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1st Group
• Ashish Kushwaha
• Deepika Gupta

Pradnya Sen

 Motivation is derived from LATIN word

‘movere’ which means ‘to move’
 “A process that starts with physiological
or psychological deficiency or need that
activates a behavior or a drive that is
aimed at a goal or incentive.” –LUTHANS
 “The process that account for an
individual’s intensity, direction and
persistence of effort toward attaining a
goal.” -ROBBINS
CONCEPT of Motivation

A need must be felt by an individual in

such a way that it drives him/her to
satisfy it.
 The force underlying this behavior may
be called Motivation.
 This force may vary depending upon
intensity and importance of the need to
the individual.

 Peoples behavior is determined by

what motivates them. Their product is a
product of both ability level &
 Needs: A physiological or psychological imbalance
leads to a creation of a need.
 Drives/Motives: Propel individual to attain their goals
or satisfy their needs.
 Incentives: That can fulfill a need and decrease the
intensity of a drive is called an incentive.
Basic model of motivation
Mullins: 1996

Needs or Result in Drive force To Achieve

expectations (Behavior or

Desired Goals

Fulfillments Which Provides

Types of Motivation Theories

 Content Theories

 Process Theories
Content Theories

 These theories attempt to explain those

specific things which actually motivate the
individual at work.
 These theories are concerned with
identifying people needs and their relative
strengths, and the goals they pursue in order
to satisfy these needs.
 Content theories place emphasis on what
motivates human behavior i.e. the needs and
wants that people are trying to satisfy.
Process Theories

 These theories attempt to identify the

relationship among the dynamic variables
which make up motivation.
 They are concerned with how behaviors are
initiated, directed and sustained.
 Process theories place emphasis on the
actual process of motivation, looking at how
external context drives people motivate
others to form relationship.
Content Theory Models

 The Hierarchy of Needs Theory

(Abraham Maslow: 1943)
 The ERG Theory
(Alderfer: 1972)
 The Acquired Needs Theory/
Achievement Motivation Theory
(Mc Clelland: 1961)
 The Dual Factor Theory
(Herzberg: 1968)
Process Theory Models

 Theory X and Theory Y

(Mc Gregor: 1960)
 Expectancy Theory
(Vroom: 1964 and Porter & Lawler:
 Equity Theory
(Adams: 1965)
Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
(Motivation & personality: 1954)

 Basic proposition is that people are wanting

beings, they always want more, and what
they want depends on what they already
 Hierarchy ranges through FIVE levels & is
displayed in the form of pyramid implying a
thinning out of needs as people progress up
the hierarchy.
 Ascending order implies that it is the next
unachieved level that acts as the motivator.
Hierarchy of Needs
*Lover order ( External ) : Physiological and safety needs
*Higher order ( Internal ) : Social, Esteem, and Self-

Self-Actualization Needs

Self Esteem Needs

Social Needs
Safety Needs
Physiological needs
Hierarchy of Needs
 Physiological needs:
It describes ones requirement for survival.
Like; hunger, thirst, shelter, etc.
 Safety needs:
It describes keeping oneself free from harm.
Like; security & protection from physical & emotional
harm, job tenure, savings accounts, insurance policies.
 Social needs:
It describes the desire for love, friendship & affection.
 Self-esteem needs:
It describes the need for self-respect, status, recognition.
 Self-actualization:
It describes the desire to live up to one’s full potential.
Like; growth, self-fulfillment.
Alderfer’s ERG Theory

 Thisa modified need hierarchy model

and it condenses Maslows five levels of
need into only three levels based on
the core of:
Alderfer’s ERG Theory


Love (Social) Relatedness

Safety & Security
Alderfer’s ERG Theory

 Existence Needs are concerned with

sustaining human existence and survival and
cover physiological and safety needs of a
material nature.
 Relatedness Needs are concerned with
relationships to the social environment and
cover love or belonging, affiliation and
meaningful interpersonal relations of a safety
or esteem needs.

Growth Needs are concerned with the

development of potential and cover self-
esteem and self-actualization.
 The theory propounds that….
a) The lower order needs must be satisfied to move
on to higher order needs (Satisfaction progressions in
b) The frustration of higher order needs the person
can go back to lower order needs (Frustration
regression process). c) All three
needs can operate simultaneously.
Herzberg’s Dual Factor Theory

 Herzberg’s original study consisted of

interviews with 203 accountants and
 The object of the research being to
design jobs that provided job
satisfaction, thereby encouraging
higher levels of performance.
 This process developed into job
Motivation–Hygiene Theory of
Motivation factors
• Company policy &
increase job satisfaction
• Supervision
• Interpersonal relations
• Working conditions • Achievement
• Salary • Achievement recognition
• Status • Work itself
• Security • Responsibility
• Advancement
• Growth
Hygiene factors avoid • Salary
job dissatisfaction
Hygiene or Maintenance or Extrinsic
Factors (Herzberg)
 These are the factors which if absent,
cause dissatisfaction.
 They are related to the job context and
concerned with the job environment.
 They serve to prevent dissatisfaction.
 They act as a ‘platform’ upon with the
satisfaction factors can be built.
Motivators or Growth or Intrinsic
Factors (Herzberg)
 These factors, if present serve to
motivate the individual to superior
effort and performance.
 These factors are related to the job
content of the work itself.
 The strength of these factors will affect
feelings of satisfaction or no
satisfaction, but no dissatisfaction.
Mc Clelland’s Achievement
Motivation Theory
 Mc Clelland identified different
motivational categories of people and if
you could identify which category a
person fell into it would help establish
patterns of motivation would lead to
effective performance and success at
McClelland’s Need Theory:
Need for Achievement

Need for

The desire to excel and

McClelland’s Need Theory:
Need for Power

Need for Power

The need to influence the

behavior of others.
McClelland’s Need Theory:
Need for Affiliation

Need for Affiliation

The desire for interpersonal

Motivational Need Theories

Maslow Alderfer McClelland

Self-actualization Growth Need for
Higher Achievement
Order self Need for
Needs interpersonal Power
Belongingness Relatedness Need for
(social & love)

Lower Safety & Security

Order interpersonal
Needs Existence
Case Study
The manager of A.B.C.Ltd. realized that the
level of moral and motivation of their
employees was very low and there was
dissatisfaction among the employees. Labor
productivity was also found to be very low.
After investigating the causes of dissatisfaction,
the managers decided that if employees were to
be motivated, there was a need to establish and
maintain good interpersonal relation, over and
above good salary, job security, proper working
conditions and supervision.
So they put in sincere efforts to improve all
these factors during one year. Yet,
surprisingly, they came to know that in spite
of reduction in the degree of dissatisfaction,
the level of morale and motivation was low
and there was no significant increase in their
productivity. Therefore, the managers are

•What managerial problem is involved in the

above case?
•Suggest solution and make argument to justify
your answer.
“THANK U……!!!”

For sharing your

precious time…!!