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Prepared by

• From the new knowledge, recipients can generate new
ideas and concepts that would require the application of
both procedural and contextual knowledge skills
• trainee manager have opportunity to internalized and
contextualized knowledge gained
• “co-production model of knowledge creation and
transfer”: evidence based policy and practice academic
institution as knowledge hub or knowledge cluster
• entrepreneurial mindset with high internal and external
networking and knowledge sharing: create new industries
& innovation

• knowledge-intensive businesses: knowledge capability +
other strategic capabilities = competitive advantage
• Key factors for competitive advantages: knowledge +
core competencies
 used to make decisions, solve problems and produce effective
• “collective tacit knowledge”
• “learning from the outside” from education institution

• setting the right context: knowledge convey the right
• training and educational programs for skill and
competence development of employees for effective KT
• Knowledge (proceeding), KnP, represents the process of
selecting and associating information (KnI) which can
guide specific actions or Decisions.
• KT between individuals within and across organizations
is normally facilitated through apprenticeships which are
inefficient and costly (Huber, 1991), expert networks and
by codification.
• Expert networks do not involve codification and
knowledge is provided by an expert to a novice.
• Organizational learning: personal communication, team
dialogues and group meetings and is exemplified by
innovation, collaboration, and culture shifts.
• explicit-tacit dimension:
(1) Explicit to tacit (internalization) e.g. team building
(2) Tacit to tacit (socialization) e.g. team meetings and
(3) Tacit to explicit (externalization) e.g. discourse within
a team.
(4) Explicit to explicit (combination) e.g. e mail of a report.

• Managerial knowledge creation = creation of knowledge
workers : defines exploring, building, testing and
validation of cognitive models of associations and causal
relationships between relevant consumer, product and
organizational attributes
• useable managerial knowledge: (transform theoretical
concepts into actionable practices).
• Other Initiative
 Higher Education Institutions (HEIs)
 employed pedagogical techniques- lecturing, case method &
simulation in delivering & transmission of academic knowledge
 create the required human environment and adopt HR
practices- so that researchers are motivated and incentivized
for the same.
 create a culture that encourages and rewards researchers to
socialize with practitioners- information sharing, teamwork and

Technological Infrastructure
 the non-human systems which facilitate the KM
infrastructure could improve the efficiency of KT.
The major functions of technology system- entry, storage,
retrieval, and distribution of knowledge in the KM
system could be leveraged for KT mechanisms such as
systematic review

• Program
 Knowledge Transfer Partnerships (KTP)
 apply the concept of CoP (Collaborative Project)
 partially successful since HEIs are rated as low importance as
a source of knowledge for innovation

 Evidence-based Policy & Practice (EbPP)
 a method of integration of best research evidence of a specific
problem or issue
 based on practitioner’s pre-existing experience & expertise on
that subject along with end-user preferences & concerns
 systematic review based on:
1. identify solutions to the concerned problems
2. apply learning is from previous situations
3. evaluate the risks
4. benefits of potential interventions

• academic writing conventions are difficult for
practitioners to follow and make sense of.
• Management research is too focused on
theoretical relationships which is descriptive
knowledge and thus unable to provide practical
solutions or prescriptions for practitioners.
• researchers and practitioners exist in different
worlds: they operate on different time-scales, use
different languages, have different needs and
respond to different incentive systems”.

• decision – Practitioner: empirical- intuition,
experience and managerial judgment
• focus decision:
 practitioner: short term decision
 researcher: long term view
• knowledge form
 manager: tacit knowledge; practical
 researcher: explicit knowledge: codified form i.e.
produced, documented and disseminated in the form of
research papers, research dissertations, text books
and opinion-based articles

• eight inhibitors in KTE:
 misfit of timing between research cycle and real-world
 lack of relationships between researchers and
decision makers;
 poor justification with traditional academic
performance expectations;
 a perceived lack of knowledge of the research
 the academic language of communication of research
 relevance of research to practice-based issues;
 lack of timely results;
 lack of time and resources to participate
• difficulty is in identifying, and then capturing the
exact knowledge to be exchanged

1. Knowledge creation
proportion of managerial knowledge is created in HEIs=considered as
irrelevant to practice i.e. it is perceived as ambiguous, cognitive, abstract and
-researcher is likely to frame managerial problems and their solutions in his
theoretical and abstract context which would have very little relationship to any
particular sector, organization or function of industry and thus become
irrelevant., incoherent or intangible to practitioners at first glance.
2. Knowledge diffusion
Most of the knowledge produced and codified by researchers is compiled and
diffused in the form of articles, books, reports and manuals or/and presented
at conferences and seminars and in the form of electronic information i.e.
online databases
- researchers who create knowledge and practitioners who are expected to
utilize the same, would be hampered by inadequate accessibility as the
latter are unlikely to acquire and read journals or books whose information
is partially understandable and difficult to make sense of.
- the process of codification (externalization) would lead to partial capture of
- knowledge which would still need to be interpreted and applied
Locate knowledge gap

4. Knowledge utilization
-use of research-based knowledge would require application of findings, ideas, models and
propositions developed in academia by practitioners which can guide or
inform decision making in “real world” context
KT or research outcomes produced by researchers would thus encounter barriers at
all the four stages of the KT cycle i.e. creation, diffusion, adoption and utilization.
Managerial knowledge creation involves exploring, building, testing and validation of
cognitive models of associations and causal relationships between relevant consumer,
product and organizational attributes
3. Knowledge adoption

academic knowledge produced in written and oral form need to be meaningful
and understood by both
-would thus require changing of managerial mindset which is a complex and
under researched process, but Knowledge transfer cycle crucial as mindsets
“define” perception
i.e. practitioners who are more inclined to experiment and apply new knowledge
their specific industrial and functional context would need to be identified and
with appropriate value proposition which is knowledge which has the potential to
enhance managerial or organizational performance
Knowledge creation
For academicians to acquire the tacit knowledge which could
produce knowledge relevant to industry, researchers would have
to gain insight into the managerial challenges faced by
practitioners and their practices which could be through
observation, communication and participation
Knowledge diffusion
-require interpretation and presentation of findings in a manner
that can be understood by practitioners.
-Adequate social interaction between researchers who are
producers of
managerial knowledge and practitioners who are potential users
would be required for some time to resolve any cognitive or
behavioral barriers
Adress knowledge gap
Knowledge adoption
. Early adopters could be practitioners who are willing to take the risk and wish to
benefit from significant performance enhancement or who are facing serious
managerial challenges could make the necessary transition by contextualizing
research knowledge to their specific business domain.

• Gera, R. (2012). Bridging the gap in knowledge transfer
between academia and practitioners. International
Journal of Educational Management, 26 (3) pp. 252-
273. Retrieved on 9 April 2014 from