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SAFE STREET SYSTEM FOR

VISUALLY BLIND PEOPLE






INTRODUCTION
 The project safe street crossing system is dedicated to visually impaired persons who
find it difficult to cross the busy roads.
 The microcontroller used is AVR microcontroller.
 AVR is Modified Harvard architecture 8-bit RISC single chip microcontroller.
 It was Developed by Atmel in 1996.
 AVR family consists of:

 8 Bit tiny AVR
 Small package – as small as 6 pins
 8 Bit mega AVR
 Wide variety of configurations and packages
 8 / 16 Bit AVR XMEGA

Second Generation Technology
 32 Bit AVR UC3
 Higher computational throughput




THE AVR FAMILY
PERFORMANCE OVER AVR FAMILY
BLOCK DIAGRAM
DESCRIPTION OF BLOCK DIAGRAM
 The project safe street crossing system is dedicated to visually
impaired persons who find it difficult to cross the busy roads. This
system consists of two units: transmitter and receiver. The
transmitter section consists of power supply, a microcontroller unit
and a wireless transmitter. The microcontroller unit employees the
AVR microcontroller which controls the transmitter section. It
sends the detected signals to the wireless transmitter section which
transmit the signals to the receiver section.
 The receiver section comprises of wireless receiver, the
microcontroller unit, a motor driver and a vibrator (or a buzzer).
The wireless receiver will receive the signals from the transmitter
section and passes them to the microcontroller unit. The controller
will then control the motor driver which in turn will drive the
vibrator. A sensor is also connected at the transmitter side
controller so as to alert the user from incoming vehicle.

 The blind person will be provided with a stick which is in wireless connection
with the traffic signal. The stick gives vibrations according to the traffic
signal.
 In addition to this an LDR sensor is also connected to transmitter unit.
IC’s USED IN ARDUINO BOARD
 TRANSMITTER:
ARDUINO BOARD consist of following IC’s:

 Atmega 8

 MAX232

IC’s DESCRIPTION
Features of ATmega8

 High-performance, Low-power AVR® 8-bit Microcontroller

 Advanced RISC Architecture
 – 131 Powerful Instructions – Most Single-clock Cycle Execution
 – 32 x 8 General Purpose Working Registers
 – Up to 16 MIPS Throughput at 16 MHz
 – On-chip 2-cycle Multiplier

 High Endurance Non-volatile Memory segments
 – 16K Bytes of In-System Self-programmable Flash program memory
 – 512 Bytes EEPROM
 – 1K Byte Internal SRAM
 – Write/Erase Cycles: 10,000 Flash/100,000 EEPROM
 – Data retention: 20 years at 85°C/100 years at 25°C(1)
 – Optional Boot Code Section with Independent Lock Bits
 – In-System Programming by On-chip Boot Program
 – Programming Lock for Software Security

 Peripheral Features
 – Two 8-bit Timer/Counters with Separate Prescaler, one Compare Mode
 – One 16-bit Timer/Counter with Separate Prescaler, Compare Mode,
and Capture
 Mode
 – Real Time Counter with Separate Oscillator
 – Three PWM Channels
 – 8-channel ADC in TQFP and QFN/MLF package
 Eight Channels 10-bit Accuracy
 – 6-channel ADC in PDIP package
 Six Channels 10-bit Accuracy
 – Byte-oriented Two-wire Serial Interface
 – Programmable Serial USART
 – Master/Slave SPI Serial Interface
 – Programmable Watchdog Timer with Separate On-chip Oscillator
 – On-chip Analog Comparator

PIN DIAGRAM
FEATURES OF MAX232
 Meets or Exceeds TIA/EIA-232-F and ITU
 Recommendation V.28
 Operates From a Single 5-V Power Supply
 With 1.0-F Charge-Pump Capacitors
 Operates Up To 120 kbit/s
 Two Drivers and Two Receivers
 ±30-V Input Levels
 Low Supply Current . . . 8 mA Typical
 ESD Protection Exceeds JESD 22
 − 2000-V Human-Body Model (A114-A)
 Upgrade With Improved ESD (15-kV HBM)
 and 0.1-F Charge-Pump Capacitors is
 Available With the MAX202
 Applications
 − TIA/EIA-232-F, Battery-Powered Systems,
 Terminals, Modems, and Computers
 Applications:

