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graph

A diagram is a visual form of

presentation of statistical data

• A graph is a visual form of presentation of

statistical data which is drawn in a graph

paper

diagram graph

Paper Ordinary Graph paper

undersatndability Easily Some efforts

Variables More Less

Analysis not used for further used

Comparision comparision Reltionship (time)

Data represented Bars , pie Points and lines t

attractiveness More attrctive Less

Mostly used Advertising Researchers

diagram

• One dimensional diagrams

– Line

– Bars

vertical bar

Horizonatal bar

Multiple or compound

Sub divided bar diagrams

Two dimensional

Pie

Graph

• Histogram

• Frequency polygon

• Cumulative frequency curve

Line diagram

• It is simple to draw

• X- axis discrete data variabes

• Y axis – frequency

• On the basis of the size of fiqures , the heights

of lines are drawn

• The distance in the bars are kept uniform

• The limitation of the diagram is not attractive

• No width

Draw the line diagram

Year No of students passed

2001 5

2002 7

2003 12

2004 5

2005 13

2006 15

• A bar chart or bar graph is a chart with

rectangular bars with lengths proportional to

the values that they represent. The bars can

be plotted vertically or horizontally

three types

• Simple bar

• Multiple bar

• Subdivided bars

How Is the Information

Presented?

• A bar graph is made.

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Chocolat Vanilla Strawberr Mint & CRocky RBubble G

Students

• A bar chart is made up of columns plotted on

a graph. Here is how to read a bar chart.

• The columns are positioned over a label that

represents a categorical variable.

• The height of the column indicates the size of

the group defined by the column label.

• The bar chart below shows average per capita

income for the four "New" states - New Jersey,

New York, New Hampshire, and New Mexico

• Bar charts are often used to present data in a

pictorial form to illustrate the information

collected and highlight important points. They

are especially useful to depict monthly car

production, monthly sales, quarterly profit,

average annual rainfall etc. A bar chart

provides a useful comparison of data over

time. The height of each bar shows the total

amount of the item of interest for each month

(or year).

• Bar charts are drawn with parallel bars placed

vertically (or horizontally). The width of each

bar and the spacing between the bars are kept

the same to avoid giving a misleading

representation. The height of the bar is drawn

to scale to represent the amount of the item.

• The yearly production of cars by a particular

company is recorded as follows:

• Draw a bar chart to display this information.

Uk population

Year Total Male Female

1959 51 956 000 25 043 000 26 913 000

1969 55 461 000 26 908 000 28 553 000

1979 56 240 000 27 373 000 28 867 000

1989 57 365 000 27 988 000 29 377 000

1999 59 501 000 29 299 000 30 202 000

Multiple bar diagrams

• It is simple to read a bar chart. Just look at the required bar

and read off the value. E.g. The bar chart shows that the

number of cars produced was 160 000 in 2001, 200 000 in

2002 and 320 000 in 2003.

• Bar charts are used to describe only simple pieces of data

but can describe a data set clearly and provide immediate

visual impact. It is clear from the bar chart that the car

production by the company had increased more slowly

between 2001 and 2002 than between 2002 and 2003.

• Bar charts are useful for presenting data sets consisting of a

number of values that are each assigned to different

categories such as years, months, quarters

Two dimensional diagram

• Pie

• To draw a pie chart, divide the circle into 100

percentage parts. Then allocate the number

of percentage parts required for each item.

• A family's weekly expenditure on its house

mortgage, food and fuel is as follows:

• Draw a pie chart to display the information.

• Solution:

• We can find what percentage of the total

expenditure each item equals.

• Percentage of weekly expenditure on:

How Is the Information

Presented?

• A pictograph is made.

Chocolate

Vanilla

Strawberry

Mint & Chip

Rocky Road

Bubble Gum

Graph

• A visual presenattion of graph using special

paper

Types

• Histogram

• Frequency polygon

• Cumulative frequency curve (ogive)

- less than ogive

- more than ogive

Frequecy histogram

• Histograms

• Like a bar chart, a histogram is made up of

columns plotted on a graph. Usually, there is no

space between adjacent columns.

• The columns are positioned over a label that

represents a quantitative variable.

• The column label can be a single value or a range

of values.

• The height of the column indicates the size of the

group defined by the column label

Histogram

• Class intervals marked in the x axis

• Frequencies are marked in the y axis

• Length and breadth is more important

• Each rectangle is joined with other

• Blan space between the rectangles refers no

vlaues in that class interval

Frequency polygon

• A stemplot is used to display quantitative

data, generally from small data sets (50 or

fewer observations). The stemplot below

shows IQ scores for 30 sixth graders.

Stem and leaf

• Stems

150

140

130

120

110

100

90

80

• Leaves

1

2 6

4 5 7 9

1 2 2 2 5 7 9 9

0 2 3 4 4 5 7 8 9 9

1 1 4 7 8

• In a stemplot, the entries on the left are called stems;

and the entries on the right are called leaves. In the

example above, the stems are tens (80 and 90) and

hundreds (100 through 140). However, they could be

other units - millions, thousands, ones, tenths, etc. In

the example above, the stems and leaves are explicitly

labeled for educational purposes. In the real world,

however, stemplots usually do not include explicit

labels for the stems and leaves.

• Some stemplots include a key to help the user interpret

the display correctly. The key in the stemplot above

indicates that a stem of 110 with a leaf of 7 represents

an IQ score of 117

find range

stem

• 80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

leaf

• 1

4 7

2 2 6

0 2 5 7 9 9

5 7 9

7 9

1

The stemplot below shows the number of hot

dogs eaten by contestants in a recent hot dog

eating contest

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