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HOUSING

Social Goals of housing

1. Shelter
2. Family life
3. Access to community facilities
4. Family participation in community life
5. Economic stability
Criteria for healthful housing
(WHO)
1. healthful housing provides physical
protection and shelter
2. provides adequately for cooking, eating,
washing and excretory functions
3. is designed , constructed, maintained and
used in a manner such as to prevent the
spread of communicable diseases
4.provides for protection from hazards of
exposure to noise and pollution
5.is free from unsafe physical arrangements
due to construction or maintenance and
from toxic or harmful materials
6.encourages personal and community
development, promotes social relationships,
reflects a regard for ecologic principles and
by these means promotes mental health
Housing standards -site
 Elevated, free from floods, access to wide street
 away from mosquito and fly breeding
 away from nuisances of dust, smoke, smell, noise
and traffic
 pleasing surroundings
 soil should be dry and safe for foundation and
well drained
 sub soil water should be below 20 feet
Setback

 Open space all round the house - setback
 rural areas - built up area is 1/3
 urban area - built up area 2/3
 there is no obstruction to lighting and
ventilation
Floor

 Pucca, impermeable & can be easily
washed and kept clean and dry
 mud floors break up & can cause dust, not
recommended
 smooth, free from cracks, prevent dust &
breeding of insects
 damp proof, height of the plinth -2-3 feet
Walls

 Reasonably strong
 low heat capacity
 weather resistant
 unsuitable for rats and vermin
 not easily damaged
 smooth, 9 inch brick wall plastered smooth,
colored cream or white
Roof

 height should not be less than 10 feet in the
absence of air conditioning
 low heat transmittance coefficient
Rooms

 not less than 2, at least 1 can be closed for
security
 other may be opened on one side if it is a
courtyard
 recommended floor space must be available
depending on no. of persons
Floor area

 at least 100 sq feet for 1 person
 at least 120 sq. feet for more than 1 person
 should not be less than 50 sq feet per person
 cubic space should be atleast 500 cu. feet
per person, preferably 1000 cu. feet per
capita
Windows
 unless mechanical ventilation or artificial
lighting is provided
 2 windows per room with atleast 1 opens
directly into an open space
 placed at a height not more than 3 feet height
 1/5 of the floor area
 doors & windows 2/5 of the floor area
Kitchen

 separate kitchen
 protected against dust and smoke
 adequately lighted
 provided with arrangements for storing
food, fuel, provisions, water supply, sink
for washing and proper drainage
 floor should be impervious
 Lighting - daylight factor should exceed 1%
over 1/2 the floor area
 Privy- a sanitary privy is a must, belong
exclusively and readily accessible, in
developed areas equipped with water
carriage systems
 Garbage and refuse- removed daily,
disposed in a sanitary way
 Bathing and washing- privacy and
exclusively belonging to it
Rural housing

 at least 2 living rooms
 ample verandah space
 built up space 1/3 of the total area
 separate kitchen
 paved kitchen and platform
 sanitary latrine
 window 10% of floor
 Sanitary well or tube well within a quarter
of a mile from the house
 cattle sheds 25 feet away, area 8x4 feet per
cattle, open all sides
 arrangements for disposal of waste water,
refuse and garbage
Housing and health

 Respiratory infections- cold , T.B, influenza,
diphtheria, bronchitis, measles, whooping
cough
 Skin infections-scabies, ring worm, impetigo,
leprosy
 Rat infestation- Plague
 Arthropods- houseflies , mosquitoes, fleas and
bugs
 Accidents-
 Morbidity and mortality
 Psychosocial effects-isolation in upper
floors, densely populated urban areas
Overcrowding- persons per
room
1 room 2 persons
2 rooms 3 persons

3 rooms 5 persons

4 rooms 7 persons
5 or more 10 persons
rooms (additional 2 for
each further room)
Floor space
110 sq feet or more 2 persons

90-100 sq feet 11/2 persons
70-90 sq feet 1 person
50-70 sq feet 1/2 person
under 50 feet nil
 a baby under 12 months not counted, 1-10
yrs counted as 1/2
Sex separation

 Overcrowding is present if 2 persons over
9 years of age not husband and wife, of
opposite sex are obliged to sleep in same
room
Indicators of housing

 Physical- based on floor space, cubic space,
room height, persons per room rooms per
dwelling, environmental quality (eg. air,
light, water, noise, sewage disposal etc)
 Economic indicators- cost of the building,
rental levels, taxes, expenditure on housing
Social indicators- UN 1975
 Indicators related to prevention of illness
 Frequency of
1. illness due to inadequate sewage and garbage
collection
2. illness associated with contaminated water
source
3. illness due to insect born diseases,
overcrowding, accidents, proximity to
animals,
4. access to medical facility
Indicators related to comfort

 Thermal comfort
 Accoustic comfort
 Visual comfort
 Spatial comfort
Indicators related to mental
health and social well being
 frequency of suicides in the neighborhood
 neglected and abandoned youth in the
neighborhood
 drug abuse ( including alcohol ) in the
neighborhood
 Public policy

 House site and construction assistance -
under Minimum needs programme -sites and
assistance, loans, subsidy for construction

 Indira Awas Yogana (IAY) - Rural landless
Employment Guarantee Programme. houses
have 1 room, 1 kitchen, attached with latrine,
bathroom, smokeless chullah
VENTILATION
 Aim: Thermal comfort and infection free
 Standards :
– Cubic space – Not followed now
– Air change – 3/hr in living room, 6 /hr in work
– Floor space- 50 – 100 sq ft
Types of ventilation
NATURAL VENTILATION
1. Wind 2. Diffusion 3. Temp. gradient
 Mechanical ventilation
– Exhaust ventilation
– Plenum ventilation
– Balanced ventilation
– Air conditioning
Lightning

 Requirements of good lighting
– Sufficiency
– Distribution
– Absence of glare
– Absence of sharp shadows
– Steadiness
– Color of light
– Reflection Roof 80%, Walls 60%, Floor 20%
LIGHT MEASURMENT
UNITS
Description Unit
Brightness Candela
Flow Lumen
Surface light Lux
Re emitted Lambert
Improving daylight
illumination
 Orientation
 Obstruction removal
 Windows
 Interior of rooms
Measurement of daylight

 Daylight factor =
Instantaneous illumination indoors
----------------------------------------- X 100
Simultaneous illumination outdoors

 Daylight factor meter
 8 % in living rooms, 10 % in kitchen
ARTIFICIAL LIGHTNING
RECOMMENDED
ILLUMINATION
Task Illumination
Casual reading 100
Office 400
Fine tasks 900
Watch making 2000