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UNIT 08:

DC & AC METERS
PART-I

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CHAPTER OUTLINE
3.1 Introduction to DC meters
3.2 dArsonval meter movement
3.3 DC Ammeter
3.4 DC Voltmeter
3.5 DC Ohmeter
3.6 Introduction to AC meter
3.7 dArsonval meter movement (half-wave rectification)
3.8 dArsonval meter movement (full-wave rectification)
3.9 Loading effects of AC meter
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OBJECTIVES
At the end of this chapter, students should be able to:
Explain in detail the principles of operation of the
pmmc or dArsonval meter movement
Explain the purpose of shunts across a meter and
multipliers in series with a meter
Explain and calculate the voltmeter loading effects
Analyze a circuit in terms of Voltmeter Loading
Effect
Explain the purpose of Ohmmeter
Describe the construction and operation of a basic
Ohmmeter


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Describe the operation of half-wave rectifier circuit
Trace the current path in a full-wave bridge rectifier
circuit
Calculate ac sensitivity and the value of multiplier
resistors for half-wave and full-wave rectification



OBJECTIVES
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3.1 INTRODUCTION TO DC METERS

A meter is any device built to detect accurately and display an
electrical quantity in a form readable by a human being
Usually this "readable form" is visual: motion of a pointer on a
scale, a series of lights arranged to form a "bar graph," or some
sort of display composed of numerical figures
Most modern meters are "digital" in design
Older designs of meters are mechanical in nature, using some
kind of pointer device to show quantity of measurement



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3.1 INTRODUCTION TO DC METERS

The display mechanism of a meter is often referred as
a movement, borrowing from its mechanical nature to
move a pointer along a scale so that a measured
value may be read.
Most mechanical movements are based on the
principle of electromagnetism:- electric current through
a conductor produces a magnetic field perpendicular
to the axis of electron flow.
The greater the electric current, the stronger the
magnetic field produced.





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If the magnetic field formed by the conductor is
allowed to interact with another magnetic field, a
physical force will be generated between the two
sources of fields
If one of these sources is free to move with respect to
the other, it will do so as current is conducted through
the wire, the motion (usually against the resistance of
a spring) being proportional to the strength of current
Practical electromagnetic meter movements can be
made now where a pivoting wire coil is suspended in a
strong magnetic field, shielded from the majority of
outside influences
Such an instrument design is generally known as a
permanent-magnet moving coil (PMMC) movement or
dArsonval meter movement






3.1 INTRODUCTION TO DC METERS

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The dArsonval meter movement is a current responding device
which used very widely nowadays
Current from a measured circuit passes through the windings of
the moving coils causes it to behave as an electromagnetic.
The poles of EMT interact with the poles of PM, causing the coils
to rotate.
The pointer deflects up scale whenever current flows in proper
direction in the coil. For this reason, all DC meter movements
show polarity markings.
The moving coil responds to the amount of current through its
windings.
3.2 dARSONVAL METER MOVEMENT
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In the picture above, the meter movement "needle" shown is
pointing somewhere around 35 percent of full-scale, zero being full
to the left of the arc and full-scale being completely to the right
An increase in measured current will drive the needle to point
further to the right and a decrease will cause the needle to drop
back down toward its resting point on the left

3.2 dARSONVAL METER MOVEMENT
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3.2 dARSONVAL METER MOVEMENT
The arc on the meter display is labeled with numbers to
indicate the value of the quantity being measured
In other words, if it takes 50 A current to drive the needle
fully to the right (making a "50 A full-scale movement"), the
scale would have 0 A written at the very left end and 50 A
at the very right, 25 A being marked in the middle of the
scale
In all likelihood, the scale would be divided into much smaller
graduating marks, probably every 5 or 1 A, to allow
whoever is viewing the movement to infer a more precise
reading from the needle's position
The basic principle of this device is the interaction of
magnetic fields from a permanent magnet and the field
around a conductor (a simple electromagnet)


