PRESENTATION ON COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE

BIOS AND OS LOADING

Vikash Kumar .A Ramanujam School Of Computer Science, Pondicherry University.

Read Only Memory : - Learn How Everything
Works

ROM

HISTORY OF ROM BOOTSTRAP PING stored - program computer requires some form Every
of non-volatile, or erasable, storage to store the initial program that runs when the computer is powered on.

BEFORE 1948
 Until then it was not a stored-program computer as every program had to be manually wired into the machine, which could take days to weeks

ENIAC

 Then it is employed as non-volatile storage for programs in most early stored-program computers, in ROM (Read – Only Memory)

In 1960’S
 Invent of integrated circuits  Both ROM and static RAM were implemented as arrays of transistors in silicon chips  A ROM memory cell could be implemented using fewer transistors than an SRAM memory cell, since the latter requires a latch (comprising 5-20 transistors) to retain its contents

In 1980’S

 Most home PC stored a BASIC interpreter or Operating System in ROM as non-volatile storage  Were too expensive.

 Later the IBM PC XT often included magnetic disk drives, and larger amounts of RAM, allowing them to load their operating systems from disk into RAM,

TYPE’S OF ROMS 

Programmable Read - Only Memory

 Erasable Programmable Read - Only Memory  Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory • Electrically alterable Read - Only Memory • Flash Memory

PROGRAMMABLE READ - ONLY MEMORY
 One-Time Programmable ROM (OTP)  Programmed using a special device called a PROM programmer  PROM can only be programmed once.

ERASABLE PROGRAMMABLE READ - ONLY MEMORY
 More than one time Programmable  Can be erased by exposure to strong Ultraviolet Light (typically for 10 minutes or longer)  Programmed using a special device called a PROM programmer

ELECTRICALLY ERASABLE PROGRAMMABLE READ – ONLY MEMORY
 It is based on a similar semiconductor  Entire contents (or selected banks) to be electrically erased, then rewritten electrically.

ELECTRICALLY ALTERABLE READ – ONLY MEMORY

 Type of EEPROM that can be modified one bit at a time  Very slow process and again requires higher voltage (usually around 12 V)

FLASH MEMORY
 It is a modern type of EEPROM  Can be erased and rewritten faster than ordinary EEPROM  Newer designs feature very high endurance (exceeding 1,000,000 cycles)

BASIC INPUT OUTPUT SYSTEM “bye-ose

BIOS` ``

BIOS
 It is typically placed in a ROM Chip that comes with your MB.  It is Built-in software that determines what a computer can do without accessing programs from a disk.  It also makes it possible for a computer to boot itself.  Many modern PCs have a Flash BIOS, which means that the BIOS has been recorded on a Flash Memory chip, which can be updated if necessary.

BIOS is a group of programs. ROM is a hardware chip used to store BIOS.

POWER GOOD SIGNAL
 The internal power supply turns on, initializes and then takes a few moments to generate reliable power for the rest of the computer.  After a Power Good signal is received, or after the reset button is released and there is confirmation of reliable power, the processor will be ready to start executing.  If not within expected parameters, the chipset will generate a reset signal to the processor in the same fashion as if you were to touch the reset button.  This will continue until the motherboard receives a Power Good signal from the power supply

BIOS BOOT SEQUENCE 

The internal power supply turns on and it receives the Power Good Signal from the power supply.  The processor will be ready to start executing.  But it is suffering from amnesia; there is nothing at all in the memory to execute.  Programmers pre-program the processor to always look at BIOS ROM for the start of the BIOS boot program  At the location memory

FFFF0h, right at the end of the system

 The BIOS performs the Power-On Self Test (POST)

POWER-ON SELF TEST

POST ERRORS
 If there are any fatal errors, the boot process stops.  POST beep codes can be found in this area.

