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Calculations

For Mud Engineers
Solids Analysis For Unweighted
Freshwater Muds
Solids or X
Water or X
X X
X X
Mud the of Content Solids the Calculate
gal lb sg Solids Drill
gal lb Weight Mud Given
% 9 093 . 0 1
% 91 907 . 0
5 . 9 8 . 20 8 . 20 34 . 8
5 . 9 ) 1 ( 8 . 20 34 . 8
/ 8 . 20 5 . 2
/ 5 . 9 :
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Material Balance
Conversion Factors
SG of water = 1.0
SG of Drill Solids = 2.6
SG of Barite = 4.2
1 gallon water = 8.34 lbs
1 barrel water = 42 gallons = 350 lbs/bbl
1 gallon barite = (4.2) (8.34) = 35 lbs/gal
1 barrel barite = (4.2) (350) = 1470 lbs/bbl
1 gallon bentonite = (2.6) (8.34) = 21.7 lbs/gal
1 barrel bentonite = (2.6) (350) = 910 lbs/bbl
1 barrel of water = 350 lbs
Material Balance
Calculate the requirements of water and barite to make 1.0 bbl final volume. Mud will
contain 20 lbs/bbl bentonite which will weigh 8.8 lbs/gal. Let x = barrels of bentonite
slurry and (1-x) equal the volume of barite. Using the material balance equation, perform
the calculations.
(V
1
) (D
1
) + (V
2
) (D
2
) = (V
F
) (D
F
)
(8.8)(X) + (35)(1-X) = 12
8.8X + 35 - 35X = 12
23 = 26.2 X
X = 0.88 bbl bentonite slurry
1 - X = 0.12 bbl barite
(0.12) ( 1470) = 176 lbs barite
Material Balance
Starting with 1.0 barrel of bentonite slurry, calculate the requirements of water and barite
required to increase the density to 12.0 lb/gal. The bentonite slurry will weigh 8.8 lbs/gal.
Let X = barrels of barite.
(V
1
) (D
1
) + (V
2
) (D
2
) = (V
F
) (D
F
)
(1.0)(8.8) + (35) (X) = (1+X) (12)
8.8 + 35 X = 12 + 12X
23X = 3.2
X = 0.14 barrel barite
= (0.14)(1470) = 204 lbs barite
The volume increase of adding barite to 1.0 barrel of bentonite slurry ( 8.8 lb/gal) to reach
a final density of 12.0 lb/gal is 0.14 bbl. The final volume will then be 1.14 barrels.
Material Balance
Prepare a mud that contains 12 lb/bbl bentonite starting with a mixture of prehydrated
bentonite that contains 35 lb/bbl bentonite. Let X equal the volume of prehydrated
bentonite to begin with.
(X) (35) = 12
X = (12/35)
X = 0.34 bbl of 35 lb/bbl prehydrated bentonite
1 - X = 0.64 bbl water
Dilution
Reduce the density of a 14.5 lb/gal drilling mud to 13.0 lb/gal using freshwater (8.34
lb/gal). Let X = volume of freshwater required and (1-X) equal to the volume of original
mud.
(V
1
) (D
1
) + (V
2
) (D
2
) = (V
F
) (D
F
)
(X) (8.34) + (1-X) (14.5) = 13.0 (1)
8.34 X + 14.5 - 14.5 X = 13.0 (1.0)
6.16 X = 1.5
X = 0.24 bbl water
1 - X = 0.76 bbl original mud
Dilution
Reduce the density of a 14.5 lb/gal drilling mud to 13.0 lb/gal using freshwater (8.34
lb/gal). Start with 1.0 bbl of the 14.5 lb/gal mud. Let X = volume of freshwater required.
(V
1
) (D
1
) + (V
2
) (D
2
) = (V
F
) (D
F
)
14.5 (1.0) + 8.34 (X) = 13 ( 1 + X)
14.5 + 8.34 X = 13 + 13X
4.66 X = 1.5
X = 0.32 bbl freshwater
Final volume = 1.32 bbl.