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A permanent-magnet moving-coil (PMMC) movement is based
upon a fixed permanent magnet and a coil of wire which is able
to move, as shown in figure below.
3.2 dARSONVAL METER MOVEMENT
When the switch is closed, the coil will have a magnetic field which
will react to the magnetic field of the permanent magnet.
The bottom portion of the coil in Figure 2(a) will be the north pole of
this electromagnet.
Since opposite poles attract, the coil will move to the position
shown in Figure 2(b).
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To use pmmc as a meter, 2 problems must be solved:
find a way to return the coil to its original position when there is
no current through the coil
find a method to indicate the amount of coil movement
3.2 dARSONVAL METER MOVEMENT
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The first problem is solved by the:
use of hairsprings attached to each
end of the coil
these hairsprings can also be used to
make the electrical connections to the
coil
with the hairsprings, the coil will return
to its initial position when there is no
current
the springs will also tend to resist the
movement of the coil when there is
current through the coil
3.2 dARSONVAL METER MOVEMENT
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As the current through the coil
increases, the magnetic field generated
around the coil increases
The stronger the magnetic field around
the coil, the farther the coil will move
(good basis for a meter)
But, how will you know how far the coil
moves?
If a pointer is attached to the coil and
extended out to a scale, the pointer will
move as the coil moves, and the scale can
be marked to indicate the amount of
current through the coil.
3.2 dARSONVAL METER MOVEMENT
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2 other features are used to
increase the accuracy& efficiency
of this meter.
First, an iron core is placed
inside the coil to concentrate
with the magnetic fields.
Second, curved pole pieces are
attached to the magnet to ensure
that the turning force on the coil
increases steadily as the current
increases.
The meter movement as it
appears when fully assembled is
shown in this figure.
3.2 dARSONVAL METER MOVEMENT
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POP QUIZ
Label the figure
appropriately
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3.3 DC AMMETER
What are meters?
Meters are used to measure current and voltage.
Normally the meter will be a single low range meter
such as 0 - 1 mA full deflection meter of the
D'Arsonval type.
The d'Arsonval type meter works on the principle that
a coil of wire to which a pointer is attached is pivoted
between the poles of a permanent magnet.
When current flows through the coil, it sets up a
magnetic field that interacts with the field of the
magnet to cause the coil to turn.
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The meter pointer deflects in direct proportion to the
current. This meter is called an ammeter.
3.3 DC AMMETER
Figure 1: A typical 0 to 1mA ammeter.
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a device used to measure current
put in series/ parallel with the circuit
very common in lab
use unit Ampere (A)/ mA
used the principle of the dArsonval meter movement
with slight modification
placing a LOW resistance in PARALLEL with the
meter movement resistance to increase the range of
current that can be measured by the meter

3.3 DC AMMETER
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DC ammeter
PMMC galvanometer constitutes the basic movement of a dc
ammeter
Since the coil winding of a basic movement is small and light, it
can carry only very small currents
When large currents are to be measured, it is necessary to
bypass a major part of the current through a resistance called a
shunt
The resistance of shunt can be calculated using conventional
circuit analysis
R
sh
= shunt resistor
R
m
= internal resistance of the movement
I
sh
shunt current
I
m
full-scale deflection current of meter movement
I full-scale current of ammeter + shunt (total current)




3.3 DC AMMETER
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3.3 DC AMMETER
Basic dc Ammeter
+ -
+
-
DArsonval
movement
Since R
sh
is in parallel with the
meter movement, the voltage
drop across the shunt and
movement must be the same.
sh m
V V
,
sh sh m m
I R I R
m m
sh
m
I R
Hence R
I I

m m
sh
sh
I R
R
I

sh m
But I I I
Therefore,
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EXAMPLE 3.1
A 1mA meter movement with an internal resistance
of 100 is to be converted into a 0-100mA.
Calculate the value of shunt resistance required.


