MODIFIKASI PERILAKU

by :
Diana Savitri Hidayati
dhi-ModifikasiPerilaku 2


Charasteristics of behavior
 Behavior is what people do and say
ex: ketika anda mengatakn bahwa sso marah, anda tdk
hanya mengidentifikasi perilakux ttp sbnrx telah mberi label
kpd perilaku tsb. Mis: Luna Maya mjerit kpd ibux, blari ke
lantai atas dan membanting pintu kamarx adl contoh dr
perilaku yg biasax dsebut sbg marah.
 Behavior have one or more dimensions yg bs diukur
mis: frekuensix, durasix,intensitasx (dimensi fisik)
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…cont
 Behaviors can be observed, described, and
recorded
 Behaviors have an impact on the environment
ex: anda mnekan saklar lampu, lampu mjd mnyala
(efek thd physical environment); anda mngacungkn
tangan di kelas, b didi mnoleh kpd anda (efek thd
other people); anda mcatat no hp pacar di buku telp
pd urutan 1,anda jd cepat hafal dan tdk salah
pencet (efek thd yourself)
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…conT
 Behavior is lawful ►tjd krn pengaruh dr faktor2 lingk
sekitar (environmental events)
these basic behavioral principles are the building
blocks of behavior modification procedures¯
 Behavior may be overt and covert
overt means observable to others >< covert behaviors =
private events means not observable to
others(ex:Thinking, feeling,decreasing blood
pressure,relaxing muscles)
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Behaviors >< Traits
Smilling,laughing,talking about
feeling of joy
Crying,sitting alone,moving
slowly,saying that one is
depressed
Greeting people,smilling at
others

…………,…….,……….
=Happy

= Depressed


= Friendly

= Sociable
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Defining Behavior Modification
Behavior Modification is the field of psychology
concerned with analyzing and modifying human
behavior
Analisa C mngidentifikasi hubungan ant faktor2 di lingk
sekitar dg perilaku utk mmahami alasan knp sso
bperilaku spt itu
Mmodifikasi Cmngembangk dan mjalank sb prosedur
utk mnolong sso mrubah perilakux
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Characteristics of
Behavior Modification
´Focus on behavior
ddesain utk mrubah perilaku dan bukan sifat atau kbiasaan
sso (ex: bukan mrubah ADHD ttp mrubah perilaku2 yg dtunjukn
oleh anak dg ADHD).
target behavior C the behavior to be modified yaitu:
Ca behavioral excess (-frekuensi,durasi & intensitas);
Ca behavioral deficit (^frek,dur & intens)
´Based on behavioral principles (applied behavior analysis)
Experimental analysis of behavior / behavior analysis = ilmu yg
mplajari PL ; Experimental analysis of human behavior / applied
behavior analysis = ilmu yg mplajari PL manusia
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…cOnt
´Emphasis on current environmental events
dlm MP ada asesmen dan modifikasi thd faktor2 lingk
skitar yg mpengaruhi tbentukx PL (=controlling
variables)
´Precise description of procedures
for the procedures to be effective each time they are
used, the specific changes in environmental events
must occur each time
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…coNt
´Implemented by people in everyday life
ddesain oleh profesional or praprofesional tlatih yg bs
saja dlaks oleh awam dg supervisi dr
profesional/praprofesional tsb
´Measurement of behavior change
ada asesmen sebelum dan sesudah plaks MP utk
mngetahui ada/tdkx prubahan PL

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…conT
´De-emphasis on past events as causes of behavior
informasi ttg masa lalu tetap penting sbg data tamb thd
faktor2 lingk yg mpengaruhi tbentukx PL saat ini (mis:
pengalaman belajar). Tetapi sbnrx current controlling
variables lb relevan utk mdesain MP yg efektif krn
variabel tsb pasti msh bs dmodifikasi

