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Content

RAW MATERIALS AND SOURCES


EQUIPMENT AND HYGIENE
PROCESS AND PACKAGING
STORAGE AND DISTRIBUTION
IMPORTANT THINGS TO KNOW
CONCLUSION
MALAYSIAN FOOD REGULATION 1985

345 Mayonnaise

(I) Mayonnaise shall be a mixture of edible vegetable oil,
liquid egg or liquid egg yolk with vinegar or citrus fruit juice or
both, with or without other food. It shall contain not less than
65 per cent of edible vegetable oil.

(2) Mayonnaise may contain permitted preservative,
permitted flavouring substance and calcium disodium
ethylenediamine tetra-acetate not exceeding 75 fig/kg and
other permitted food conditioner.


RAW MATERIALS AND SOURCES
EQUIPMENT AND HYGIENE
PROCESS AND PACKAGING
STORAGE AND DISTRIBUTION
IMPORTANT THINGS TO KNOW
CONCLUSION
Raw Material and Sources
INGREDIENT
80% oil formula Low fate formula
PERCENTAGE (%) PERCENTAGE (%)
VEGETABLE OIL 80.0 % 50.0 %
EGG YOLK 6.0 % 4.0 %
OTHER THICKENERS - 4.0 %
VINEGAR 4.0 % 3.0 %
SUGAR 1.0 % 1.5 %
SALT 1.0% 0.7 %
SPICES 0.5 % 1.5 %
WATER 7.5 % 35.3 %
OIL & ISSUE ON HALAL

Oil used usually are from vegetables oils.

Soybean oil is the most common type of oil used in the
production of mayonnaise.

Soya bean oil shall be edible oil obtained
from the seeds of Glycine max.


ACIDS & ISSUE ON HALAL

Vinegar is distilled from distilled alcohol.
Lemon or lime juice is diluted with water.
Quantity used must not exceed the
maximum proportion .
Acids used must be from halal source
and not harmful to human.
Vinegar used cannot be made from wine.
Wine vinegar is haram.


334 Vinegar

(1) Vinegar shall be a liquid product prepared from the alcoholic
fermentation and subsequent acetous fermentation of any suitable food.

(2) Vinegar-
(a) shall contain not less than 4 per cent w/v of acetic acid; and
(b) shall not contain any mineral acid.

(3) Vinegar may contain permitted preservative, caramel as a colouring
substance and spices as permitted flavouring substance.



http://www.bharian.com.my/bharian/articles/Cukawaintetapharam/Article/
EGGS & ISSUE ON HALAL
The eggs are subjected to pasteurization by heating them
without actually cooking them.
Low-fat versions are made with egg whites.
Eggs must be washed first before it is used.
To avoid contaminations.
Lecithin in the egg yolk is the emulsifier.


SEASONINGS & ISSUE ON
HALAL
Spices and other natural seasonings may added.
These would give the mayonnaise a yellow hue and thus
appear to contain added egg yolks.
Example of seasoning used are mustard and pepper.
286 Spice

Spice shall be the sound leaves, flowers, buds, fruits, seeds, barks or rhizomes of
plants, that are suitable for use as condiments for imparting any flavour or aroma to
food and from which the oil or other flavouring constituent naturally present has not
been removed and includes the food for which a standard is prescribed in regulations
287 to 333. Spice may be dried or ground or both.

320 Mustard powder

Mustard powder shall be the powder obtained by grinding the dried seeds of
various species of Brassica.


ISSUES ON SAFETY OF RAW MATERIALS OF
PLANT ORIGIN
Microbial contaminations.
Vegetables grow in soil
Using organic fertilizers
Excess pesticides usage
Improper cleaning
Plants
Fruits and vegetables are basically halal and good for human
consumption.
Utilising or eating plants is permissible.

Since most ingredient used in mayonnaise
are from plant, it is important for us to
know this.
THICKENERS & ISSUE ON
HALAL
To replace the fat from the missing egg yolk
Modified food starches (E1420) are added
To retains the creamy texture and thickness of real
mayonnaise.
These food starches can be made from corn,
gums, or agar (a seaweed extraction).