 − TIA/EIA-232-F, Battery-Powered Systems,

 Terminals, Modems, and Computers

IC’s USED AT TRANSMITTER
SECTION

 HT12E:
FEATURES
 Operating voltage

 2.4V~12V for the HT12E
 Low power and high noise immunity CMOS
technology
 Low standby current: 0.1A (typ.) at VDD=5V

Minimum transmission word
 Four words for the HT12E
 Built-in oscillator needs only 5% resistor
 Data code has positive polarity
 Minimal external components
 Pair with Holteks 212 series of decoders
 18-pin DIP, 20-pin SOP package
DESCRIPTION
 The 212 encoders are a series of CMOS LSIs for remote
control system applications. They are capable of encoding
information which consists of N address bits and
12N data bits. Each address/data input can be set to
one of the two logic states. The programmed addresses/
data are transmitted together with the header
bits via an RF or an infrared transmission medium upon
receipt of a trigger signal. The capability to select a TE
trigger on the HT12E or a DATA trigger on the HT12A
further enhances the application flexibility of the 212 series
of encoders. The HT12A additionally provides a
38kHz carrier for infrared systems.
APPLICATIONS
 Burglar alarm system
 Smoke and fire alarm system
 Garage door controllers
 Car door controllers
 Car alarm system
 Security system
 Cordless telephones
 Other remote control systems
IC’s USED IN ARDUINO BOARD

RECIEVER:

Atmega 8:


FEATURES
 High-performance, Low-power AVR® 8-bit Microcontroller

 Advanced RISC Architecture
 – 131 Powerful Instructions – Most Single-clock Cycle Execution
 – 32 x 8 General Purpose Working Registers
 – Up to 16 MIPS Throughput at 16 MHz
 – On-chip 2-cycle Multiplier
 High Endurance Non-volatile Memory segments
 – 16K Bytes of In-System Self-programmable Flash program memory
 – 512 Bytes EEPROM
 – 1K Byte Internal SRAM
 – Write/Erase Cycles: 10,000 Flash/100,000 EEPROM
 – Data retention: 20 years at 85°C/100 years at 25°C(1)
 – Optional Boot Code Section with Independent Lock Bits
 – In-System Programming by On-chip Boot Program
 – Programming Lock for Software Security

 Peripheral Features
 – Two 8-bit Timer/Counters with Separate Prescaler, one Compare Mode
 – One 16-bit Timer/Counter with Separate Prescaler, Compare Mode, and Capture
 Mode
 – Real Time Counter with Separate Oscillator
 – Three PWM Channels
 – 8-channel ADC in TQFP and QFN/MLF package
 Eight Channels 10-bit Accuracy
 – 6-channel ADC in PDIP package
 Six Channels 10-bit Accuracy
 – Byte-oriented Two-wire Serial Interface
 – Programmable Serial USART
 – Master/Slave SPI Serial Interface
 – Programmable Watchdog Timer with Separate On-chip Oscillator
 – On-chip Analog Comparator
PIN DIAGRAM
IC’s USED AT RECEIVER SECTION


HT12D:

FEATURES
 Operating voltage: 2.4V~12V
 Low power and high noise immunity CMOS
technology
 Low standby current
 Capable of decoding 12 bits of information
 Binary address setting
 Received codes are checked 3 times
 Address/Data number combination
 HT12D: 8 address bits and 4 data bits
 Built-in oscillator needs only 5% resistor
 Valid transmission indicator
 Easy interface with an RF or an infrared transmission
 medium
 Minimal external components
 Pair with Holteks 212 series of encoders
 18-pin DIP, 20-pin SOP package
PIN DIAGRAM
DESCRIPTION
 HT12D is a decoder integrated circuit that belongs to 2
12
series of decoders.
This series of decoders are mainly used for remote control system
applications, like burglar alarm, car door controller, security system etc. It is
mainly provided to interface RF and infrared circuits. They are paired with 2
12

series of encoders. The chosen pair of encoder/decoder should have same
number of addresses and data format.

 In simple terms, HT12D converts the serial input into parallel outputs. It
decodes the serial addresses and data received by, say, an RF receiver, into
parallel data and sends them to output data pins. The serial input data is
compared with the local addresses three times continuously. The input data
code is decoded when no error or unmatched codes are found. A valid
transmission in indicated by a high signal at VT pin.