AMI BEEP CODE’S
# of Beeps Error MEGATRENDS) 1 2 3 Refresh Failure Parity Error 64K Base Memory Error

(AMERICAN
Description

The memory refresh Circuitry is faulty Parity error in the Base (1st 64K) of memory Memory error in the base memory (1st 64K)

4

Timer Not Operational

Timer 1 is not functioning (also caused by error in base memory)

5 6 7

Processor Error 8042 Gate A20 Failure Processor Exception Interrupt error

CPU error Unable to switch to protected mode The CPU on the CPU card generated an interrupt error

8

Display Memory Read/Write Error

Video adapter is missing, incorrectly seated or has faulty memory

9

ROM checksum error

The ROM checksum does not match that of the BIOS

10

Coms Shutdown Register Read/Write The shutdown register for coms RAM has failed

11

Cache Memory Bad

The cache memory test has failed. Cache memory will be disabled. *** DO NOT enable it ***

AWARD BEEP CODE’S
Beep Code Error 1 Long 2 Short Video Card Error - Either re-seat or replace video card

Repeating beeps

Memory Error - Memory is either damaged or badly seated

Repeating Hi/Low Beeps

Damaged or Overheating CPU

Hi Frequency Beeps

Overheating CPU

IBM BEEP CODE’S
Beep Code 1 Short Beep Normal POST, System booted OK 2 Short Beeps POST Error - Code on Display

Error

No Beep

Power supply or Motherboard error

Continuous Beep

Power supply or Motherboard error

Repeating short beeps

Power supply or Motherboard error

1 short, 1 long beep

System board error

1 long, 2 short beeps

Display adapter error (MDA/CGA)

1 long, 3 short beeps

Display adapter error (EGA/VGA)

3 long beeps

3270 keyboard card

BIOS BOOT SEQUENCE cont… code begins its search by looking for a video  The BIOS
card  The BIOS begins searching for other devices that The floppy drive is located at 0000:7C00 The IDE/ATA hard disk BIOS will be found at C8000h  If Hard Disk Will not be found by BIOS means it shows a errors message

DISK BOOT ERROR…

BIOS BOOT SEQUENCE cont…
 The BIOS displays its startup screen  It will also test for Memory count-up which is displayed in the screen.

CMOS~~~
COMPLEMENTARY METAL Oxide Semiconductor

CMOS
Hardware that is common, necessary but may change
 RAM, hard drives, floppy drives, serial and parallel ports  Programs are stored on the system BIOS chip, while the changeable data is stored on a CMOS chip

CMOS SETUP UTILITIES

CMOS SETUP PROGRAM
 The data on the CMOS chip can be accessed and updated through the CMOS setup program.  American Megatrends (AMI), Award software, and Phoenix Technologies are the main manufacturers of BIOS.  The CMOS setup can be accessed when the system boots, but there are different ways of doing that

ACCESSING THE CMOS

AMI and Award

Phoenix

Press DEL

Press Ctrl-Alt-Esc or F2

Other possible key combinations are: DEL, Ctrl-Alt-Ins, Ctrl-A, Ctrl-S, Ctrl-F1, F2, F10

CMOS SETUP
 The floppy drive, hard drive, and the date/time settings can be changed using the standard CMOS setup  Modern computers provide extra CMOS settings for memory management, password and booting options, error handling, and power management

CMOS SETUP

CMOS SETUP
The following CMOS setting options are available:
 CPU soft menu – Enables you to set the voltage and multiplier settings on the motherboard for the CPU.  Advanced BIOS feature – Used for selecting boot options.  Advanced chipset features – Deals with extremely low-level chipset functions.

