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**For Mud Engineers
**

Solids Analysis For Unweighted

Freshwater Muds

Solids or X

Water or X

X X

X X

Mud the of Content Solids the Calculate

gal lb sg Solids Drill

gal lb Weight Mud Given

% 9 093 . 0 1

% 91 907 . 0

5 . 9 8 . 20 8 . 20 34 . 8

5 . 9 ) 1 ( 8 . 20 34 . 8

/ 8 . 20 5 . 2

/ 5 . 9 :

Material Balance

Conversion Factors

SG of water = 1.0

SG of Drill Solids = 2.6

SG of Barite = 4.2

1 gallon water = 8.34 lbs

1 barrel water = 42 gallons = 350 lbs/bbl

1 gallon barite = (4.2) (8.34) = 35 lbs/gal

1 barrel barite = (4.2) (350) = 1470 lbs/bbl

1 gallon bentonite = (2.6) (8.34) = 21.7 lbs/gal

1 barrel bentonite = (2.6) (350) = 910 lbs/bbl

1 barrel of water = 350 lbs

Material Balance

Calculate the requirements of water and barite to make 1.0 bbl final volume. Mud will

contain 20 lbs/bbl bentonite which will weigh 8.8 lbs/gal. Let x = barrels of bentonite

slurry and (1-x) equal the volume of barite. Using the material balance equation, perform

the calculations.

(V

1

) (D

1

) + (V

2

) (D

2

) = (V

F

) (D

F

)

(8.8)(X) + (35)(1-X) = 12

8.8X + 35 - 35X = 12

23 = 26.2 X

X = 0.88 bbl bentonite slurry

1 - X = 0.12 bbl barite

(0.12) ( 1470) = 176 lbs barite

Material Balance

Starting with 1.0 barrel of bentonite slurry, calculate the requirements of water and barite

required to increase the density to 12.0 lb/gal. The bentonite slurry will weigh 8.8 lbs/gal.

Let X = barrels of barite.

(V

1

) (D

1

) + (V

2

) (D

2

) = (V

F

) (D

F

)

(1.0)(8.8) + (35) (X) = (1+X) (12)

8.8 + 35 X = 12 + 12X

23X = 3.2

X = 0.14 barrel barite

= (0.14)(1470) = 204 lbs barite

The volume increase of adding barite to 1.0 barrel of bentonite slurry ( 8.8 lb/gal) to reach

a final density of 12.0 lb/gal is 0.14 bbl. The final volume will then be 1.14 barrels.

Material Balance

Prepare a mud that contains 12 lb/bbl bentonite starting with a mixture of prehydrated

bentonite that contains 35 lb/bbl bentonite. Let X equal the volume of prehydrated

bentonite to begin with.

(X) (35) = 12

X = (12/35)

X = 0.34 bbl of 35 lb/bbl prehydrated bentonite

1 - X = 0.64 bbl water

Dilution

Reduce the density of a 14.5 lb/gal drilling mud to 13.0 lb/gal using freshwater (8.34

lb/gal). Let X = volume of freshwater required and (1-X) equal to the volume of original

mud.

(V

1

) (D

1

) + (V

2

) (D

2

) = (V

F

) (D

F

)

(X) (8.34) + (1-X) (14.5) = 13.0 (1)

8.34 X + 14.5 - 14.5 X = 13.0 (1.0)

6.16 X = 1.5

X = 0.24 bbl water

1 - X = 0.76 bbl original mud

Dilution

Reduce the density of a 14.5 lb/gal drilling mud to 13.0 lb/gal using freshwater (8.34

lb/gal). Start with 1.0 bbl of the 14.5 lb/gal mud. Let X = volume of freshwater required.

(V

1

) (D

1

) + (V

2

) (D

2

) = (V

F

) (D

F

)

14.5 (1.0) + 8.34 (X) = 13 ( 1 + X)

14.5 + 8.34 X = 13 + 13X

4.66 X = 1.5

X = 0.32 bbl freshwater

Final volume = 1.32 bbl.

