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Load bearing mechanism of shear connectors

While resisting the shear load,

1. Connectors deform & transfer load to
concrete thro bearing.
2. Load causes tensile cracks in concrete
(ripping, shear & splitting action)
3. Frictional force between dowel & concrete is
to be considered.
Dowel strength depends upon
CSA of dowel
Tensile strength of steel
Modular ratio

Design resistance based on steel & concrete:
Prd=0.8 fu(3.14d2/4)/1.25
Fu=ultimate tensile strength of steel
1.25=partial safety factor for stud connector

The design procedure of composite beam
depends on
Class of the compression flange & web
Classification is based on buckling tendency
of steel flange & web
4 classes-plastic, compact, semi compact,
For class 1 & 2-plastic analysis is
Ss composite beams-plastic neutral axis is
within the slab or steel flange for full
Assumptions made for the analysis of the
1. The tensile strength of concrete is ignored.
2. Plane sections of both steel & concrete
remain plane after bending.

3. The effective area of concrete resists a
constant stress=0.85fck/partial safety factor
for concrete.
4. The effective area of steel is stressed to its
design yield strength fy/safety factor.
Note: Composite beams are generally designed
as SS beam with shear connections with
columns. As plastic moment capacity
depends on the geometry of the section, no
account of prop or unprop is considered.
Rolled steel sections are used.
Built up girders are unnecessary.
Profiled steel sheeting
1. Trapezoidal profile
2. Re entrant profile

Shape of profile provides interlocking between
concrete & steel.
Push test
1. Standard push test-steel section & rft
2. Specific push test-slab & rft
Preparation of specimen
1. 2 concrete slab is cast in horizontal position.
2. Bond at interface between flanges of beam
and slab is greased.
3. Air cured
4 cubes & cylinders are also cast in
accordance to push specimen.Compressive
strength is determined.
The tensile strength of steel specimen is
Sheeting-tensile & yield strength of steel
sheet is also determined
Load is applied in increments upto 40%.Then
cycled 25 times between 5% and 40%

Failure should not happen in 15 minutes.

The slip is then measured for every increment
of load.
Applicability in bridges, ms buildings, car
parks with reduced construction time.

Saving in high strength steel can be upto 40%
in composite construction.

Method is cost effective for larger spans and
taller buildings.