CMOS SETUP
The following CMOS setting options are available (continued):
 Integrated peripherals – Allows you to configure, enable, or disable onboard ports.  Power management setup – Used to setup power management settings for the system.  PnP/PCI configurations – Used for assigning IRQs to certain resources

CMOS SETUP
Other options include:
 Load Fail-Safe Defaults: used when low-level problems occur  Load Optimized Defaults: sets the CMOS to the best possible speed and stability of the system    Set Password Save and Exit Setup Exit Without Saving

SOFT MENU

ADVANCED BIOS FEATURES

ADVANCED CHIPSET FEATURES

INTEGRATED PERIPHERALS

POWER MANAGEMENT SETUP

PLUG AND PLAY CONFIGURATIONS

CMOS PASSWORD

PHOENIX BIOS SETUP

OLDER AWARD CMOS SETUP

CMOS MAINTENANCE

Common causes of loosing CMOS data are
Battery run out, dirt, faulty power supply, electrical surges, and chip creeps  The CMOS settings can be checked by memorizing settings, using Optimized defaults, and backing up a copy of the CMOS

To backup your CMOS to a floppy, use a third-party program such as cmossave.zip

Since the data stored on a CMOS chip can be saved, power is required when the computer is turned off Power is supplied by a battery on the motherboard Batteries are mounted in one of three ways:
External battery (now obsolete)  Onboard battery  Built-in battery (built into the CMOS chip and very common today)

BATTER Y

Clock in Windows begins to slow down System keeps losing CMOS data when you turn it off If you have an external battery, check it with a voltmeter (3.6 or 6 volts) If a built-in battery dies, replace the motherboard (seldom happens)

CLUES TO A WEAK BATTERY

OS Loading… OPERATING SYSTEM

OS BOOT SEQUENCE Once the BIOS finishes what it needs to do, it begins
 

searching for a drive to boot an operating system Most are set to first look for a bootable floppy disk, and if one is not found then proceed to a hard disk, which is usually the C: drive. Some BIOS's permit you to boot from your CD-ROM drive

OS BOOT SEQUENCE cont…searching a hard disk, it looks for a master boot If it is

record at cylinder 0, head 0, sector 1, the first sector on the disk.

Once the boot sector is found and its contents or data verified, the BIOS starts the process of booting the operating system by using the information in the boot sector If a Master Boot Record is found, it is read into memory at location 0000:7c00 The small program in the Master Boot Record will attempt to locate an active (bootable) partition in the hard drives partition table If such a partition is found, the boot sector of that partition is also read into memory at location 0000:7C00

OS BOOT SEQUENCE cont…
 Keep in mind that each operating system has its own boot sector format  The next step involves the small program in the boot sector locating the first part of the operating system's kernel loader program  If no boot device of any type can be found, the system will display an error message and stop

“No boot device”

OS BOOT SEQUENCE cont… STEP
1:

OS BOOT SEQUENCE cont… STEP 2:

OS BOOT SEQUENCE cont… STEP
3:

OS BOOT SEQUENCE cont…

SINGLE OS BOOT PROCESS

SINGLE OS BOOT PROCESS
POWER ON BIOS CONTROL BIOS OPERATION MBR Program (Booting Process)

Executing first sector of disk

Partition Table to find active Partition Partition

PBR locate system file

Win98  io.sys

Win XP’s  ntoskrnl

MULTIPLE OS BOOT PROCESS
Multiple OS Process will be slightly different from single OS Process

MULTIPLE OS BOOT PROCESS
Multiple OS Boot Process

Microsoft Way

Non-Microsoft Way

Microsoft Way
BIOS Control MBR looks into partition table

PBR of active partition

But Win98 installed (altered to Win Xp)

No Win98 contain( file like io.sys) It contain the ntldr

Ntldr looks into “boot.ini” (loads the OS)

If Win 98 select then it looks for bootsect.dos

Non-Microsoft Way
 In this system, installing multiple OSes is conceptually simple  First make as many Primary Partitions and Logical Partition as you want  Then set the status of one of the Partition as “Active”, and install on OS. After this set the status of that partition as “Hidden” (or “Inactive” ) and set another Partition as “Active” and install another OS

Non-Microsoft Way 3 points
 Displays a list of all OSes present in both Primary and Logical Partitions.  When a user select one, Boot Loader makes the Partition of that OS as Active and passes the control to it  Then, the Boot Sector of the corresponding OS takes control and loads the OS. This Boot Sector may be PBR of a Primary Partition or LEBR of a Logical Extended Partition. By this way, each OS remains independent of each other.

Thank

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