asignment

© All Rights Reserved

9 views

asignment

© All Rights Reserved

- Mat 540 Quiz 1 with Answers
- Topic 5 Measures of Dispersion
- zogheibhlynka
- CVPR2010: grouplet: a structured image representation for recognizing human and object interactions
- SQQS1013 CHAPTER 5
- Coursera Calculus I Fake and Real Finals (April 2013)
- Class 06 - Hypothesis Testing Cases
- 0673 Chapter 6
- tmpAF07.tmp
- JJC JC 2 H2 Maths 2011 Mid Year Exam Questions
- image denoising
- 4 2 online
- Mathematical Tables Contrived After the Most Comprehensive Method 1000024611
- PJC JC 2 H2 Maths 2011 Mid Year Exam Question Paper 2
- WINSEM2015-16_CP2776_11-Jan-2016_RM01_009-m-g-f-and-moments
- dsp1
- 148699888-Multiple-Choice-Questions-in-Engineering-Mathematics-by-Diego-Inocencio-t-Gillesania.pdf
- LAMPIRAN 13.docx
- Nouveau Document Texte
- Dear Over There

You are on page 1of 31

Computers II

Slide 1

Computing Transformations

Transforming variables

Transformations for normality

Transformations for linearity

SW388R7

Data Analysis &

Computers II

Slide 2

Transforming variables to satisfy assumptions

When a metric variable fails to satisfy the

assumption of normality, homogeneity of variance,

or linearity, we may be able to correct the

deficiency by using a transformation.

We will consider three transformations for normality,

homogeneity of variance, and linearity:

the logarithmic transformation

the square root transformation, and

the inverse transformation

plus a fourth that is useful for problems of linearity:

the square transformation

SW388R7

Data Analysis &

Computers II

Slide 3

Computing transformations in SPSS

In SPSS, transformations are obtained by computing a

new variable. SPSS functions are available for the

logarithmic (LG10) and square root (SQRT)

transformations. The inverse transformation uses a

formula which divides one by the original value for

each case.

For each of these calculations, there may be data

values which are not mathematically permissible.

For example, the log of zero is not defined

mathematically, division by zero is not permitted,

and the square root of a negative number results in

an imaginary value. We will usually adjust the

values passed to the function to make certain that

these illegal operations do not occur.

SW388R7

Data Analysis &

Computers II

Slide 4

Two forms for computing transformations

There are two forms for each of the transformations

to induce normality, depending on whether the

distribution is skewed negatively to the left or

skewed positively to the right.

Both forms use the same SPSS functions and formula

to calculate the transformations.

The two forms differ in the value or argument passed

to the functions and formula. The argument to the

functions is an adjustment to the original value of

the variable to make certain that all of the

calculations are mathematically correct.

SW388R7

Data Analysis &

Computers II

Slide 5

Functions and formulas for transformations

Symbolically, if we let x stand for the argument

passes to the function or formula, the calculations

for the transformations are:

Logarithmic transformation: compute log =

LG10(x)

Square root transformation: compute sqrt =

SQRT(x)

Inverse transformation: compute inv = 1 / (x)

Square transformation: compute s2 = x * x

For all transformations, the argument must be

greater than zero to guarantee that the calculations

are mathematically legitimate.

SW388R7

Data Analysis &

Computers II

Slide 6

Transformation of positively skewed variables

For positively skewed variables, the argument is an

adjustment to the original value based on the

minimum value for the variable.

If the minimum value for a variable is zero, the

adjustment requires that we add one to each value,

e.g. x + 1.

If the minimum value for a variable is a negative

number (e.g., 6), the adjustment requires that we

add the absolute value of the minimum value (e.g. 6)

plus one (e.g. x + 6 + 1, which equals x +7).

SW388R7

Data Analysis &

Computers II

Slide 7

Example of positively skewed variable

Suppose our dataset contains the number of books

read (books) for 5 subjects: 1, 3, 0, 5, and 2, and the

distribution is positively skewed.

The minimum value for the variable books is 0. The

adjustment for each case is books + 1.

The transformations would be calculated as follows:

Compute logBooks = LG10(books + 1)

Compute sqrBooks = SQRT(books + 1)

Compute invBooks = 1 / (books + 1)

SW388R7

Data Analysis &

Computers II

Slide 8

Transformation of negatively skewed variables

If the distribution of a variable is negatively skewed,

the adjustment of the values reverses, or reflects,

the distribution so that it becomes positively

skewed. The transformations are then computed on

the values in the positively skewed distribution.