100 , 1 , 100
m m
Given R I mA I mA
1 100
1.01
99
m m
sh
m
I R mAx
R
I I mA

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Multirange ammeter
To obtain a multirange ammeter, a number of shunts
are connected across the movement with a multi-
position switch
Referring to the figure, the circuit has 4 shunts Ra,
Rb, Rc and Rd which can be placed in parallel with
the movement to give four different current ranges

3.3 DC AMMETER
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Also known as universal shunt.
Used on a multiple range
ammeter.
It eliminates the possibility of the
meter movements being in the
circuit without any shunt
resistance protect the deflection
instrument of the ammeter from an
excessive current flow when
switching between shunts.
Advantage - maybe used as a
wide range of meter movements.
When the switch is in position 1,
R
a
is in parallel with the series
combination of R
b
, R
c
and the
meter movement.
3.3 DC AMMETER
Ayrton Shunt
Fig. 3: An Ammeter using
Ayrton shunt.
1
2
3
Rb
R
Rc Ra
m
- +
+
-
S
A B
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3.3 DC AMMETER
Hence the current through the shunt is more than the current
through the meter movement, protecting the meter movement
and reducing its sensitivity



If the switch is connected to position 2, R
a
and R
b
are together
in parallel with series combination of R
c
and the meter
movement
Now the current through the meter is more than the current
through the shunt resistance



1
2
2 3 2 3
( )
FSD m
AB
s
I R R
V
I
R R R R




1 2
1
3
FSD m
s
I R R R
I
R

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3.3 DC AMMETER
If the switch is connected to position 3, R
a
, R
b
and R
c
are
together in parallel with the meter
Hence max current flows through the meter movement and very
little through the shunt
destroy the meter or blow a fuse
increases the sensitivity


3
1 2 3
( )
FSD m
s
I R
I
R R R


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EXAMPLE 3.3
Design an Aryton shunt (**figure below) to provide an
ammeter with a current range of 0-1mA, 0-10mA, 0-
50mA and 0-100mA. DArsonval movement with an
internal resistance of 100 and full scale current of
50A is used.

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EXAMPLE 3.3 (solution)
100 , 50
m m
Given R I A
0 1 , For mA range
sh sh m m
I R I R
1 2 3 4
950 ( ) 50 100 A R R R R Ax
1 2 3 4
50 100
5.26
950
Ax
R R R R
A


1 50 950
sh m
I I I mA A A
(3.1)
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EXAMPLE 3.3 (SOLUTION)
0 10 , For mA

1 2 3 4
9950 50 100 A R R R A R
0 50 , For mA

1 2 3 4
49950 50 100 A R R A R R
0 100 , For mA

1 2 3 4
99950 50 (100 ) A R A R R R
(3.4)
(3.2)
(3.3)
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EXAMPLE 3.3 (SOLUTION)
1 2 3 4
3.1, 5.26 From R R R R
. 3.2, Subtituting in Eq

4 4
9950 5.26 50 100 A R A R
4 4
9950 5.26 500 5000 50 Ax Ax R A AR
4 4
(9950 5.26 5000 ) 9950 50 Ax A AR AR
4
9950 5.26 5000
4.734
10
Ax A
R
mA


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EXAMPLE 3.3 (SOLUTION)
Hence, the value of shunts are

R
1
= 0.05263 R
3
= 0.4147
R
2
= 0.05263 R
4
= 4.734
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Rb
Rm
Im
I
Ra Rc
I1
I2
I3
I - Im
+ -
1A
5A
10A
Fig. 3: An Ammeter using Ayrton shunt.
Compute the value of
the shunt resistors for
the circuit. Given that
R
m
= 1k, I
m
= 100 A,
I
1
=10mA, I
2
=100mA,
I
3
=1A.
Check :
Rsh = Ra + Rb + Rc
always!
EXAMPLE 3.4
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3.3 DC AMMETER
R
1
E
Ammeter insertion effects
All ammeters contain some external resistance, which may
range from a low to a greater value
Inserting ammeter in a circuit always increase the resistance of
the circuit and therefore reduces the current in the circuit.
Without ammeter, the current flows in the circuit shown below
can be calculated as

Current without ammeter
insertion effect.