Solids Analysis
Given : Mud Weight : 11.9 lb/gal
Retort Solids : 18 %
Retort Oil : 3 %
Chlorides : 20,000 mg/l
MBT : 27 lb/bbl
SG LGS : 2.6
SG Oil : 0.84
SG HGS : 4.2
Determine:
a). The corrected solids content
b). The ASG
c). The vol % LGS and % HGS
d). The lb/bbl LGS and HGS
e). The volume % bentonite
f). The volume % drill solids
g). Lb/bbl bentonite and drill solids
Solids Analysis
a). Correction for salinity
Vol % salt water = vol % retort water * [1+(5.88 * 10 )(chlorides) )]
=0.79 * [1 +(5.88 * 10 )(20,000 )]
=0.79 * 1.01
=0.80
SG Saltwater = 1 + (1.9 * 10 ) * (chlorides)
= 1 + (1.9 * 10 ) *(20,000)
= 1.02
Corrected Solids = 1.0 - 0.80 - 0.03 = 0.17 or 17 %
Solids Analysis
b). Calculate the ASG by material balance:
V D + V D + V D = V D
(8.33)(1.023)(0.80) + (8.33)(.84)(0.03) + (8.33)(0.17)(ASG) = 1(11.9)
6.79 + 0.21 + 1.44 (ASG) = 11.9
ASG = 3.40
c). HGS + LGS = Total Solids
If X = LGS, then (0.17 - X) = HGS
(4.2)(0.17 - X) + (2.6)(X) = (ASG)(0.17)
0.71 - (4.2)(X) + (2.6)(X) = (3.44)(0.17)
1.6(X) = 0.13
X = 0.086 or 9 % LGS
0.17 - 0.084 = 8 % HGS
Solids Analysis
d). Lb/bbl LGS = (% LGS)(2.6)(8.33)(42)
= (0.086)(2.6)(8.33)(42)
= 78.23 lb/bbl
Lb/bbl HGS = (%HGS)(4.2)(8.33)(42)
= (0.084)(4.2)(8.33)(42)
= 123.4 lb/bbl
e). % Bentonite = (MBT - % LGS) / 8
= (27 - 9)/8
= 2.25 %
f). % DS = % LGS - % Bentonite
= 9 - 2.25
= 6.75 %
Solids Analysis
g). lb/bbl Bentonite = (9)(% Bentonite)
= (9)(2.25)
= 20.3 lb/bbl Bentonite
lb/bbl DS = (9)(% DS)
= (9)(6.75)
= 60.7 lb/bbl DS
Loss of Overbalance - Lost Returns
 
gal lb EMW
EMW
psi decrease BHP
decrease BHP
bbl
Annulus in Water of Feet
Annulus f ill to bbls Added Water
f t bbls Capacity Annular
f t f t TVD
gal lb gal lb Weight Mud Example
/ 0 . 12 5 . 0 5 . 12
000 , 10 / 052 . 0 / 245 5 . 12
245
) ' 1173 ( ) 052 . 0 ( ) 33 . 8 5 . 12 (
' 1173 1279 . 0 / 150
:
150 :
/ 1279 . 0 :
000 , 10 ,
/ 5 . 12 / , :
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Hydrocyclone Evaluation
hr gal Water of Rate Volume
Water of Rate Volume
hr lb Rate Solids of Mass
Rate Solids of Mass
Solids Fraction Volume
onds in Collected Sample
Quart Collected Sample Slurry of Volume
gal lb Collected Slurry of Weight Average Example
/ 1 . 42
) 16 / 1 )( 252 . 0 1 ( 900
/ 308
) 16 / 1 )( 252 . 0 )( 530 , 19 (
252 . 0 37 . 13 / ) 33 . 8 7 . 11 (
sec 16
1
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