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…cOnT
´Rejection of hypothetical underlying causes of
behavior
Skinner mnyebut hypothetical explanation of behavior(
teori eyang Freud ttg psikoanalisa) sbg “explanatory
fictions” krn hal itu tdk akan pernah bs dbuktikn or bahk
tdk tbukti dan tentu saja tdk ilmiah.
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Historical Roots of
Behavior Modification
Ivan P. Pavlov (1849-1936)
Mnemukn proses dasar dr respondent conditioning.
Pnelitianx : ludah anjing (refleks) muncul
sesaat stlh ada bunyi bel (stimulus netral) C
conditioned reflex
Edward L. Thorndike (1874-1949)
Mnemukn prinsip law effect (PL yg mmunculk favorable
effect akan cend diulangi). Pnelitianx : kucing dlm kand;
makanan di luar; mbuka kand kucing hrs mgigit mainan
hati=kucing belajar bhw mgigit mainan hati mnyebabk
dia bs makan (favorable effect)
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…conT
John B. Watson (1878-1958)
Artikel “Psychology as the Behaviorist Views Its”
=observable behavior was the proper subject matter of
psychology and that all behavior was controlled by
environmental events. Mnemukn prinsip stimulus response.
Tokoh Behaviorism
B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)
Explained the distinction betweeen respondent conditioning
and operant conditioning. Mnulis buku2 ttg aplikasi the
principles of behavior analysis to human behavior. Pnelitiax
mjd dasar dr Behavior Modification.
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Aplikasi MP dalam
Berbagai Setting
Developmental Disabilities
=People with developmental disabilities often have serious
behavioral deficits. Ex: self-injurious, aggressive,
destructive
Mental Illness
=BM has been used with chronic mental llness patients to
modify daily living skills, social behavior, aggressive
behav, treatment compliance, psychotics behav and
works skilss. Token economy
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…Cont
Education and Special Education
=Student-teacher interactions, improve teaching methods,
problem behav in the classroom, improve instructional
techniques-improve student learning.
=In special education : developing teaching methods, controlling
problem behav in the classroom, improve social behav &
fucntional skills, promoting self-management, training teachers
Rehabilitation
=mnolong indv utk kembali k keadaan normal stlh kjadian
kcelakaan atau trauma
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…conT
=Promote compliance with rehabilitation routines such as
physical therapy, teach new skills that can replace skills lost
through the injury or trauma, decrease problem behav, help
manage chronic pain, improve memory performance
Community Psychology
=to influence the behav of large numbers of people in ways that
benefits everybody.
= Reducing littering, increasing recycling, reducing energy
comsumption, reducing unsafe driving, reducing illegal drud
use, increasing the use of seat belt, decreasing illegal parking in
space for the disabled,and reducing speeding
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…coNt
Clinical Psychology
=to help people with personal problems
=often called behavior therapy
Bussiness, Industry and Human Services
=called organizational behavior modification or organizational
behavior management
= Improve work performance and job safety and to decrease
tardiness, absenteeism and accident on the job; improve
supervisor’s performances → increased productivity and profits for
organization and increased job satisfaction for workers
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…ConT
Self-Management
= Control personal habits, health-related behav, professional
behav and personal problems.
Child Management
= Help children overcome bed-wetting, nail-biting, temper
tantrums, noncompliance, aggressive behav, bad manners,
stutering and other common problems
Prevention
=problems in childhood, child sexual abuse, child abduction,
accidents in the home, child abuse & neglect and sexually
transmitted diseases
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…cONt
Sport Psychology
=improve athletic performance during practise & competition
Health-Reliated Behaviors
=promote health-related behav by increasing healthy lefestyle
behav, promote behav that have a positive influence on physical
or medical problems (decreasing freq & intens of headaches,
lowering blood pressure & reducing gastrointestinal
disturbances), increase compliance with medical regimens
=called behavioral medicine or health psychology
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…ConT
Gerontology
=applied in nursing homes & other care facilities to help manage
the behav of older adults
=help older adults to deal with their declining physical abilities,
help them adjust to nursing home environments, to promote
health-related behav and appropriate social interaction, to
decrease problem behav that may arise from Alzheimer’s
disease, other types of dementia.


