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Difference between diagram and

A diagram is a visual form of
presentation of statistical data
• A graph is a visual form of presentation of
statistical data which is drawn in a graph

diagram graph
Paper Ordinary Graph paper
undersatndability Easily Some efforts
Variables More Less
Analysis not used for further used
Comparision comparision Reltionship (time)
Data represented Bars , pie Points and lines t
attractiveness More attrctive Less
Mostly used Advertising Researchers
• One dimensional diagrams
– Line
– Bars
 vertical bar
Horizonatal bar
Multiple or compound
Sub divided bar diagrams
Two dimensional

• Histogram
• Frequency polygon
• Cumulative frequency curve
Line diagram
• It is simple to draw
• X- axis discrete data variabes
• Y axis – frequency
• On the basis of the size of fiqures , the heights
of lines are drawn
• The distance in the bars are kept uniform
• The limitation of the diagram is not attractive
• No width
Draw the line diagram
Year No of students passed
2001 5
2002 7
2003 12
2004 5
2005 13
2006 15
• A bar chart or bar graph is a chart with
rectangular bars with lengths proportional to
the values that they represent. The bars can
be plotted vertically or horizontally
three types
• Simple bar
• Multiple bar
• Subdivided bars

How Is the Information
• A bar graph is made.

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• A bar chart is made up of columns plotted on
a graph. Here is how to read a bar chart.
• The columns are positioned over a label that
represents a categorical variable.
• The height of the column indicates the size of
the group defined by the column label.
• The bar chart below shows average per capita
income for the four "New" states - New Jersey,
New York, New Hampshire, and New Mexico

• Bar charts are often used to present data in a
pictorial form to illustrate the information
collected and highlight important points. They
are especially useful to depict monthly car
production, monthly sales, quarterly profit,
average annual rainfall etc. A bar chart
provides a useful comparison of data over
time. The height of each bar shows the total
amount of the item of interest for each month
(or year).

• Bar charts are drawn with parallel bars placed
vertically (or horizontally). The width of each
bar and the spacing between the bars are kept
the same to avoid giving a misleading
representation. The height of the bar is drawn
to scale to represent the amount of the item.

• The yearly production of cars by a particular
company is recorded as follows:
• Draw a bar chart to display this information.

Uk population
Year Total Male Female
1959 51 956 000 25 043 000 26 913 000
1969 55 461 000 26 908 000 28 553 000
1979 56 240 000 27 373 000 28 867 000
1989 57 365 000 27 988 000 29 377 000
1999 59 501 000 29 299 000 30 202 000
Multiple bar diagrams
• It is simple to read a bar chart. Just look at the required bar
and read off the value. E.g. The bar chart shows that the
number of cars produced was 160 000 in 2001, 200 000 in
2002 and 320 000 in 2003.
• Bar charts are used to describe only simple pieces of data
but can describe a data set clearly and provide immediate
visual impact. It is clear from the bar chart that the car
production by the company had increased more slowly
between 2001 and 2002 than between 2002 and 2003.
• Bar charts are useful for presenting data sets consisting of a
number of values that are each assigned to different
categories such as years, months, quarters
Two dimensional diagram
• Pie
• To draw a pie chart, divide the circle into 100
percentage parts. Then allocate the number
of percentage parts required for each item.

• A family's weekly expenditure on its house
mortgage, food and fuel is as follows:
• Draw a pie chart to display the information.

• Solution:
• We can find what percentage of the total
expenditure each item equals.
• Percentage of weekly expenditure on:

How Is the Information
• A pictograph is made.

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• A visual presenattion of graph using special
• Histogram
• Frequency polygon
• Cumulative frequency curve (ogive)
- less than ogive
- more than ogive
Frequecy histogram
• Histograms
• Like a bar chart, a histogram is made up of
columns plotted on a graph. Usually, there is no
space between adjacent columns.
• The columns are positioned over a label that
represents a quantitative variable.
• The column label can be a single value or a range
of values.
• The height of the column indicates the size of the
group defined by the column label

• Class intervals marked in the x axis
• Frequencies are marked in the y axis
• Length and breadth is more important
• Each rectangle is joined with other
• Blan space between the rectangles refers no
vlaues in that class interval
Frequency polygon
• A stemplot is used to display quantitative
data, generally from small data sets (50 or
fewer observations). The stemplot below
shows IQ scores for 30 sixth graders.

Stem and leaf
• Stems

• Leaves

2 6
4 5 7 9
1 2 2 2 5 7 9 9
0 2 3 4 4 5 7 8 9 9
1 1 4 7 8

• In a stemplot, the entries on the left are called stems;
and the entries on the right are called leaves. In the
example above, the stems are tens (80 and 90) and
hundreds (100 through 140). However, they could be
other units - millions, thousands, ones, tenths, etc. In
the example above, the stems and leaves are explicitly
labeled for educational purposes. In the real world,
however, stemplots usually do not include explicit
labels for the stems and leaves.
• Some stemplots include a key to help the user interpret
the display correctly. The key in the stemplot above
indicates that a stem of 110 with a leaf of 7 represents
an IQ score of 117

find range
• 80
• 1

4 7
2 2 6
0 2 5 7 9 9
5 7 9
7 9
The stemplot below shows the number of hot
dogs eaten by contestants in a recent hot dog
eating contest