# ◦ DON’T JUST READ THESE

BOOK TO HELP IN
UNDERSTANTING THE
NOTES.
MAGNETIC FIELD
 The space surrounding a magnetic
where it produces a magnetic force is
called a magnetic field.
• The direction of the magnetic field at a
particular place is the direction of the force
it produces on a free magnetic north pole.
• The lines drawn showing the direction of a
magnetic field is called the magnetic field
lines or lines of magnetic flux or lines of
force.
MAPPING OF MAGNETIC
FIELDS
• Using iron filing
• Plotting compass: when the compass
is in a magnetic field the needle’s
north pole is pulled one way, the south
pole is pulled in the opposite direction
and the axis of the needle lines up
with the field as a result.
ELECTROMAGNETS
An electromagnet is a temporary magnet
which has magnetism only when current
is passing through a coil of wire wrapped
around a soft iron core.

 It is known that around a wire carrying
current is a magnetic field these fields are
represented by field lines or lines of forces
Types of magnetic field
 Field due to straight wire.
 Field due to circular coil.
 Field due to solenoid.
Field due to straight wire
 The direction of the magnetic field in
straight wire is determined by:

1. Maxwell (Cork) screw rule
2. Right hand grip rule, (thumb direction of
current, finger field)
 In the diagrams below the dot(.)
represent current going out of page
 The X represent current going into
page

.

 For the first diagram with purple field
line, the direction of the field as show
was determined by Maxwell screw rule
 The field lines of the second diagram
was also determined by Maxwell
screw rule

 If we were to applied the right hand
grip rule then the thumb would point in
the direction of the current as the
fingers would give the direction of the
field lines as shown below
Field due to circular coil.
 The magnetic field inside the loop is
dense
 All the lines of force inside the loop
reinforce each other, since they are in
the same direction i.e they become
one.
 The magnetic field associated with the
loop is effectively the same as for a
bar magnet with opposite poles at
opposite faces.

Magnetic field due to solenoid
(a solenoid is an arrangement in which a
wire is looped into a helix)
 The field of a solenoid increases by :
 Increasing the number of turns
 Increasing the current through solenoid
together to form a very strong field along the center of the solenoid.

 By applying the screw rule to different
parts of the solenoid the field line can
be determined and that field line as
shown above is equal to that of a bar
magnet.

Application of
electromagnetism
1. Electric bell:
an electric bell contain an electromagnet
that switches itself off and on very
rapidly, moving the bell hammer as it
does so.
When the bell switch is pressed, current
flows through the electromagnet and the
hammer is pulled across to strike the
gong,

the movement pulls the contact apart,
which switches off the current through
the electromagnet. The hammer
spring back, the contact close again
and the process repeat itself until the
switch is released.
2. The telephone
3. The magnetic relay
 Action
 Vehicle starter –motor circuit.
• Action relay: this is a switch worked by
an electromagnet. It is useful if we want
one circuit to control another, especially
if the current is large in the second
circuit. When current flow in the coil from
the circuit connected to AB, the soft iron
core is magnetized and attracts the L-
shaped iron armature. This rocks on its
pivot and closed the contact at C in the
circuit connected to DE. The relay is then
energized or on (diagram in text book).
 Vehicle starter-motor circuit: the
starter motor in a vehicle uses a very
large current. By using a relay as
explained above, this large current in
the motor circuit is switched on by a
small current in the starter switch
circuit.
ELECTROMAGNEIC
FORCE

 A wire carrying a current in a magnetic
field experiences a force, which
increases with the strength of the field
and the size of the current through the
wire.
In the diagram above the flexible wire is in
a strong magnetic field of a C-shaped
magnet. When a current flows in the wire it
jumps downwards as shown. If either the
direction of the current or the direction of
the field is reversed, the wire moves in the
opposite direction.
Explanation:
Both the magnet and the wire has a field
line. Those due to the wire are circular
as shown in diagram 1 above. The
horizontal lines are those of the magnet.
When both field are combined the
resulting field lines is as that shown in
diagram 2.
As a result there are more field lines
above than below the wire since both
fields acts in the same direction above
but in opposite below.

• Those above would tend to behave
as stretched elastic and tries to
shorten and in so doing will exert and
downwards force on the wire.

 Without performing the experiment
to determine the direction of the force,
Fleming's left-hand rule can be
applied.
Fleming left-hand rule
 Holding the thumb and first two fingers
of the left hand at right angle to each
other with the First finger pointing in
the direction of the Field and the
seCond finger in the direction of the
Current, then the Thumb points in the
direction of the Thrust.
Application of electromagnetic
force

Simple d.c motor
 A motor is a rotating device which
converts electrical energy into
mechanical energy.
 It work strictly on the principle that a
wire carrying a current in a magnetic
field experiences a force.

