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Kelli J.

Schutte
William Jewell College
Robbins, Judge, and Vohra
Organizational Behavior
14th Edition

Conflict and Negotiation
14-0
Copyright 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd
Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational
Behavior, 14e
Chapter Learning Objectives
After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
Define conflict.
Differentiate between the traditional, resolution focused, and
interactionist views of conflict.
Outline the conflict process.
Define negotiation.
Contrast distributive and integrative bargaining.
Apply the five steps in the negotiation process.
Show how individual differences influence negotiations.
Assess the roles and functions of third-party negotiations.
Describe cultural differences in negotiations.
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Copyright 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd
Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational
Behavior, 14e
Conflict Defined
A process that begins when one party perceives that
another party has negatively affected, or is about to
negatively affect, something that the first party cares
about
That point in an ongoing activity when an interaction
crosses over to become an interparty conflict
Encompasses a wide range of conflicts that people
experience in organizations
Incompatibility of goals
Differences over interpretations of facts
Disagreements based on behavioral expectations
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Copyright 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd
Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational
Behavior, 14e
THE TRADITIONAL VIEW OF CONFLICT
THE INTERACTIONIST VIEW OF CONFLICT
MANAGED CONFLICT VIEW
Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
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Transitions in Conflict Thought
THE TRADITIONAL VIEW OF CONFLICT
The belief that all conflict is harmful and must be
avoided

Conflict was bad and to be avoided
it was viewed negatively and discussed with such
terms as VIOLENCE,DESTRUCTION and
IRRATIONALITY to reinforce its negative
connotation

Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
14-4
THE INTERACTIONIST VIEW OF CONFLICT
the belief that conflict is not only a positive force ina
group but also an absolute necessity for a group to
perform effictively

It encourages conflict on the grounds that a
harmonious peaceful,tranquil,and cooperative group is
porne to becoming,apathetic,and unresposive to needs
for change and innovation.

functional conflict
dysfunctional conflict
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Forms of Interactionist Conflict
Functional Conflict
Conflict that supports
the goals of the group
and improves its
performance
Dysfunctional
Conflict
Conflict that hinders
group performance
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Copyright 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd
Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational
Behavior, 14e
Types of Interactionist Conflict
Task Conflict
Conflicts over content and goals of the work
Low-to-moderate levels of this type are
FUNCTIONAL

Relationship Conflict
Conflict based on interpersonal relationships
Almost always DYSFUNCTIONAL

Process Conflict
Conflict over how work gets done
Low levels of this type are FUNCTIONAL


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Copyright 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd
Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational
Behavior, 14e
The Conflict Process
We will focus on each step in a moment
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E X H I B I T 14-1
Copyright 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd
Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational
Behavior, 14e

Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
14-9
Stage I: Potential Opposition or Incompatibility
Communication
Semantic difficulties, misunderstandings, over communication and
noise
Structure
Size and specialization of jobs
Jurisdictional clarity/ambiguity
Member/goal incompatibility
Leadership styles (close or participative)
Reward systems (win-lose)
Dependence/interdependence of groups
Personal Variables
Differing individual value systems
Personality types

14-10
Copyright 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd
Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational
Behavior, 14e
Stage II: Cognition and Personalization
Important stage for two reasons:
1. Conflict is defined
Perceived Conflict
Awareness by one or more parties of the existence of
conditions that create opportunities for conflict to arise

2. Emotions are expressed that have a strong impact on the
eventual outcome
Felt Conflict
Emotional involvement in a conflict creating anxiety,
tenseness, frustration, or hostility


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Copyright 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd
Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational
Behavior, 14e
Stage III: Intentions
Intentions
Decisions to act in a given way
Note: behavior does not always accurately reflect intent
Dimensions of conflict-handling intentions:
Cooperativeness
Attempting to satisfy
the other partys
concerns
Assertiveness
Attempting to satisfy
ones own concerns

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E X H I B I T 14-2
Source: K. Thomas, Conflict and Negotiation Processes in Organizations, in M.D. Dunnette and L.M. Hough (eds.), Handbook of Industrial and
Organizational Psychology, 2nd ed., vol. 3 (Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press, 1992), p. 668. Arrows added. Used with permission.
Copyright 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd
Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational
Behavior, 14e
Stage IV: Behavior
Conflict Management
The use of resolution and stimulation techniques to achieve
the desired level of conflict
Conflict-Intensity Continuum
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E X H I B I T 14-3
Source: Based on S.P. Robbins, Managing Organizational Conflict: A Nontraditional Approach (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1974), pp. 93
97; and F. Glasi, The Process of Conflict Escalation and the Roles of Third Parties, in G.B.J. Bomers and R. Peterson (eds.), Conflict Management
and Industrial Relations (Boston: Kluwer-Nijhoff, 1982), pp. 11940.
Copyright 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd
Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational
Behavior, 14e
Conflict Management Techniques
Conflict Resolution
Techniques
Problem solving
Superordinate goals
Expansion of resources
Avoidance
Smoothing
Compromise
Authoritative command
Altering the human
variable
Altering the structural
variables