Solids Analysis

Given : Mud Weight : 11.9 lb/gal

Retort Solids : 18 %

Retort Oil : 3 %

Chlorides : 20,000 mg/l

MBT : 27 lb/bbl

SG LGS : 2.6

SG Oil : 0.84

SG HGS : 4.2

Determine:

a). The corrected solids content

b). The ASG

c). The vol % LGS and % HGS

d). The lb/bbl LGS and HGS

e). The volume % bentonite

f). The volume % drill solids

g). Lb/bbl bentonite and drill solids

Solids Analysis

a). Correction for salinity

Vol % salt water = vol % retort water * [1+(5.88 * 10 )(chlorides) )]

=0.79 * [1 +(5.88 * 10 )(20,000 )]

=0.79 * 1.01

=0.80

SG Saltwater = 1 + (1.9 * 10 ) * (chlorides)

= 1 + (1.9 * 10 ) *(20,000)

= 1.02

Corrected Solids = 1.0 - 0.80 - 0.03 = 0.17 or 17 %

Solids Analysis

b). Calculate the ASG by material balance:

V D + V D + V D = V D

(8.33)(1.023)(0.80) + (8.33)(.84)(0.03) + (8.33)(0.17)(ASG) = 1(11.9)

6.79 + 0.21 + 1.44 (ASG) = 11.9

ASG = 3.40

c). HGS + LGS = Total Solids

If X = LGS, then (0.17 - X) = HGS

(4.2)(0.17 - X) + (2.6)(X) = (ASG)(0.17)

0.71 - (4.2)(X) + (2.6)(X) = (3.44)(0.17)

1.6(X) = 0.13

X = 0.086 or 9 % LGS

0.17 - 0.084 = 8 % HGS

Solids Analysis

d). Lb/bbl LGS = (% LGS)(2.6)(8.33)(42)

= (0.086)(2.6)(8.33)(42)

= 78.23 lb/bbl

Lb/bbl HGS = (%HGS)(4.2)(8.33)(42)

= (0.084)(4.2)(8.33)(42)

= 123.4 lb/bbl

e). % Bentonite = (MBT - % LGS) / 8

= (27 - 9)/8

= 2.25 %

f). % DS = % LGS - % Bentonite

= 9 - 2.25

= 6.75 %

Solids Analysis

g). lb/bbl Bentonite = (9)(% Bentonite)

= (9)(2.25)

= 20.3 lb/bbl Bentonite

lb/bbl DS = (9)(% DS)

= (9)(6.75)

= 60.7 lb/bbl DS

Loss of Overbalance - Lost Returns

gal lb EMW

EMW

psi decrease BHP

decrease BHP

bbl

Annulus in Water of Feet

Annulus f ill to bbls Added Water

f t bbls Capacity Annular

f t f t TVD

gal lb gal lb Weight Mud Example

/ 0 . 12 5 . 0 5 . 12

000 , 10 / 052 . 0 / 245 5 . 12

245

) ' 1173 ( ) 052 . 0 ( ) 33 . 8 5 . 12 (

' 1173 1279 . 0 / 150

:

150 :

/ 1279 . 0 :

000 , 10 ,

/ 5 . 12 / , :

Hydrocyclone Evaluation

hr gal Water of Rate Volume

Water of Rate Volume

hr lb Rate Solids of Mass

Rate Solids of Mass

Solids Fraction Volume

onds in Collected Sample

Quart Collected Sample Slurry of Volume

gal lb Collected Slurry of Weight Average Example

/ 1 . 42

) 16 / 1 )( 252 . 0 1 ( 900

/ 308

) 16 / 1 )( 252 . 0 )( 530 , 19 (

252 . 0 37 . 13 / ) 33 . 8 7 . 11 (

sec 16

1

/ 7 . 11 :

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