• If fleming’a left-hand rule is applied to the coil
in the position shown, we find that aside ab
(side to the left) experiences an upward force and
side cd (side to the right) a downward force. These
two forces form a couple, which rotates the
coil in a clockwise direction until it is vertical.
• The brushes are then in the line with the gap
in the commutator and the current stops.
However because of inertia, the coil
overshoots the vertical and the commutator
halve changes contact form one brush to the
other as a result the process continues, as
the coil carries on rotating clockwise.
Loud speakers
 These are device for converting
electrical signals into audible sound.
Moving-coil loudspeakers
coil
circular pole
short coil
stiff
paper or
plastic
cone
field
As a.c. passes through the coil,
 coil is pushed in & out
 gives out sound waves
I flows backwards & forwards
• A moving coil loud speaker has 3 main parts:
1. A cylindrical permanent magnet which produces a strong
2. A coil which is free to move short distances backward and
forwards in the magnet field
3. A stiff paper cone attached to the coil.

• The wire in the coil lies at right angle to the
magnetic field. If a current (A.C) is passed
through the coil, an alternately backward or
forward forces acts on it. This makes the paper
cone vibrate, and sound waves are given out as
a result. The nature of the sound produce
depends on the frequency and amplitude of the
alternating current flowing through the coil.
The current could be supplied by a
single generator. Alternatively, it could
be supplied by an amplifier connected
to the pickup on a guitar.
Forces between current carrying
wires
 A wire carrying a current in a magnetic
field experiences a force. In the
diagram below current flow in each
wire and each is in the field created by
the other. A force therefore exist
between them, which according to
Fleming left-hand should be one of
attraction if the currents are in the
same direction and one of repulsion if
they are in opposite direction.
Electromagnetic induction
 An electric current creates a magnetic
field. The reverse process where by
magnetism creates electricity was
discovered by Michael Faraday and is
called electromagnetic induction.
Investigating magnetic induction
1. Using a straight wire and U-shape
magnet: when the wire is connected
to a galvanometer (voltmeter) and is
moved across the magnetic field as
shown below a small e.m.f is
produced in the wire. This is called
electromagnetic induction: an e.m.f
has been induced. This induced e.m.f
cause a current to flow and is
detected by the galvanometer.
This emf is produced only when the
wire is moving perpendicular to the
magnetic field i.e up and down. If the
wire is held stationary or moved
parallel in the magnetic field no emf is
produced.

2. Bar magnet and coil: in the diagram
below the magnetic is pushed into the
coil, one pole first, then held still inside
it. The magnetic is now removed. The
galvanometer show that current is
induced in the coil in on direction as the
magnetic moves in and in the opposite
direction as it is removed. There is no
deflection when the magnetic is at rest.
The result is the same if the coil is
moved in stead of the magnetic.
 The magnitude of the emf induced in
both cases above can be increased
by:
1. Moving the wire or magnet at a higher
speed.
2. Using a stronger magnet.
3. Increasing the length of wire in the
magnetic field i.e looping wire in the field
several times.
4. Increasing the number of turns in the coil
(this increases the length of wire cutting
through the magnetic field).

 It was stated earlier that the principle
of electromagnetic induction was
his work done as shown above he was
able to derive a law called Faraday’s
law of electromagnetic induction which
states as follow:
 The size (magnitude) of the induced
emf is directly proportional to the rate
at which the conductor cuts magnetic
field lines.
 The direction of the induced current
by a Russian scientist called Lenz.
Lenz like faraday created his own law
called Lenz’s law, which states:

Lenz’s law
 The direction of the induced current is
such as to oppose the change causing
it.
Investigating Lenz's law
• In the diagram below the magnet approaches the
coil, north pole first. According to lenz’s law the
induced current should flow in a direction which
makes the coil behaves like a magnet with its top
a north pole. The downward motion of the
magnetic will then be oppose.
When the magnet is withdrawn, the top of the coil
should become a south pole and attract the north
pole of the magnet, so hindering its removal. The
induced current is thus in the opposite direction
to that when the magnet approaches.
Lenz’s law is an example of the principle of
conservation of energy.
 If current flow clockwise that the south
pole
 If current flows anticlockwise then a
north pole exist.
As show for the 2 system above
 For a straight wire moving at right
angle to a magnetic field a more
useful form of lenz’s law can be used
called Fleming's right-hand rule
(dynamo rule).

