You are on page 1of 13

Teknologi Dan Rekayasa

Kompetensi Keahlian
Analisis Kimia
Analysis of Chemical
Parameters
By : Tedi Hadiana
SMK Negeri 13 Bandung
Hardness
SMK Negeri 13 Bandung
Teknologi dan Rekayasa
Objectives
After this session, the students are
expected to be able :

1. to explain the steps of determination of
hardness
2. to explain the objectives of every step
3. to explain the function of reagents
4. to conduct the determination of hardness
5. to do the calculation in the determination of
hardness
6. to arrange the report of the determination
of hardness

Factors that contribute to Hardness in water
Hardness in water cause by dissolved metal ions
such as Ca
2+
, Mg
2+
, Fe
2+
, Mn
2+
, etc Major
content of Ca
2+
and Mg
2+
dissolved  Review of
Hardness contribution to Ca
2+
and Mg
2+
If hardness in high level  high content Ca
2+
and
Mg
2+
in water
Usually in area close to mountain with limestone
 content of hardness is high

Effect of High level hardness
in water
For industrial :
If hardness and CO
3
2-
/HCO
3
-
are in high level in
water  slag formation

Ca
2+
+ CO
3
2-
 CaCO
3
(s)
Ca(HCO
3
)
2
(heat) CaCO
3
(s) + H
2
O +CO
2
For sanitation :
Appearance of muddy water
If use for washing  wastefully of soap
Types of hardness in water

Total Hardness

Temporary Hardness

Permanent Hardness

Calsium Hardness

Magnesium Hardness
Determination of Hardness
 Review cause of hardness are Ca
2+
and Mg
2+

 Determination of hardness by titrimetric method  Complexometric
 Standard solution  EDTA (Ethylen Diamin Tetra Acetic
Acid)/Complexon II/TItriplex II
 Complexon III/Titriplex III/Na-EDTA
 Unit of hardness :
1.
o
D (Germany Degree)
1
o
D = 10 mg CaO/L
2.
o
F (French Degree)
1
o
F = 10 mg CaCO
3
/L
3.
o
E (England Degree)
1
o
E = 1 g/gallon = 14,3 mg CaCO
3
/L
4. America Degree ( mg CaCO
3
/L)
Determination of total hardness
Reactions :
Ca
2+
+ HIn
2-
 CaIn
-
+ H
+
Mg
2+
+ HIn
2-
 MgIn
-
+ H
+
Ca
2+
+ H
2
Y
2-
 CaY
2-
+ 2H
+
Mg
2+
+ H
2
Y
2-
 MgY
2-
+ 2H
+
MgIn
-
(reddish-purple)
+ H
2
Y
2-
 MgY
2-
+ HIn
2-

(blue)
+ H+
Principle :
Sample of water containing Ca
2+
and Mg
2+
titrated by standard
solution EDTA at pH 10 to EBT as indicator until end point the
colour change from reddish-purple to light blue. At equivalence
point : mol Ca
2+
+ Mg
2+
= mol EDTA
Determination of permanent hardness
Reactions :
Ca(HCO
3
)
2

(heat)
 CaCO
3
(s) + H
2
O +CO
2
Mg(HCO
3
)
2

(heat)
 Mg(OH)
2
(s) + CO
2
Ca
2+
+ HIn
2-
 CaIn
-
+ H
+
//

Mg
2+
+ HIn
2-
 MgIn
-
+ H
+
Ca
2+
+ H
2
Y
2-
 CaY
2-
+ 2H
+
Mg
2+
+ H
2
Y
2-
 MgY
2-
+ 2H
+
MgIn
-
(reddish-purple)
+ H
2
Y
2-
 MgY
2-
+ HIn
2-

(blue)
+ H+
Principle :
Temporary hardness in sample lose upon boiling for 15 minutes ,
Ca
2+
and Mg
2+
in centrate titrated by standard solution EDTA at pH 10
to EBT as indicator. At end point the colour change from reddish-
purple to light blue
At equivalence point : mol Ca
2+
+ Mg
2+
= mol EDTA
Determined indirect as following :
Temporary hardness =
total hardness – permanent hardness
Determination of temporary hardness
Determination of Calcium Harness
Reaction :
Mg
2+
+ OH
-
 Mg(OH)
2
(s)

Ca
2+
+ H
2
In
3-
 CaIn
3-
+ 2H
+
Ca
2+
+ H
2
Y
2-
 CaY
2-
+ 2H
+
CaIn
3-
(red)
+ H
2
Y
2-
 CaY
2-
+ H
2
In
3-

(bluish-purple)

Principle :
Content of Ca
2+
in sample of water titrated by standard EDTA
solution at pH > 11 to Murexide as indicator. At end point the
colour change from red to bluish-purple
At equivalence point : mol Ca
2+
= mol EDTA
Determination of Magnesium Hardness
Determined indirect as following :
Hardness of Mg
2+
=
Total hardness – hardness of Ca
2+