1
e
E
I
R

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3.3 DC AMMETER
1
m
m
E
I
R R

However, inserting the ammeter as shown below will reduce the


current in the circuit to:
Circuit with ammeter insertion
effect
100%
e m
e
I I
Insertion error x
I

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EXAMPLE 3.5
100%
(1 0.5)
100% 50%
1
e m
e
I I
Insertion error x
I
x


1
100
1
100
e
E V
I A
R

Determine the insertion error in circuit shown below if


E=100V, R
1
=100, and R
m
=100.
1
100
0.5
(100 100 )
m
m
E V
I A
R R


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In this sub-topic, we have discussed about :
Introduction to electrical meters
Shunt resistor in a single-range Ammeter
Universal shunt in multiple-range Ammeter
Calculation of shunt resistors
Ammeter insertion effects
Summary
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3.4 DC VOLTMETER

To use the basic meter as a dc voltmeter, it is necessary to
know the amount of current required to deflect the basic meter
to full scale known as I
fsd
For example, suppose a 50A current is required for full scale
deflection. This full scale value will produce a voltmeter with a
sensitivity of 20k per V.

sensitivity =
1 1
20 /
50
fsd
k V
I A

Hence, a 0-1mA would have a sensitivity of????
1k/V
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3.4 DC VOLTMETER
A basic DArsonval movement can be converted into a dc
voltmeter by adding a series resistor known as multiplier (R
s
)
The function of multiplier is to limit the current through the
movement so that the current does not exceed the full scale
deflection value
A dc voltmeter measures the potential between two points in a
dc circuit or a circuit component

Rs
Rm
Im
+
-
Basic dc voltmeter
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3.4 DC VOLTMETER
The value of Rs required is calculated as follows:

( )
m s m
V I R R
m m
s m
m m
V I R V
R R
I I


s m
m
V
R R
I

I
m
= full scale deflection current of the movement (I
fsd
)
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A basic DArsonval movement with a full scale
deflection of 50A and internal resistance of 500 is
used as a voltmeter. Determine the value of the
multiplier resistance needed to measure a voltage
range of 0-10V.
EXAMPLE 3.6
10
500 199.5
50
s m
m
V
R R k
I A

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To measure the potential difference between two
points in a dc circuit/component, a dc voltmeter is
always connected across them with proper polarity

3.4 DC VOLTMETER
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Multirange voltmeter
A dc voltmeter can be converted into a multirange voltmeter by
connecting a number of resistors (multipliers) along with a range
switch to provide a greater number of workable ranges
Figure below shows a multirange voltmeter using four position
switch and 4 multipliers R
1
, R
2
, R
3
, and R
4
for voltage values V
1
,
V
2
, V
3
and V
4
.

3.4 DC VOLTMETER
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EXAMPLE 3.7
Calculate the values of Rs for the multiple- range DC
Voltmeter circuit as shown below:
Rs 1
R m = 1 k
I
fs
= 50

A
+
-
Rs 2 Rs 3
5 V 50 V
10 V
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EXAMPLE 3.7 (solution)
1 1
20 /
50
fsd
S k V
I A

5 , For V range
1
20 / 5 1 99
s m
R S xV R k V x V k k
10 , For V range
2
20 / 10 1 199
s m
R S xV R k V x V k k
50 , For V range
3
20 / 50 1 999
s m
R S xV R k V x V k k
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Voltmeter loading effects
When selecting a meter for a certain voltage measurement, it is
important to consider the sensitivity of a dc voltmeter
A low sensitivity meter may give a correct reading when
measuring voltages in low resistance circuit but produce
unreliable reading in a high resistance circuit
A voltmeter when connected across two points in a highly
resistive circuits, acts as a shunt, reducing the total equivalent
resistance of that portion (Inserting voltmeter always increase the
resistance and decrease the current flowing through the circuit)
The meter then indicates a lower reading than what existed
before the meter was connected
This is called voltmeter loading effect and is caused mainly by low
sensitivity instrument



