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CONTENTS

 INTRODUCTION
 HOW DOES IT WORKS?
 ELEMENTS OF MISSILE DEFENCE
 PHASES OF INTERCEPTION
BOOST PHASE INTERCEPT
MID-COURSE INTERCEPT
TERMINAL PHASE INTERCEPT
 PROBABILISTIC ANALYSIS
 CONCLUSION
 REFERENCES

INTRODUCTION  Interceptor misssile is an anti-ballistic designed to counter the ballistic missiles like intermediate range and intercontinental ballistic missiles(more then 10.000 km) . . India(PAD & AAD) and Israel(Arrow and Iron Dome) have all developed missile defence systems.  Interceptors can be launched from air .  Interceptor operates in 3 to 8 mach speed with range 80 to 500 km.  Interceptors may or maynot carry warhead aims at destroying target with impact of collison. France. sea or land depending on phase it is in.  United States(Patriot and THAAD). Russia.

HOW DOES IT WORKS ? .

It will transmit a radiation pattern in a narrow beam made up of electromagnetic pulses. Operate in the VHF/UHF range (typically 400 MHz). .The XBR will discriminate decoys and warheads. a power generation facility and a 492-foot (150-m) protected area.The high-resolution accurately discriminate between closely spaced objects.UEWRs will be used to detect and track missiles and other projectiles during their midcourse phase. XBR radar has a 50-degree field of view and can rotate 360 degrees to track targets.46 acres. before cueing the more precise X-Band Radar. a control and maintenance facility. The radar site consists of the X-band radar mounted on a pedestal.ELEMENTS OF MISSILLE DEFENCE Upgraded Early-warning Radar (UEWR) This is a phased-array surveillance radar that can detect and track ballistic missiles. X-band/Ground-based Radar(XBR) This consists of a multi-function phased array radar that uses high frequency (typically 8-12 ghz). The XBR site will cover 17.

Space-based Infrared System(SBIRS) There are three kinds of SBIRS satellites. while they are outside of the atmosphere and at their highest trajectory. including four geostationary earth orbit (GEO) satellites. The GBI consists of a multi-stage rocket booster (BV – Boost Vehicle) and a kinetic kill vehicle (EKV – Exoatmospheric Kill Vehicle). It is launched from a silo and intercepts ballistic missiles in their midcourse. there will be a 24-satellite constellation that will start tracking enemy missiles earlier than radar. twohighly elliptical orbit (HEO) satellites and an unspecified number of low earth orbit (LEO) satellites. 5 . Eventually. allowing for quicker response Ground-based Interceptors (GBIs) The Ground-Based Interceptor (GBI) is a component of the Ground-Based Midcourse Defense (GMD) System.

PHASES OF INTERCEPTIONS .

Air Borne Laser (ABL) in order to weaken or melt the structure on a missile during boost phase. Ground Based Interceptors(GBI) follows heat signatures coming from the target booster flame.BOOST PHASE INTERCEPT Defense Support Program satellites (DSP) gives the information about the launch site through IR sensors. Small homing Interceptors command over radio is used to intercept the target point. . Interceptors follow blind reckoning in this phase.

Range is detected using radar equations. Utilizes an Exo-atmospheric Kill Vehicle (EKV) to destroy the incoming target using hit-to-kill technology. Space Based Infrared System-High (SBIRS-High) satellites. Upgraded Early Warning Radars (UEWRs). the Space Tracking and Surveillance System (STSS).MID COURSE INTERCEPT Phase can last 20 minutes and provide good window for interception. Control and Communications (BMC3) unit. and Ground-Based Interceptor (GBI) missiles work together for providing complete Interception. a Battle Management. Command.  Defense Support Program (DSP) satellites. E_s = E_o \sigma/R^2 d\Omega (transmitted energy) E_r = E_s A/4\pi R^2 = E_o A^2 \sigma/(4\pi R^4 \lambda^2)=NkT (received energy) . the Sea-Based X-Band Radar (SBX).

 Interceptors have to diffrentiate between decoys and actual warhead.  The XBR will track missiles as they fly closer to the missiles intended target and assess which missiles are decoys and which are armed with warheads. .

Decoys and light chaff are no longer effective against sensors.   Radars must be more closely spaced to see RVs down to altitudes of reentry. Multiple Interceptors are used in this phase as it is necessary to hit the target. because of the very hot "wake" produced by the Mach-23 RV as it enters the atmosphere. Interceptors must be of high speed compared to the RVs . and interceptors cannot drive out hundreds or thousands of km through the atmosphere.TERMINAL PHASE INTERCEPT ICBM warheads are highly visible to radar and to optical sensors. because they will be retarded or destroyed on reentry. .

PROBABILISTIC ANALYSIS Probability thatdefense will destroy all targets (a “leak-proof” defense) can be represented by the following equation P = (1-(1-p)^n)^N P = Probability of leak-proof defense p = Probability that interceptor will hit target8 n = Number of interceptors fired at each target N = Number of targets One can use this equation in order .

 Countermeasures provides high security against any nuclear war.  The field of ballistic missile defense is full of fascinating problems of physics and engineering .  It’s brings in cost reduction in Defense purchase and development.CONCLUSION  Deploying of interceptors adds a big leap towards a countries defense.  For countries under NPT (like India) missile defence technology provides greater scope of defence against any nuclear warhead.

Forden. This volume is an accessible compilation of technical and strategic aspects of BMD. Sept. No. with 5 articles on BMD.N. 4.S.REFERENCES 1. IEEE SPECTRUM. (The Brookings Institution. “Theater Missile Defense: Significant Technical Challenges Face the Airborne Laser Program. "The Airborne Laser". and Garwin. Schwartz.C. 1997..A. 28. R. 3. H. 3. Pike. (Available at http://www. pp. pp. 1984).IEEE SPECTRUM. U.htm) . 5. 21-31. 'Rushing to Failure?'. September 1997. Vol.Bethe.S. 3. March 1968.General Accounting Office.B. A. Arms Control Today. April 1998.9-13.E.G. Carter and D. Eds." Scientific American 218. 40-49.S. "Anti-Ballistic-Missile Systems. General Accounting Office.L. p.armscontrol. Weiner. Also J. (Washington D. 2. "Ballistic Missile Defense: Is the U.” GAO/NSIAD-98-37.org/ACT/april98/pikap98. "Ballistic Missile Defense: It's Back". October 1997."Systems and Technology" in "Ballistic Missile Defense".