Reflection is computed by subtracting all of the

values for a variable from one plus the absolute

value of maximum value for the variable. This results

in a positively skewed distribution with all values

larger than zero.

SW388R7

Data Analysis &

Computers II

Slide 9

Example of negatively skewed variable

Suppose our dataset contains the number of books

read (books) for 5 subjects: 1, 3, 0, 5, and 2, and the

distribution is negatively skewed.

The maximum value for the variable books is 5. The

adjustment for each case is 6 - books.

The transformations would be calculated as follows:

Compute logBooks = LG10(6 - books)

Compute sqrBooks = SQRT(6 - books)

Compute invBooks = 1 / (6 - books)

SW388R7

Data Analysis &

Computers II

Slide 10

The Square Transformation for Linearity

The square transformation is computed by

multiplying the value for the variable by itself.

It does not matter whether the distribution is

positively or negatively skewed.

It does matter if the variable has negative values,

since we would not be able to distinguish their

squares from the square of a comparable positive

value (e.g. the square of -4 is equal to the square of

+4). If the variable has negative values, we add the

absolute value of the minimum value to each score

before squaring it.

SW388R7

Data Analysis &

Computers II

Slide 11

Example of the square transformation

Suppose our dataset contains change scores (chg) for

5 subjects that indicate the difference between test

scores at the end of a semester and test scores at

mid-term: -10, 0, 10, 20, and 30.

The minimum score is -10. The absolute value of the

minimum score is 10.

The transformation would be calculated as follows:

Compute squarChg = (chg + 10) * (chg + 10)

SW388R7

Data Analysis &

Computers II

Slide 12

Normal Q-Q Plot of TOTAL TIME SPENT ON THE INTERNET

Observed Value

120 100 80 60 40 20 0 -20 -40

E

x

p

e

c

t

e

d

N

o

r

m

a

l

3

2

1

0

-1

-2

-3

Transformations for normality

TOTAL TIME SPENT ON THE INTERNET

100.0

90.0

80.0

70.0

60.0

50.0

40.0

30.0

20.0

10.0

0.0

Histogram

F

r

e

q

u

e

n

c

y

50

40

30

20

10

0

Std. Dev = 15.35

Mean = 10.7

N = 93.00

Both the histogram and the normality plot for Total

Time Spent on the Internet (netime) indicate that the

variable is not normally distributed.

SW388R7

Data Analysis &

Computers II

Slide 13

Descriptives

10.73 1.59

7.57

13.89

8.29

5.50

235.655

15.35

0

102

102

10.20

3.532 .250

15.614 .495

Mean

Lower Bound

Upper Bound

95% Confi dence

Interval for Mean

5% Tri mmed Mean

Medi an

Vari ance

Std. Devi ation

Mini mum

Maximum

Range

Interquartil e Range

Skewness

Kurtosi s

TOTAL TIME SPENT

ON THE INTERNET

Stati sti c Std. Error

Determine whether reflection is required

Skewness, in the table of Descriptive Statistics,

indicates whether or not reflection (reversing the

values) is required in the transformation.

If Skewness is positive, as it is in this problem,

reflection is not required. If Skewness is negative,

reflection is required.

SW388R7

Data Analysis &

Computers II

Slide 14

Descriptives

10.73 1.59

7.57

13.89

8.29

5.50

235.655

15.35

0

102

102

10.20

3.532 .250

15.614 .495

Mean

Lower Bound

Upper Bound

95% Confi dence

Interval for Mean

5% Tri mmed Mean

Medi an

Vari ance

Std. Devi ation

Mini mum

Maximum

Range

Interquartil e Range

Skewness

Kurtosi s

TOTAL TIME SPENT

ON THE INTERNET

Stati sti c Std. Error

Compute the adjustment to the argument

In this problem, the minimum value is 0, so 1 will be

added to each value in the formula, i.e. the argument

to the SPSS functions and formula for the inverse will

be:

netime + 1.

SW388R7

Data Analysis &

Computers II

Slide 15

Computing the logarithmic transformation

To compute the transformation,

select the Compute command

from the Transform menu.

SW388R7

Data Analysis &

Computers II

Slide 16

Specifying the transform variable name and

function

First, in the Target Variable text box, type a

name for the log transformation variable, e.g.

lgnetime.

Second, scroll down the list of functions to

find LG10, which calculates logarithmic

values use a base of 10. (The logarithmic

values are the power to which 10 is raised

to produce the original number.)

Third, click

on the up

arrow button

to move the

highlighted

function to

the Numeric

Expression

text box.