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Pertemuan kedua
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22
The ABC Model
Bdasark model behavioral ►
PL sso dsebabk oleh kjadian2 yg tjadi
sbelum dan ssudah PL tsb muncul/tampak.
Antecedents adl kjadian yg tjadi sbelum sb
PL muncul/tampak sdk Consequences adl
kjadian yg tjadi ssudah PL muncul/tampak
(=hasil/efek dr PL)
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Antecedents = Behavior = Consequences
Antecedents dan consequences khusus yg mnyebabk sb
PL muncul/tampak C maintaining conditions , tdiri dr :
· Maintaining antecedents : Cprerequisites;
Cprompts(cues); Csetting events
· Maintaining consequences determine whether the
behavior will occur again. Can be immediate or
delayed.
BM treats problem behaviors by directly changing
their maintaining conditions¯
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Proses MP
Oclarifying the client‟s problem
Clarify the client‟s presenting problem.
Ex: “Saya merasa sangat stress akhir2
ini.” Ccermati apa yg dmaksud klien dg
„sangat‟ dan „stress‟
Oformulating initial goals
goals treatment mrpk tanggung jwb
penuh dr klien smtr tugas terapist
mbantu mberi ptimbangan, trtm bila
goals treatment klien :Ctdk
realistik;Cb‟akibat negatif baik utk klien
or sekitarnya
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Odesigning a target behavior
ciri target behav yg baik: Cnarrow in
scope=ada pnunjukan waktu (kpn)&
tempat (dmn) PL dharapk muncul
Cunambiguously defined=bs diukur oleh
orla/teramati Cmeasureble=dimensi
fisik Cappropriate and adaptive =bs
dlaks oleh klien
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Oidentifying the maintaining conditions of
the target behav = by a variety of
behavioral assesment procedures
Odesigning a treatment plan to change the
maintaining conditions & Oimplementing
the treatment plan =
Treatment plan b‟isi st plakuan khusus
dan individual ttg prosedur plaks MP thd
klien. Sblm plaks MP dmulai terapist hrs
mjelaskn ttg Cthe underlying rationale
Cwhat the therapy entails Capa yg hrs
dlakukn klien Cestimasi waktu plaks
Cstandar rata2 kberhasilan ©manfaat
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Oevaluating the success of treatment plan
& Oconducting follow-up assesment =
Dmulai dg m‟identifikasi apakah target
behav m‟alami prubahan scr signifikan
dr kondisi baseline or not. Jk tdk ada
prub mk harus kbl k tahapan sblmx utk
mlakukn koreksi >< jk ada prub mk
perlu d‟identifikasi apakah prub tsb
bpengaruh thd client‟s presenting
problem dan sudah mmnuhi treatment
goals
dhi-ModifikasiPerilaku 28
Contoh kasus : Phobia pd anak 9 th
Ktk datang utk terapi, Ariel (9 th) telah bolos sekolah slm 3
mg. Stlh libur knaikn kelas, Ariel mnolak utk masuk di kelas
4.
Ltr blk sekolahx: memanjat lemari kelas saat hari 1 di TK,
djuluki sbg “penggangu” oleh guru kelas 1, di kelas 2 tkenal
krn sering bolos sekolah,…
Ltr blk keluarga: bsamaan dg masuk di kelas 4 Ayah Ariel
m’alami stress kerja yg agak bpengaruh thd keluarga selain
itu txta Ariel dberi peringatan oleh kakakx ttg sulitx tugas2
sekolah di kelas 4.
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Stlh dlakukan asesmen dketahui bahwa presenting
problem Ariel adl School Phobia.
Lokasi skolah Ariel kr2 3,5 blok dr rumahx dan biasa
dtempuh dg jalan kaki ±10 mnt. Ariel brkt dr rmh jam
8.30, istirahat pertama jam 10.00-10.30, jam makan
siang 12.00-13.00, sekolah b’akhir pada 15.30
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Target Behavior
1. Bjalan dr rumah k skolah dg terapis pd hari libur/
nonschool day
2. Bjalan dr rumah k halaman skolah dg terapis pd jam
8.30 pd hari skolah
3. Berada d halaman skolah slm 15 mnt dg terapis
4. Mmasuki ruang kelas dan duduk di bangku dg kehadiran
terapis stlh jam skolah
5. Bmain skolah2an dg terapis d ruang kelas stlh jam
skolah
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6. Mmasuki ruang kelas dan bbicara dg guru dg kehadiran
terapis
7. Mhabiskn pagi hari di ruang kelas dg kehadiran terapis
8. Mhabiskan waktu sharian di skolah tanpa pengawasan
terapis (terapis tetap mnemani ttapi tdk tlihat oleh Ariel)
9. Bjalan k skolah tanpa dtemani (terapis)
10.Mhabisk waktu sharian d skolah dg kehadiran terapis
sbentar
11.Mhabisk waktu sharian d skolah tanpa kehadiran
terapis (skolah normal =total target behavior)
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Plaksanaan Treatment Plan
1. Pd hari mg siang, dtemani oleh 2 org terapis, Ariel
bjalan k skolah dr rumahx. Terapis mbantu mringank
kcemasan Ariel dg humor atau mngalihkn phatianx kpd
hal lain
2. 2 hari kmd pd jam 8.30, dtemani oleh seorang terapis,
Ariel bjalan k halaman skolah, masih muncul kcemasan.
Ariel mhabisk 15 mnt bkeliling halaman skolah
3. Selesai jam skolah pd hari yg sama, terapis mampu
mbujuk Ariel utk masuk k ruang kelas dan duduk di
bangkux
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4. 3 hari kmd, pd pagi hari, terapis mnemani Ariel mmasuki
ruang kelasx bsama2 teman2 lain. Mrk bbicara dg guru
Ariel dan mninggalkn kelas stlh kelas dmulai.
5. Minggu berkutx Ariel mampu mhabisk pagi harix d
kelas. Terapis duduk d dlm kelas dan mberi senyuman
ktk Ariel mau b’interaksi dg guru atau temanx
6. 2 hari kmd,Ariel sudah mau mnyapa temanx tlebih
dahulu dan mminta kpd terapis utk duduk di bangku
paling belakang di ruang kelasx