3.4 DC VOLTMETER
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EXAMPLE 3.8
Two different voltmeters are used to
measure the voltage across R
B
in the
circuit below. The meters are:

Meter A : S= 1k/V;Rm=0.2k; Range
=10V
Meter B : S=20k/V;Rm=1.5k; Range
= 10V

Calculate:
Voltage across R
B
without any
meter.
Voltage across R
B
when meter A is
used.
Voltage across R
B
when meter B is
used.
Loading Errors in both voltmeter
readings.
R
B
E =20V
R
A
10k
1.8k
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EXAMPLE 3.8 (solution)
i) The voltage across the resistance R
B
, without any meter
connected is calculated using the voltage divider formula:



ii) Starting with meter A, having sensitivity S = 1k/V. Therefore,
the total resistance it presents to the circuit is:

5 150
30 5
25 5 30
B
k k
VR x v
k K k

1
1
10 10
m
k
R S x range x k
V


The total resistance across R
B
is R
B
in parallel with meter
resistance, R
m1
:

1
5 10
3.3
1 5 10
B m
eq
B
R xR k x k
R k
R Rm k k

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EXAMPLE 3.8 (solution)
Therefore, the voltage reading obtained with meter 1 using the
voltage divider equation is:



iii) The total resistance that meter 2 presents to the circuit is:



The parallel combination of RB and meter 2 gives:

2
20
10 200
m
k
R S x range x V k
V


3.33
30 3.53
3.33 25
eq
B
eq a
R
k
VR xV x V
R R k k


2
2
5 200
4.88
5 200
B m
eq
B m
R x R k x k
R k
R x R k k

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EXAMPLE 3.8 (solution)
Therefore, the voltage reading obtained with meter 2 using the
voltage divider equation is:



iv) The error in the reading of the voltmeter is given by:









4.88
30 4.9
25 4.88
B
k
VR x V
k k

% 100%
Actual voltage Voltage reading observed in meter
error x
Actual voltage

5 3.33
1 100% 33.4%
5
V V
Voltmeter error x
V


5 4.9
2 100% 2%
5
V V
Similarly voltmeter error x
V


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EXAMPLE 3.9
Find the voltage reading and
the percentage of loading error
of each reading obtained with
a voltmeter on:
Its 5-V range.
Its 10-V range
Its 50-V range.
The meter has a 20-k/V
sensitivity and connected
across RA.
R
B
E =20V
R
A
2.2k
8.2k
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Summary
In this sub-topic, we have learned about:
The purpose of multipliers put in series with a meter
movements.
Calculation of the multiplier resistance of a Voltmeter
Voltmeter loading effects
The basic dArsonval meter movement can be
converted to a DC Voltmeter by connecting a
Multiplier (Rs) with the meter movement.
Sensitivity, S is the reciprocal of the full-scale
deflection current.
Therefore, it is desirable to make the voltmeter
resistance much-much more higher than the circuit
resistance.



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3.5 DC OHMETER
The purpose of an Ohmmeter is to measure resistance
Resistance reading is indicated trough a mechanical
meter movement which operates on electric current.
Thus, Ohmmeter must have an internal source of
voltage to create current necessary to operate the
movement.
It also must have an appropriate ranging resistors to
allow just the right amount of current.
A simple Ohmmeter comprises battery and meter
movement as in figure below:


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3.5 DC OHMETER









When there is infinite resistance (no continuity between test
leads), there is zero current through the meter movement, and
the needle points toward the far left of the scale.
In this regard, the ohmmeter indication is "backwards" because
maximum indication (infinity) is on the left of the scale

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3.5 DC OHMETER
If the test leads of the Ohmmeter are directly shorted together
(measuring zero ), the meter movement will have a maximum
amount of current through it, limited only by the battery voltage
and the movement's internal resistance:
With 9 volts of battery and only 500 of internal movement
resistance, current will be 18mA, which is far beyond the full-
scale rating of the movement will likely damage the meter.