STARCH
Suitable for all religions, vegetarians and vegans. Starch is not allergenic,
but in starch derived from wheat, traces of wheat proteins, including
gluten, can be present.
Wheat-starch and derived products thus are not suitable for people
with gluten intolerance or wheat allergy.
Proteins present in starch from other sources may also cause allergenic
reactions in susceptible people (for example corn or cassava allergy).
Gums and thickeners such as starches are
used in low fat formula.

To replace the viscosity and bulking effect of the oil.
To enhance mouthfeel.
To ensure that a stable emulsion is formed.
SALTS
Salt is added to enhance flavour.
The amount equals approximately 1/16 teaspoon of salt per tablespoon
serving of mayonnaise.
283 Salt
(1) Salt, other than crude rock salt, shall be crystalline sodium chloride.
(3) Salt may contain not more than 10 mg/kg of potassium ferrocyanide,
sodium ferrocyanide or ferric ammonium citrate or any combination of
these as permitted food conditioner.
PRESERVATIVES & ISSUE ON HALAL
Eg: calcium disodium EDTA (E 385) are added .
Halal
To increase shelf-life.




RAW MATERIALS AND SOURCES
EQUIPMENT AND HYGIENE
PROCESS AND PACKAGING
STORAGE AND DISTRIBUTION
IMPORTANT THINGS TO KNOW
CONCLUSION
Equipment and Hygiene
Equipment
FOR THE MAYONNAISE TO BE HALAL, THE EQUIPMENT USED NEED TO FULLFIL
THE FOLLOWING CRITERIA:

The mayonnaise is not prepared, process and manufacture using equipment
contaminated with najs according to shariah law.

Do not used equipment that are derived from mughallazah najs such as pig
and dog.

Overlapping used of equipment in manufacture of halal mayonnaise with
other non halal food is not acceptable. (require ritual cleansing termed
samak to be able to used in the production of halal mayonnaise)

Equipment used must be clean and safe follow the Toyyiban Principle to
avoid contamination.

Cont..
The lubricant used for the mayonnaise manufacture machines must be in
the food grade and halal lubricant only.

The position installation of equipment must be accessible for easy
cleaning. ( To avoid bacteria contamination)

Equipment used must be clean and safe follow the Toyyiban Principle to
avoid contamination.

The lubricant used for the mayonnaise manufacture machines must be in
the food grade and halal lubricant only.

The position installation of equipment must be accessible for easy
cleaning. ( To avoid bacteria contamination)

Common issue related to the
equipment used in
manufacturing mayonnaise is
the lubricant & the
material/type of the
equipment.
The lubricant used must be
from halal sources, clean
& safe to use(Toyyiban
principle).
Example, lubricant from
animal fat sources must be
from the permissible kind
of animal(chicken , cow)
The equipment used
must be made out of
safe & non
toxic/poisonous type of
materials.
RAW MATERIALS AND SOURCES
EQUIPMENT AND HYGIENE
PROCESS AND PACKAGING
STORAGE AND DISTRIBUTION
IMPORTANT THINGS TO KNOW
CONCLUSION
Process and Packaging
Process
First, the egg
is supplied
into the
mixing tank
Subsequently, water
with sugar is added
Immediately, the agitator of
the mixing tank is switched
on and the oil is slowly
added into the tank where
the pre-emulsion is to be
prepared
Then, vinegar which
previously were
dissolved with salt and
lemon juice is added.
The mixture is then
mixed.
Once the pre-emulsion is
completed, the pump and the
mixer is switched on to
recirculate the product till the
mayonnaise is obtained
When the mayonnaise is
prepared, it is transferred
into the buffer tank and it
is ready for packaging
Machines for bulk processing of mayonnaise
Packaging
The packaging used must be from halal materials (example plastic,
glass& etc)
The packaging should not contain the prohibited materials for
example pig skin
The company must always make sure their packaging materials
arrives in a halal container/material cover.
Each mayonnaise should be labeled with the halal logo,expired date
& the nutrient content.


