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MOTIVATION and its THEORIES
PRESENTED by 1st Group
• Ashish Kushwaha • Deepika Gupta
To, Pradnya Sen (Faculty)
is derived from LATIN word ‘movere’ which means ‘to move’ “A process that starts with physiological or psychological deficiency or need that activates a behavior or a drive that is aimed at a goal or incentive.” –LUTHANS (1998) “The process that account for an individual’s intensity, direction and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal.” -ROBBINS
CONCEPT of Motivation
need must be felt by an individual in such a way that it drives him/her to satisfy it. The force underlying this behavior may be called Motivation. This force may vary depending upon intensity and importance of the need to the individual.
behavior is determined by what motivates them. Their product is a product of both ability level & motivation.
Needs: A physiological or psychological imbalance leads to a creation of a need. Drives/Motives: Propel individual to attain their goals or satisfy their needs. Incentives: That can fulfill a need and decrease the intensity of a drive is called an incentive.
Basic model of motivation
Mullins: 1996 Needs or expectations Result in Drive force (Behavior or Action) To Achieve
Desired Goals Feedback Fulfillments Which Provides
Types of Motivation Theories
theories attempt to explain those specific things which actually motivate the individual at work. These theories are concerned with identifying people needs and their relative strengths, and the goals they pursue in order to satisfy these needs. Content theories place emphasis on what motivates human behavior i.e. the needs and wants that people are trying to satisfy.
theories attempt to identify the relationship among the dynamic variables which make up motivation. They are concerned with how behaviors are initiated, directed and sustained.
theories place emphasis on the
actual process of motivation, looking at how external context drives people motivate others to form relationship.
Content Theory Models
Hierarchy of Needs Theory (Abraham Maslow: 1943) The ERG Theory (Alderfer: 1972) The Acquired Needs Theory/ Achievement Motivation Theory (Mc Clelland: 1961) The Dual Factor Theory (Herzberg: 1968)
Process Theory Models
X and Theory Y (Mc Gregor: 1960) Expectancy Theory (Vroom: 1964 and Porter & Lawler: 1968) Equity Theory (Adams: 1965)
Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs (Motivation & personality: 1954)
proposition is that people are wanting beings, they always want more, and what they want depends on what they already have. Hierarchy ranges through FIVE levels & is displayed in the form of pyramid implying a thinning out of needs as people progress up the hierarchy. Ascending order implies that it is the next unachieved level that acts as the motivator.
Hierarchy of Needs (Maslow)
*Lover order ( External ) : Physiological and safety needs *Higher order ( Internal ) : Social, Esteem, and Selfactualization
Self-Actualization Needs Self Esteem Needs Social Needs Safety Needs Physiological needs
Hierarchy of Needs
Physiological needs: It describes ones requirement for survival. Like; hunger, thirst, shelter, etc. Safety needs: It describes keeping oneself free from harm. Like; security & protection from physical & emotional harm, job tenure, savings accounts, insurance policies. Social needs: It describes the desire for love, friendship & affection. Self-esteem needs: It describes the need for self-respect, status, recognition. Self-actualization: It describes the desire to live up to one’s full potential. Like; growth, self-fulfillment.
Alderfer’s ERG Theory
a modified need hierarchy model and it condenses Maslows five levels of need into only three levels based on the core of: “Existence” “Relatedness” “Growth”
Alderfer’s ERG Theory
SA Esteem Love (Social) Safety & Security Physiological
Growth Relatedness Existence
Alderfer’s ERG Theory
Needs are concerned with
sustaining human existence and survival and cover physiological and safety needs of a material nature.
Needs are concerned with
relationships to the social environment and cover love or belonging, affiliation and meaningful interpersonal relations of a safety or esteem needs.
development of potential and cover selfesteem and self-actualization. The theory propounds that….
a) The lower order needs must be satisfied to move on to higher order needs (Satisfaction progressions in process). b) The frustration of higher order needs the person can go back to lower order needs (Frustration regression process). c) All three needs can operate simultaneously.
Needs are concerned with the
Herzberg’s Dual Factor Theory
original study consisted of interviews with 203 accountants and engineers. The object of the research being to design jobs that provided job satisfaction, thereby encouraging higher levels of performance. This process developed into job enrichment.
Motivation–Hygiene Theory of Motivation
• Company policy & administration • Supervision • Interpersonal relations • Working conditions • Salary • Status • Security
Motivation factors increase job satisfaction
• • • • • • •
Hygiene factors avoid job dissatisfaction
Achievement Achievement recognition Work itself Responsibility Advancement Growth Salary
Hygiene or Maintenance or Extrinsic Factors
are the factors which if absent, cause dissatisfaction. They are related to the job context and concerned with the job environment. They serve to prevent dissatisfaction. They act as a ‘platform’ upon with the satisfaction factors can be built.
Motivators or Growth or Intrinsic Factors (Herzberg)
factors, if present serve to motivate the individual to superior effort and performance. These factors are related to the job content of the work itself. The strength of these factors will affect feelings of satisfaction or no satisfaction, but no dissatisfaction.
Mc Clelland’s Achievement Motivation Theory
Clelland identified different motivational categories of people and if you could identify which category a person fell into it would help establish patterns of motivation would lead to effective performance and success at work.
McClelland’s Need Theory: Need for Achievement
Need for Achievement
The desire to excel and succeed
McClelland’s Need Theory: Need for Power Need for Power
The need to influence the behavior of others.
McClelland’s Need Theory: Need for Affiliation Need for Affiliation
The desire for interpersonal relationship
Motivational Need Theories
Maslow Higher Order Needs
Self-actualization Esteem self interpersonal Belongingness (social & love) Relatedness
Need for Achievement Need for Power Need for Affiliation
Lower Safety & Security interpersonal Order physical Needs
The manager of A.B.C.Ltd. realized that the level of moral and motivation of their employees was very low and there was dissatisfaction among the employees. Labor productivity was also found to be very low. After investigating the causes of dissatisfaction, the managers decided that if employees were to be motivated, there was a need to establish and maintain good interpersonal relation, over and above good salary, job security, proper working conditions and supervision.
So they put in sincere efforts to improve all these factors during one year. Yet, surprisingly, they came to know that in spite of reduction in the degree of dissatisfaction, the level of morale and motivation was low and there was no significant increase in their productivity. Therefore, the managers are worried. •What managerial problem is involved in the above case? •Suggest solution and make argument to justify your answer.
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