 HT12D is capable of decoding 12 bits, of which 8 are address bits and 4 are
data bits. The data on 4 bit latch type output pins remain unchanged until
new is received.

APPLICATIONS
 Burglar alarm system
 Smoke and fire alarm system
 Garage door controllers
 Car door controllers
 Car alarm system
 Security system
 Cordless telephones
 Other remote control systems
SENSOR
 LIGHT DEPENDENT RESISTOR(LDR):





DESCRIPTION

 LDRs or Light Dependent Resistors are very
useful especially in light/dark sensor circuits.
Normally the resistance of an LDR is very
high, sometimes as high as 1000 000 ohms,
but when they are illuminated with light
resistance drops dramatically.

 The animation above shows that when the
torch is turned on, the resistance of the LDR
falls, allowing current to pass through it.
IC USED IN LDR SENSOR
LM555:




COMPONENTS USED
 1) 9v Battery with cap


 2) ON/OFF Switch


 3) L.D.R (Light Depending Resistance)


 4) I.C 555 with Base


 5) L.E.D (Light Emitting Diode) 5 pieces.


 6) Variable Resistance of 50K ohms


 7) P.C.B (Printed Circuit Board)

DESCRIPTION
 This circuit uses the inbuilt comparator of
555.LDR is a special type of resistance whose
value depends on the brightness of light which is
falling on it. When light falls on the LDR then its
resistance decreases which results in increases
the voltage at pin2 comparator compares
between the input voltage from pin2 and 1/3rd of
the power supply voltage. When input falls below
1/3rd then output is set high otherwise set low.
When light falls on LDR its input voltage rises so
we get 0 volt at pin 3, besides in poor light we get
positive output at pin3 to drive LEDs.
FEATURES
 It operates from a wide range of power supplies (+ 5 V to +
18 V supply voltage).
 Sinking or sourcing 200 mA of load current.
 Proper selection of only a few external components allows
timing intervals of several minutes or frequencies as high a
several hundred kHz.
 It has a high current output; the output can drive TTL.
 It has a temperature stability of 50 parts per million (ppm)
per degree Celsius change in temperature, or equivalently
0.005 %/ °C.
 It has an adjustable duty cycle; the maximum power
dissipation per package is 600 mW and its trigger and reset
inputs are logic compatible.

APPLICATIONS
 Precision Timing
 Pulse Generation
 Time Delay Generation
 Sequential Timing
IC USED IN MOTORDRIVER

 L293D:





FEATURES
 600 mA Output Current Capability Per Driver
 Pulsed Current 1.2 A / Driver
 Wide Supply Voltage Range: 4.5 V to 36 V
 Separate Input-Logic Supply
 NE Package Designed for Heat Sinking
 Thermal Shutdown & Internal ESD Protection
 High-Noise-Immunity Inputs

DESCRIPTION

The L293D is a quadruple push-pull 4 channel driver capable of
delivering 600 mA (1.2 A peak surge) per channel. The
L293D is ideal for controlling the forward/reverse/brake
motions of small DC motors controlled by a microcontroller
such as a PIC or BASIC Stamp.

The L293D is a high voltage, high current four channel
driver designed to accept standard TTL logic levels and
drive inductive loads (such as relays solenoids, DC and
stepping motors) and switching power transistors. The
L293D is suitable for use in switching applications at
frequencies up to 5 KHz.
APPLICATION

 DC and stepper motor drives


 Position and velocity servomechanisms

CONCLUSION
 Presently, blind people use a white stick as a tool for directing them when they move
or walk.
Although, the white stick is useful, it cannot give a high guarantee that it can protect
blind people
away from all level of obstacles. Many researchers have been interested in developing
electronic
devices to protect blind people away from obstacles with a higher guarantee. This system
introduces an obstacles avoidance alternative by using an electronic stick that serves as a
tool for
blind people in walking. It employs an light depndent resistor sensor for detecting
obstacles
along the pathway. With all level of obstacles, the light dependent resistor stick enables
to detect
all type of materials available in the course such as concrete, wood, metal, glass, and
human
being. The result also shows that the stick detects obstacles in range of 80 cm which is the
same as the length of white stick. The stick is designed to be small and light, so that
blind people can carry it comfortably.

USERS TESTING STICK


 THANK YOU