
Network : Computers connected together to
communicate among themselves.
Resource Sharing
File Sharing
Communication
PCs Administration and Security

- Computer network technology can be classified by the distance
the network technology is designed to span
- There are three types of networking :

Local Area Network (LAN)
Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)
Wide Area Network (WAN)
COMPUTER NETWORKING
Local Area Network (LAN)

- Relatively small refers to the transmission media and
computer hardware
- The area is not exceeding 10 KM
- It only uses one type of transmission medium
- It share resources within building or campus

COMPUTER NETWORKING
Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)
- The network is larger compared to LAN
- The area covers a city of 10 to 100KM
- It requires efficient hardware and transmission media
to cover these areas

COMPUTER NETWORKING
Wide Area Network (WAN)
- The network is larger than MAN and LAN
- It interconnect LAN of opposite sides of country or around
the world
- It covers huge geographical area in the world
COMPUTER NETWORKING
Local Area Network
Local Area Network
Router Multiplexer
Multiplexer
Modem
Modem
Front end
Processor
Host Computer
LAN COMPONENTS
Every LAN is made up of a standard set of components:
Home Connectivity
Connect home PC to other computers

Use modem to convert signals
between electronic (computer) and
analog (voice) formats
Internet
Collection of networks
No ownership
No central source for services available
No comprehensive index of what information
is available
Individuals
Businesses
Organizations
Libraries
Research labs
Government
Connects Everyone!
Getting Connected
Users computer must connect to a server
Server must communicate using TCP/IP
The user can purchase access to a server
from an ISP (Internet Service Provider)
Internet What Can You Do?
WWW World Wide Web
FTP File Transfer Protocol
E-mail
UseNet
IRC Internet Relay Chat
Bulletin Boards
World Wide Web
Browser program that allows the user
to move around and explore the
Internet
Use the mouse to point and click on
text and graphics
Web page
Web site
Home page
Thank You