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7. Hr brktx terapis duduk di dalam perpustakaan d dp ruang
kelas Ariel
8. 2 hari kmd, dspakati bahwa terapis akan mninggalkn skolah
pd jam 14.30 saat jam t’akhir kelas Ariel
9. Hari brktx terapis mningalkn skolah pd jam 13.45
10.Hari brktx terapis dan Ariel btemu di gerbang skolah pada
jam 8.30. Ariel mnyetujui utk dtinggal sendiri jam 10.45-
13.45. Stlh itu Ariel dtinggal sendiri sp jam pulang sekolah,
dg imbalan bahwa terapis akan mngunjungi Ariel sore harix
d rumah utk bmain gitar.
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11.Terapis juga mmodifikasi lingk Ariel saat itu. Ibux tdk
boleh lg mngijink Ariel utk kbl k rumah slm jam sekolah,
utk itu guru Ariel harus mberikn tugas agar Ariel tetap
enjoy d sekolah
12.Hari2 brktx terapis (dg spengetahuan Ariel)mninggalk
Ariel sendiri d skolah utk waktu yg lebih lama, sampai
akhirx Ariel bs dtinggal mulai jam 10.00. Ariel mrs
tjamin dg khadiran faktual terapis sp jam 10.00 tsb
13.Stlh itu terapis mninggalk Ariel mulai 8.40 dg imbalan2
ttentu yg akan dberikn pagi hari brktx (token economy).