SW388R7

Data Analysis &

Computers II

Slide 17

Adding the variable name to the function

First, scroll down the list of

variables to locate the

variable we want to

transform. Click on its name

so that it is highlighted.

Second, click on the right arrow

button. SPSS will replace the

highlighted text in the function

(?) with the name of the variable.

SW388R7

Data Analysis &

Computers II

Slide 18

Adding the constant to the function

Following the rules stated for determining the constant

that needs to be included in the function either to

prevent mathematical errors, or to do reflection, we

include the constant in the function argument. In this

case, we add 1 to the netime variable.

Click on the OK

button to complete

the compute

request.

SW388R7

Data Analysis &

Computers II

Slide 19

The transformed variable

The transformed variable which we

requested SPSS compute is shown in the

data editor in a column to the right of the

other variables in the dataset.

SW388R7

Data Analysis &

Computers II

Slide 20

Computing the square root transformation

To compute the transformation,

select the Compute command

from the Transform menu.

SW388R7

Data Analysis &

Computers II

Slide 21

Specifying the transform variable name and

function

First, in the Target Variable text box, type a

name for the square root transformation

variable, e.g. sqnetime.

Second, scroll down the list of functions to

find SQRT, which calculates the square root

of a variable.

Third, click

on the up

arrow button

to move the

highlighted

function to

the Numeric

Expression

text box.

SW388R7

Data Analysis &

Computers II

Slide 22

Adding the variable name to the function

Second, click on the right arrow

button. SPSS will replace the

highlighted text in the function

(?) with the name of the variable.

First, scroll down the list of

variables to locate the

variable we want to

transform. Click on its name

so that it is highlighted.

SW388R7

Data Analysis &

Computers II

Slide 23

Adding the constant to the function

Following the rules stated for determining the constant

that needs to be included in the function either to

prevent mathematical errors, or to do reflection, we

include the constant in the function argument. In this

case, we add 1 to the netime variable.

Click on the OK

button to complete

the compute

request.

SW388R7

Data Analysis &

Computers II

Slide 24

The transformed variable

The transformed variable which we

requested SPSS compute is shown in the

data editor in a column to the right of the

other variables in the dataset.

SW388R7

Data Analysis &

Computers II

Slide 25

Computing the inverse transformation

To compute the transformation,

select the Compute command

from the Transform menu.

SW388R7

Data Analysis &

Computers II

Slide 26

Specifying the transform variable name and

formula

First, in the Target

Variable text box, type a

name for the inverse

transformation variable,

e.g. innetime.

Second, there is not a function for

computing the inverse, so we type

the formula directly into the

Numeric Expression text box.

Third, click on the

OK button to

complete the

compute request.

SW388R7

Data Analysis &

Computers II

Slide 27

The transformed variable

The transformed variable which we

requested SPSS compute is shown in the

data editor in a column to the right of the

other variables in the dataset.

SW388R7

Data Analysis &

Computers II

Slide 28

Descriptives

10.73 1.59

7.57

13.89

8.29

5.50

235.655

15.35

0

102

102

10.20

3.532 .250

15.614 .495

Mean

Lower Bound

Upper Bound

95% Confi dence

Interval for Mean

5% Tri mmed Mean

Medi an

Vari ance

Std. Devi ation

Mini mum

Maximum

Range

Interquartil e Range

Skewness

Kurtosi s

TOTAL TIME SPENT

ON THE INTERNET

Stati sti c Std. Error

Adjustment to the argument for the square

transformation

In this problem, the minimum value is 0, no adjustment

is needed for computing the square. If the minimum

was a number less than zero, we would add the

absolute value of the minimum (dropping the sign) as

an adjustment to the variable.

It is mathematically correct to square a value of zero, so the

adjustment to the argument for the square transformation is

different. What we need to avoid are negative numbers,

since the square of a negative number produces the same

value as the square of a positive number.

SW388R7

Data Analysis &

Computers II

Slide 29

Computing the square transformation

To compute the transformation,

select the Compute command

from the Transform menu.

SW388R7

Data Analysis &

Computers II

Slide 30

Specifying the transform variable name and

formula

First, in the Target

Variable text box, type a

name for the inverse

transformation variable,

e.g. s2netime.

Second, there is not a function for

computing the square, so we type

the formula directly into the

Numeric Expression text box.

Third, click on the

OK button to

complete the

compute request.

SW388R7

Data Analysis &

Computers II

Slide 31

The transformed variable

The transformed variable which we

requested SPSS compute is shown in the

data editor in a column to the right of the

other variables in the dataset.

