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although, but, however

All of these words join clauses in


sentences, but they are different
parts of speech.
This presentation explains the impact
of the word choice on sentence
pattern and punctuation.
For use with Technical Editing 3e 2
although, but, however
Semantic similarity

These three words are related
semantically (in meaning):

they all signal a contrast in the
information that follows with the
information that precedes.

For use with Technical Editing 3e 3
although, but, however
Structural difference
However, these words differ
structurally: they are different parts
of speech and affect sentence patterns
in different ways.

For use with Technical Editing 3e 4
Semantic similarity
Structural difference

An editor needs to know the
structural difference in order to
punctuate sentences correctly.
For use with Technical Editing 3e 5
although, but, however
sentence patterns and
punctuation
Punctuation errors can result from
using the words as
interchangeable.
Misreading can result from errors.
For use with Technical Editing 3e 6
parts of speech
word part of speech effect on sentence
although subordinating
conjunction
makes clause
dependent
but coordinating
conjunction
joins like things
(2 independent
clauses)
however conjunctive
adverb
modifies an
independent clause


For use with Technical Editing 3e 7
sentence analysis
Compound sentence, coordinating
conjunction
I have studied the textbook, but
I am still confused.

coordinating conjunction (but)
two independent clauses (I have
studied and I am)
compound sentence: comma separates
clauses with a coordinating conjunction
For use with Technical Editing 3e 8
sentence analysis
Complex sentence, subordinating
conjunction
Although I have studied the
textbook, I am still confused.

two clauses (2 pairs of subject + verb)
subordinating conjunction (although)
dependent clause
complex sentence: comma after the
introductory clause
For use with Technical Editing 3e 9
sentence analysis
Complex sentence, subordinating
conjunction
I have studied the textbook;
however, I am still confused.

conjunctive adverb (joins clauses but
does not affect sentence pattern)
two independent clauses
compound sentence, no coordinating
conjunction-->semicolon
For use with Technical Editing 3e 10
sentence analysis
Two simple sentences, however as
adverb in one
I am confused.
I have, however, studied the
textbook.

however is an adverb
two simple sentences
the adverb is interrupting material
that requires a pair of commas
For use with Technical Editing 3e 11
Review although, but, however
Parts of speech affect sentence patterns.
Although, but, and however are different
parts of speech.
although--subordinating conjunction
but--coordinating conjunction
however--conjunctive adverb
For use with Technical Editing 3e 12
Review: sentence types
compound sentence =
two independent clauses
join with comma plus coordinating conjunction
join with a semicolon
complex sentence =
one independent clause,
one dependent clause
join with a comma or nothing (never a
semicolon)
For use with Technical Editing 3e 13
Review although, but, however
Although makes a clause dependent
and the sentence complex.
But joins independent clauses in a
compound sentence.
However can join independent
clauses but does not change their
independence.
For use with Technical Editing 3e 14
Editing: original sentence (punctuation
error)
When editors analyze sentence
structure, they punctuate
correctly; although it is easy to
confuse different parts of speech.


For use with Technical Editing 3e 15
Editing: analysis
When editors analyze
sentence structure,

they punctuate correctly

although it is easy to
confuse different parts of
speech.

dependent clause
(when is a
subordinating
conjunction)

independent
clause (S+V)

dependent clause
(S+V +
subordinating
conjunction)

For use with Technical Editing 3e 16
Option #1 for punctuation
Delete the semicolon (or replace it with a
comma): maintain complex sentence

When editors analyze sentence
structure, they punctuate
correctly although it is easy to
confuse different parts of speech.

For use with Technical Editing 3e 17
Option #2 for punctuation
Replace although with however and retain
the semicolon: create a compound-
complex sentence (includes 2 independent
clauses)
When editors analyze sentence
structure, they punctuate
correctly; however, it is easy to
confuse different parts of speech.
For use with Technical Editing 3e 18
Choosing an option
In this case, the second option is
probably better.

The sentence is long and difficult.
Subordination and lack of punctuation
increase reading difficulty. Coordination
creates parallel structure, which aids
comparison.


For use with Technical Editing 3e 19
although, but, however
know parts of speech
know the ways these words affect
clauses
punctuate according to structure