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14.Sesuai kspakatan antr terapis dan Ariel, Ariel
mnginginkn sarung tangan basebal di akhir sesi terapi.
Terapis juga mmodifikasi lingk rumah agar situasix lb
terapiutik utk Ariel.
15.Stlh 3 minggu, Ariel mdapatkn sarung tangan basebalx
dan setuju utk tdk lg mharapkn imbalan2 ttentu dan
tetap mlaks perilaku yg telah tbentuk

ANY COMMENT????
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Pertemuan ketiga


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Behavioral Assessment
Karakteristik asesmen perilaku
OIndividualized Cused to gather unique and detailed
information about a client’s problem and its maintaining
conditions
OPresent focus Cfocus on relevant information about client’s
current functioning and life conditions( ex: the current
maintaining conditions >< bukan early childhood)
ODirectly samples relevant behaviors Cexamine of a client’s
behaviors to provide information about how the client
typically functions in particular situations
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ONarrow focus Cfocus pd behavior bserta spesifikasix
(dan bukan pd kepribadian ato gaya hidup klien)
OIntegrated with Therapy Ckadang2 (tkesan) menyatu
dg proses Modif Perilakux (mis: saat m’evaluasi prub2
pd target behaviorx)

Macam2 Teknik
Asesmen Perilaku
Behavioral interviews
wTujuanx: Crapport Cunderstanding the client’s problem &
selecting target behavior Cgathering data about
maintaining condition Ceducating client about the
behavioral approach
wPtanyaan standart pd interview PL adl : what, when, where,
how and how often
wex:Ayah dr anak perempuan 9 th bkata “Konsep diri anak
saya sgt jelek dan dia hanya punya sedikit rasa percaya
diri, sehingga selalu merasa gagal pd sgl sst yg
dlakukannx”
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Direct self-report inventories
´adl sb kuisioner yg b’isi pnyataan ato ptanyaan yg
mmerluk jawaban sederhana dr klien (ya/tdk;
benar/salah; sering/jarang/tdk pernah; dll)
´sering dgunakan o/ terapis krn efisien
´validitasx sgt tgant pd kmamp & kmauan klien u/ jujur
dan akurat dlm mjwb
´latihan self-report inventories
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Self-recording (or self-monitoring)
client’s observing and recording their own behav by
record the number of times they perform a target
behav
can be used to assess both covert & overt behav
potential problem yg mgkn muncul adl reactivity =a
change in client’s behav because the clients know
their behav are being observed
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Behavioral cheklists and rating scales
eb’isi daftar potential problem behav yg
d’isi o/ orla yg tahu ttg klien
echeklist u/ mlihat indikasi2 pL yg
dmunculk o/ klien
erating scales u/ mlihat frekuensi dr msg2
PL
ealat asesmen yg efisien
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Systematic naturalistic observation
Odlaks saat target behav tjd scr normal
O Akurat bila target behav tdefinisi dg jelas
dan observerx tlatih
O Reliabilitas bs dperoleh dg mbandingk
hasil obs dr dua/lb observer
Oproblem yg mgkn muncul: reactivity,
observer error & bias, impracticality
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Simulated observation
ªmade under conditions set up to resemble
the client’s natural environment
ªbiasax mgnk one-way mirror
ªkelemahan teknik ini adl ksulitan u/
m’generalisir hasil observasi pd setting
natural
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Role playing
Eclients enact problem situations to provide
the therapist with samples of how typically
behave in those situations
Euseful in assesing social skills (assertive
behav)
Eis an efficient form of simulated obs
E Sulit u/ dgeneralisasikn pd sit natural krn
klien mgkn bPL bbeda
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Physiological measurements
©mngukur respon fisik yg bhub dg target
behav
©mis: heart rate, blood pressure, respiration
rate, muscle tension
© Physiological recordings should be made
in client’s natural environmentss as their
problems occurs
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