- Mat 540 Quiz 1 with AnswersUploaded byJeff
- Topic 5 Measures of DispersionUploaded byisye11
- zogheibhlynkaUploaded byAntonio Dellisanti
- CVPR2010: grouplet: a structured image representation for recognizing human and object interactionsUploaded byzukun
- SQQS1013 CHAPTER 5Uploaded byCyrilraincream
- Coursera Calculus I Fake and Real Finals (April 2013)Uploaded byJabari Zakiya
- Class 06 - Hypothesis Testing CasesUploaded byb_shadid8399
- 0673 Chapter 6Uploaded bysubash1111@gmail.com
- tmpAF07.tmpUploaded byFrontiers
- JJC JC 2 H2 Maths 2011 Mid Year Exam QuestionsUploaded byjimmytanlimlong
- image denoisingUploaded byashek02
- 4 2 onlineUploaded byapi-234934912
- Mathematical Tables Contrived After the Most Comprehensive Method 1000024611Uploaded byadrian
- PJC JC 2 H2 Maths 2011 Mid Year Exam Question Paper 2Uploaded byjimmytanlimlong
- WINSEM2015-16_CP2776_11-Jan-2016_RM01_009-m-g-f-and-momentsUploaded byselva
- dsp1Uploaded bysomaa
- 148699888-Multiple-Choice-Questions-in-Engineering-Mathematics-by-Diego-Inocencio-t-Gillesania.pdfUploaded bySheryll de Guzman
- LAMPIRAN 13.docxUploaded byAbdul Abdurokhman
- Nouveau Document TexteUploaded byAnonymous 8erOuK4i
- Dear Over ThereUploaded byAnonymous 8erOuK4i
- Measures of Dispersion_2018Uploaded byAnonymous 7Ozxsgzb
- L7_8_Probability-Distributions.docUploaded byNazmul Huda
- dlp1.docxUploaded byAnonymous GLXj9kKp2
- emosi sosial dwi.docxUploaded bynajatsudarji9991
- kognitif dwi.docxUploaded bynajatsudarji9991
- Chapter 1Uploaded byzan2812
- Normal DistributionUploaded bySangeetha Sumam
- Differentiation FormulasUploaded byChristine DL
- wk 11 and 12 normUploaded byapi-314131718
- Uji Coba 1 TTestUploaded byDoyox

- Masters Degree in Social EngineeringUploaded byepthompson
- ESL01R.C Research Methodologies.docxUploaded bypatasutosh
- unit 4 - description and planUploaded byapi-274589624
- OperationsUploaded byDushyant Chaturvedi
- Chapter 05 - MulticollinearityUploaded bymgayanan
- IBM SPSS Statistics 19 ModulesUploaded bymostafa
- Analyzing Pakistan‟s Participation in United Nations Peacekeeping Operations as an Instrument of Pakistan‟s Foreign PolicyUploaded by3444900809
- Anova!kUploaded byjklasd
- MATH533 Project PartAUploaded bySumit Prakash
- Coefficient of DeterminationUploaded byKokKei
- Berkeley BrochureUploaded byMauricio Drada
- A Hypothesis in StatisticsUploaded byvanvun
- PDS - Business Insights Using Data AnalyticsUploaded byTabassumAkhter
- 2018 Book StatisticalAnalysisOfMicrobiomUploaded byngatkim
- Dsur i Chapter 05 Exploring AssumptionsUploaded byDanny
- Demand forecasting B tech.docxUploaded byPratiksha Sachan
- CMP9400B Northcentral University Comprehensive Exam use as a guide only.docxUploaded byAnonymous k7wVoJ3
- SPSS_Advanced_Statistics_22.pdfUploaded bymecbranco
- MIS3300_Syllabus_Su16Uploaded byongk0043
- IJAUD_Volume 8_Issue 2_Pages 5-14.pdfUploaded byMoe yeik may
- Is Most Published Research Really FalseUploaded byDoc2005
- panel dataUploaded byShikha Sharma
- CRIM RESEARCH MODULE.pdfUploaded byAnonymous imF0MCd9U
- Prop ScoresUploaded byAlexander Sergeyevich Korovin
- solar ovenUploaded byapi-322074467
- Nisin in Processed CheeseUploaded bySulaeman Hidayat
- 13grangerUploaded byDinesh Kumar Mishra
- Instructions for the Scope of Work Template the Scope OfUploaded byHeba Hanafy
- syllabUploaded bySrivathson Eswaran
- Announcement BAISIHYD 2018Uploaded byPapai

## Much more than documents.

Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.

Cancel anytime.