Plastic Container
In the past, it was not feasible to use plastic because of the
danger of its components and other chemicals altering the
taste of the product.
PET is a plastic resin and polyester successfully used since
1999 as an alternative to packaging mayonnaise. It is
inexpensive, lightweight, shatter-resistant and recyclable.


Type of Container for Packaging
Cont..
Glass Container
Glass is inert, so there is no possibility of contamination of the
mayonnaise from its components.
It also forms a perfect barrier to keep out oxygen, which
prevents the product from becoming rancid or changing color.
The main drawback is that it will shatter upon impact.

RAW MATERIALS AND SOURCES
EQUIPMENT AND HYGIENE
PROCESS AND PACKAGING
STORAGE AND DISTRIBUTION
IMPORTANT THINGS TO KNOW
CONCLUSION
Storage and Distribution
Storing
The mayonnaise should be stored at a suitable temperature
Each mayonnaise which have been packed must be labeled &
stored according base on expire date & etc
Must also be stored at a safe & clean environment, to prevent the
mayonnaise from being spoiled & to prevent growth of harmful
bacteria.

Must make sure the transportation used to transport the
mayonnaise is clean & safe as stated by the Toyyiban principle.
The person in charge of transporting the mayonnaise to
retailers must have knowledge on mayonnaise handling.
The transportation used must not transport multiple food
product at the same time as some of the food product might
not be halal.

Distribution
Important things to know
Commercial mayonnaise in opened jars can remain stable in a
refrigerator for about six months.
Commercial mayonnaise can remain at room temperature for
some time without danger of bacterial growth, but it may lose
flavour.
Freezer or extremely cold temperatures will cause separation and
an unpleasant change in texture.
Anyone allergic to eggs should avoid mayonnaise. The vinegar
may trigger an allergic reaction in people sensitive to molds.
Most commercial types of mayonnaise and salad dressing have
fillers made of gluten, which should be avoided by anyone with
Celiac Disease.
True mayonnaise contains approximately 70% - 80% fat, which
may be a drawback for some dieters.

Nutrient Content of Mayonnaise Salad
Dressing: per 100g
Carbohydrate: 23.9g
Calcium: 14 mg
Magnesium: 2mg
Phosphorus: 30mg
Potassium: 24mg
Sodium: 691mg
Zinc: 0.18mg

Copper : 0.001mg
Iron: 0.2mg
Fat (lipids): 19g
Calorie: 263 kcals
Protein : 0.9 g
Sugar: 4.34g
Water: 54.3 g

Health Benefits
A good source of vitamin E (amount of vitamin E depends on the
type of oil used).
Contains small amounts of vitamins A and some minerals.
Mayonnaise contains eggs which is rich in protein and some minerals.
A tablespoon of mayonnaise provides about 100 calories, about the
same amount found in a tablespoon of butter or margarine.

CONCLUSION
All raw materials that used for manufacturing
mayonnaise should be halal.
The ingredients & food additives that used for
manufacturing mayonnaise should be from halal origin.
The mayonnaise processing and packaging aids that
used should be clean and safe.
PART VI
PACKAGES FOR FOOD

27. Use of harmful packages prohibited

Except as otherwise provided in these Regulations, no person shall import, manufacture,
advertise for sale or sell, or use or cause or permit to be used in the preparation, packaging,
storage, delivery or exposure of food for sale, any package, appliance, container or vessel
which yields or could yield to its contents, any toxic, injurious or tainting substance, or which
contributes to the deterioration of the food.


28. Safety of packages for food

No person shall import, manufacture, advertise for sale or sell any package, appliance,
container or vessel made of enamel or glazed earthenware that is intended for use in the
preparation, packaging, storage, delivery or exposure of food for sale and is either capable of
imparting lead, antimony, arsenic, cadmium or any other toxic substance to any food
prepared, packed, stored, delivered or exposed in it, or is not resistant to acid unless the
package, appliance, container or vessel satisfies the test described in the Thirteenth
Schedule.