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The Islamic Caliphate

Umayyad
Spain
How did your empire or group derive
their power?
• The Muslim Ummah (community) unified
them together and allowed them to conquer
many territories.
They would make conquered non-Muslims pay
taxes and tributes.
• Jizya tribute-tax on male non-muslims in
exchange for protection against outside
aggressors.
What belief system or religion played a
role in their culture and possible need
for conquest?
• Islam played a very important role that
created the caliphate position itself.
• The Caliphate was the first system of
government established in Islam and
represented the political unity of the Muslim
Ummah(community)
How did their empire impact trade?
• The early Islamic Empire had the highest
literacy rates among pre-modern societies
alongside Athens.
• Arab merchants dominated trade in the Indian
Ocean.
• There was a dense network of trade routes in
the Mediterranean, along which Muslim
countries traded with each other and with
European powers such as Venice.
What technologies were used or
created by this empire/group?
• Minaret: The minaret is a distinctive architectural feature of Islamic
architecture, especially mosques, dating back to the early centuries
of Islam.
• Coffee-The earliest credible evidence of either coffee drinking or
knowledge of the coffee tree appears in the middle of the 15th
century, in the Sufi monasteries of the Yemen in southern Arabia. It
was in Yemen that coffee beans were first roasted and brewed.
• Ziriyab started a beauty institute in Spain between the 8th and 9th
century.


What was the cultural impact of this
empire/group?
• Córdoba was the intellectual Centre of al-Andalus, with translations
of ancient Greek texts to Arabic, Latin and Hebrew. Appreciable
advances in science, history, geography, philosophy and grammar
occurred during the Caliphate.
• The Caliphate of Cordoba Abd-ar-Rahman III in Spain had a good
diplomatic relation with the Berbers in North Africa, the Christians
kings in France, and Constantinople.
• In Umayyad Spain, a distinctive Islamic culture combining roman,
Germanic and Jewish traditions with those of the Arabs was
created.

The interior of the
Mezquita (Mosque),
one of the finest
examples of
Ummayad Islamic
architecture in Spain.
How did they rule their conquered
people; tribute system; how much
autonomy; etc.
• The Muslims treated conquered converts as
equals. But the conquered people that were
non-Muslims were treated as second-class
citizens.
• Nevertheless the Muslims treated all
conquered people with tolerance, kindness,
and respect.
The Three most important
contributions.
• The Islamic Caliphate was united by the
Ummah(community)
• Islam was the primary religion practiced by the
caliphs(successors of Muhammad).
• There was a dense network of trade routes in the
Mediterranean, along which Muslim countries
traded with each other and with European
powers such as Venice.

• By Vegito.