Fleming’s right-hand rule
 Hold the thumb and firs tow fingers of
the right hand at right angles to each
other with the First Finger pointing in
the direction of the field and the thuMb
in the direction of Motion of the wire,
then the seCond finger points in the
direction of the induced Current.
 The left hand rule applies when
current causes motion (motor rule)
 The right hand rule applies when
motion causes a current. (dynamo
effect)
Simple a.c Generator
• A simple a.c generator works on the principle of
electromagnetic induction. It consist of a
rectangular coil between the poles of a C-shape
magnet, the ends of the coil are joined to two slip
rings on the axle, against which carbon brushes
press. When the coil below is rotated, one side
moves upwards through the magnetic field, the
other side moves downwards and an emf is
induced in the coil as a result. This emf causes a
current to flow in the coil and outside circuit.
The rotating coil one quarter of a turn later as it
passes through the vertical position, the induced
emf and current have fallen to zero because the
two sides of the coil are now travelling parallel to
the magnetic field and no field lines are therefore
being cut.
When the coil complete half a turn and is
horizontals again, the current in the outside
circuit now flows in the opposite direction
because the side of the coil moving upward
(B) is now moving downward as maximum
field lines are being cut.
A quarter turn later the coil is vertical with
side A uppermost, and the induced emf and
current is zero again when the coil is vertical.
After this the direction of the emf is reversed
because during the next half rotation, the
motion of B is directed upwards and A
downwards.
 An alternating emf is generated which
acts first in one direction and then in
the other; it would cause a.c to flow in
a circuit connected to the brushes.
Transformers

 If two coils are close together, then a
changing current in one coil (the
primary) sets up a changing magnetic
field at the site of the other (the
secondary) this effect or emf is know
as mutual induction.
 The device which works primarily
upon the principle of mutual induction
is called a transformer in that it
produces a large alternating emf form
a small one, or a small alternating emf
form a large one.
Principle of operation of a
transformer
 Switching on the current in the primary
sets up a magnetic field and as the
field lines grow outwards from the
primary they cut the secondary. And
emf is induced in the secondary until
the current in the primary reaches it
steady value. When the current is
switched off in the primary the
magnetic field dies and the field line
again is cut by the secondary coil
inducing an emf in it.
 As explained above when the primary
coil is switched on and off an induced
current flow alternately backwards and
forwards through the secondary. This
same effect is produced more simply
when an a.c is allowed to pass
through the primary coil .
 In the diagram below the primary coil
is connected to a low voltage a.c
supply and the secondary is
connected to a small bulb. As current
flow backward and forward in the
primary, it sets up an alternating
magnetic field in the core. This
induces an alternating emf and current
in the secondary coil hence the bulb
lights.
Types of transformers
 There are 2 types of transformers
1. Step-down transformer
2. Step-up transformer
 If the number of turn in the primary coil
is more than that in the secondary coil
then the transformer is a step-down i.e
if there are fewer turns on the
secondary than primary.
 If the number of turns on the primary
is less than that on the secondary then
the transformer is a step-up i.e the
secondary has more turn than primary
coil.
 Based on the number of turns for the
coils of the transformer it is possible to
make the alternating emf (a.c voltage)
in the secondary different form the
voltage across the primary.
 The equation which links the a.c
voltage across the primary and
secondary and the number of turns on
each
 The equation which links the a.c
voltage across the primary and
secondary and the number of turns on
each and current associated is as
follow

 Vs / Vp = Ns / Np = Ip / Is
Energy losses in trnasformers
 Energy is lost by 3 main factors
1. Resistance of the winding: the winding of
copper wire do have some resistance and
heat is produce by the current in them.
2. Eddy current: the iron core is in the
changing magnetic field of the primary and
current, called eddy current are induced in it
which cause heating.
3. Leakage of field lines: all the lines produce
by the primary may not cut the secondary
especially if the core has and air gap or
Efficiency of transformers
 Transformers are not 100% efficient
however they are at least 99%
efficient. This efficiency depends on
the ability to prevent energy loss
which is generally by heat. To
overcome this some transformer uses
oil as a coolant.
To reduce energy loss by eddy current
the core is laminated in that it is made
f sheets which are insulated and have
high resistance.
 Resistance of the copper wire which
causes heat is reduce by being coated
with a layer or insulating varnish.
 And to reduce leakage of field the
primary and secondary coil is
wounded on each other.
Advantage of using a.c to transfer
electrical energy
 The a.c can easily be step up or step
down with the transformer
 Power can be sent at high voltage and
low current to reduce power loss or at
low voltage and high current if needed
 It is also easy to convert a.c into d.c