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3.5 DC OHMETER
So, to avoid this, add series resistance to the meters circuit so
that the movement just registers full-scale when the test leads are
shorted together






To determine the proper value for R, calculate the R
total
needed to
limit current to only 1mA (full-scale) with 9V of potential from the
battery, then subtract the movement's internal resistance:
9
9
1
total
V V
R k
I mA

500 8.5
total
R R k
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3.5 DC OHMETER
Now, we're still having a problem of meter range.
On the left side of the scale we have "infinity" and on
the right side we have zero.
One might wonder, What does middle-of-scale
represent?
What figure lies exactly between zero and infinity?.
Infinity is more than just a very big amount: it is an
incalculable quantity, larger than any definite number
ever could be.


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3.5 DC OHMETER
If half-scale indication on any other type of meter represents 1/2 of
the full-scale range value, then what is half of infinity on an
ohmmeter scale?
The answer to this paradox is a logarithmic scale!.






With a logarithmic scale, the amount of resistance spanned for any
given distance on the scale increases as the scale progresses
toward infinity, making infinity an attainable goal.




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3.5 DC OHMETER
We still have a question of range for our ohmmeter,
though. What value of resistance between the test
leads will cause exactly 1/2 scale deflection of the
needle?
If we know that the movement has a full-scale rating of
1 mA, then 0.5 mA (500 A) must be the value needed
for half-scale deflection. Following our design with the
9 volt battery as a source we get:







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3.5 DC OHMETER

With an internal movement resistance of 500 and a
series range resistor of 8.5 k, this leaves 9 k for an
external (lead-to-lead) test resistance at 1/2 scale.
In other words, the test resistance giving 1/2 scale
deflection in an ohmmeter is equal in value to the
(internal) series total resistance of the meter circuit.
Using Ohm's Law a few more times, we can determine
the test resistance value for 1/4 and 3/4 scale
deflection as well:


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3.5 DC OHMETER
1/4 scale deflection (0.25 mA of meter current):


3/4 scale deflection (0.75 mA of meter current):
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3.5 DC OHMETER
So, the scale for this ohmmeter looks something like
this:

One major problem with this design is its reliance upon
a stable battery voltage for accurate resistance reading.
If the battery voltage decreases (as all chemical
batteries do with age and use), the ohmmeter scale will
lose accuracy.

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3.5 DC OHMETER
One thing that needs to be mentioned with regard to
ohmmeters: they only function correctly when
measuring resistance that is not being powered by a
voltage or current source.
In other words, you cannot measure resistance with an
ohmmeter on a "live" circuit!
The reason for this is simple: the ohmmeter's accurate
indication depends on the only source of voltage being
its internal battery. The presence of any voltage across
the component to be measured will interfere with the
ohmmeter's operation.
If the voltage is large enough, it may even damage the
ohmmeter







5/28/2014 62 RUSAYL INSTITUTE LLC
SUMMARY
In this sub-topic, we have learned about:
Ohmmeters contain internal sources of voltage to
supply power in taking resistance measurements.
An analog ohmmeter scale is "backwards" from that of
a voltmeter or ammeter, the movement needle reading
zero resistance at full-scale and infinite resistance at
rest.
Analog ohmmeters also have logarithmic scales,
"expanded" at the low end of the scale and
"compressed" at the high end to be able to span from
zero to infinite resistance.
Ohmmeters should never be connected to an
energized circuit (that is, a circuit with its own source of
voltage). Any voltage applied to the test leads of an
ohmmeter will invalidate its reading.







5/28/2014 63 RUSAYL INSTITUTE LLC
EVALUATION







Find the value of R, scale, scale and
scale of this Ohmmeter?
5/28/2014 64 RUSAYL INSTITUTE LLC

THANK
YOU..
5/28/2014 65 RUSAYL INSTITUTE LLC