Conflict Stimulation
Techniques
Bringing in outsiders
Communication
Restructuring the
organization
Appointing a devils
advocate
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SEE E X H I B I T 14-4
Source: Based on S. P. Robbins, Managing Organizational Conflict: A Nontraditional Approach (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1974), pp.
5989
Copyright 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd
Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational
Behavior, 14e
Stage V: Outcomes
Functional
Increased group
performance
Improved quality of
decisions
Stimulation of creativity
and innovation
Encouragement of interest
and curiosity
Provision of a medium for
problem solving
Creation of an environment
for self-evaluation and
change
Dysfunctional
Development of discontent
Reduced group
effectiveness
Retarded communication
Reduced group
cohesiveness
Infighting among group
members overcomes group
goals
Managing Functional
Conflict
Reward dissent and punish
conflict avoiders
14-15
Copyright 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd
Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational
Behavior, 14e
Negotiation
Negotiation (Bargaining)
A process in which two or more parties exchange goods or
services and attempt to agree on the exchange rate for them
Two General Approaches:
Distributive Bargaining
Negotiation that seeks to divide up a fixed amount of
resources; a win-lose situation
Integrative Bargaining
Negotiation that seeks one or more settlements that can create
a win-win solution


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Copyright 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd
Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational
Behavior, 14e
Distributive versus Integrative Bargaining
Bargaining Characteristic Distributive
Bargaining
Integrative Bargaining
Goal Get all the pie you can Expand the pie
Motivation Win-Lose Win-Win
Focus Positions Interests
Information Sharing Low High
Duration of Relationships Short-Term Long-Term
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SEE E X H I B I T 14-5
Mine Yours
Mine Yours
Distributive
Integrative
Source: Based on R. J. Lewicki and J. A. Litterer,
Negotiation (Homewood, IL: Irwin, 1985), p. 280.
Copyright 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd
Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational
Behavior, 14e
The Negotiation Process
BATNA
The Best Alternative
To a Negotiated
Agreement
The lowest acceptable
value (outcome) to an
individual for a
negotiated agreement
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E X H I B I T 14-7
Copyright 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd
Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational
Behavior, 14e
Individual Differences in Negotiation Effectiveness
Personality Traits
Extroverts and agreeable people are weaker at distributive
negotiation; disagreeable introverts are best
Intelligence is a weak indicator of effectiveness
Mood and Emotion
Ability to show anger helps in distributive bargaining
Positive moods and emotions help integrative bargaining
Gender
Men and women negotiate the same way, but may
experience different outcomes
14-19
Copyright 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd
Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational
Behavior, 14e
Third-Party Negotiations
Four Basic Third-Party Roles
Mediator
A neutral third party who facilitates a negotiated solution by using
reasoning, persuasion, and suggestions for alternatives
Arbitrator
A third party to a negotiation who has the authority to dictate an
agreement.
Conciliator
A trusted third party who provides an informal communication
link between the negotiator and the opponent
Consultant
An impartial third party, skilled in conflict management, who
attempts to facilitate creative problem solving through
communication and analysis

14-20
Copyright 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd
Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational
Behavior, 14e
Global Implications
Conflict and Culture
Indian and French managers view conflict differently
Indian managers are more likely to use accommodation and
avoidance while French managers are likely to use competing
tactics.
Cultural Differences in Negotiations
Multiple cross-cultural studies on negotiation styles, for
instance:
American negotiators are more likely than Japanese bargainers
to make a first offer
North Americans use facts to persuade; Arabs use emotion; and
Russians use asserted ideals
Brazilians say no more often than Americans or Japanese

14-21
Copyright 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd
Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational
Behavior, 14e
Summary and Managerial Implications
Conflict can be
constructive or
destructive
Reduce excessive conflict
by using:
Competition
Collaboration
Avoidance
Accommodation
Compromise
Integrative negotiation is
a better long-term
method
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E X H I B I T 14-8
Copyright 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd
Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational
Behavior, 14e
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced,
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without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the
United States of America.

Copyright 2011 Pearson Education,
Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
14-23
Copyright 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd
Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational
Behavior, 14e