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Basics of Programmable Logic Controller

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Logic Controllers

Third Edition

Frank D. Petruzella

McGraw-Hill

Chapter 4

Fundamentals

of Logic

The Binary Concept

Many things can be thought of as existing in one of

two states.

These two states can be defined as “high” or “low”,

“on” or “off”, “yes” or “no”, and “1” or “0”.

5V

high, on, yes, 1

low, off, no, 0

Binary

Signal

The Binary Concept

This two-state binary concept, applied to gates, can be

the basis for making decisions.

The gate is a device that has

one or more inputs with which

it will perform a logical decision

and produce a result at its

one output.

Gate Decision Making

AND

Gate

Light Switch

High Beam Switch

High Beam

Light

The automotive high beam light

can only be turned on when the

light switch AND high beam switch

are on.

The Logical AND

Gate Decision Making

OR

Gate

Passenger Door Switch

Driver Door Switch

Dome

Light

The automotive dome light will

be turned on when the passenger

door switch OR the driver door

switch is activated.

The Logical OR

AND Function

The outcome or output is called Y and the input signals

are called A, B, C, etc.

Binary 1 represents the presence of a signal or the

occurrence of some event, while binary 0 represents

the absence of the signal or nonoccurrence of the event.

AND Gate Function Application – Example 1

If all inputs are 1,

the output will be 1

If any input is 0,

the output will be 0

Basic Rules

The device has two

or more inputs and

one output

AND Gate Function Application – Example 2

The AND gate operates

like a series circuit.

The light will be “on”

only when both

switch A and switch B

are closed.

OR Function

An OR gate can have any number of inputs but only

one output.

The OR gate output is 1 if one or more inputs are 1.

OR Gate Function Application – Example 1

If one or more

inputs are 1, the

output will be 1

Basic Rules

If all inputs are 0,

the output will be 0

OR Gate Function Application – Example 2

The OR gate operates

like a parallel circuit.

The light will be “on”

if switch A or switch B

is closed.

NOT Function

The NOT function has only one input and one output.

The NOT output is 1 if the input is 0.

The NOT output is 0 if the input is 1.

Since the output is always the reverse of the input

it is called an inverter.

NOT Gate Application – Example 1

The light will be “on”

if the pushbutton is

not pressed.

Acts like a normally

closed pushbutton

in series with the

output.

The light will be “off”

if the pushbutton is n

pressed.

NOT Gate Application – Example 2

If the power is “on”

(1) and the pressure

switch is not closed

(0), the warning

indicator will be “on”

Low-pressure

indicating circuit

When the pressure

rises to close the

pressure switch, the

warning indicator

will be switched "off"

NAND Function

The NAND gate functions like an AND gate with an

inverter connected to its output.

The only time the NAND gate output is 0 is when

all inputs are binary 1.

NOR Function

The NOR gate functions like an OR gate with an

inverter connected to its output.

The only time the NAND gate output is 1 is when

all inputs are binary 0.

XOR (exclusive-OR) Function

The output of this gate is HIGH only when one input or

the other is HIGH, but not both.

The XOR function has

two inputs and one output.

It is commonly used for comparison of two binary

numbers.

1. The two binary states can be defined as:

(a) “high” or “low”

(b) “on” or “off”

(c) 1” or “0”

(d) all of these

2. A gate can have one or more outputs but

only one input. (True/False)

3. The ______ table shows the resulting output

for each possible gate input conditions.

a. input status c. data

b. output status d. truth

4. A light that is "off" or a switch that is "open"

would normally be represented by a binary 1.

(True/False)

5. The OR function, implemented using contacts,

requires contacts connected in series. (True/False)

6. With an AND gate, if any input is 0, the

output will be 0. (True/False)

7. The symbol shown is that of

a(an)

_________ .

(a) AND gate

(b) OR gate

(c) NAND gate

(d) inverter

9. The basic rule for an XOR function is that if

one or the other, but not both, inputs are 1 the

output is 1. (True/False)

10. A NAND gate is an AND gate with an inverter

connected to the output. (True/False)

8. Which of the following gates is commonly used

for the comparison of two binary numbers?

(a) NAND

(b) NOR

(c) XOR

(d) NOT

Gate Boolean Equations

A

B

Y AND

Y = A B

Gate

Boolean Equation

OR

A

B

Y

Y = A + B

NOT A Y

Y = A

Boolean Equation – Example 1

Each logic function can be

expressed in terms of a

Boolean expression

Boolean Equation – Example 2

Any combination of control can be expressed in

terms of a Boolean equation

AB

Y = AB + C

A + B

Y = (A + B) C

Boolean Equation – Example 2

AB

Y = AB + C

A + B

Y = (A + B) C

Circuit Development Using A Boolean Expression

– Example 1

1. AND gate with Input A and B

2. OR gate with Input C an output from

previous AND gate.

Circuit Development Using A Boolean Expression

– Example 2

AND gate with Input B and C

Producing A Boolean Expression From A Given

Circuit – Example 1

Producing A Boolean Expression From A Given

Circuit – Example 2

Logic equation: Y = AB + AB

Hard Wired versus Programmed Logic

The term hardwired logic refers to logic control

functions that are determined by the way devices

are interconnected.

Hardwired logic can be

implemented using relays

and relay ladder schematics.

Hardwired logic is fixed:

it is changeable only by altering

the way devices are connected.

Hardwired Stop/Start Motor Control Circuit

Control scheme is drawn

between two vertical

supply lines.

Ladder rung

Ladder rail

Programmed Stop/Start Motor Control Circuit

The instructions used are the relay equivalent of

normally open (NO) and normally closed (NC)

contacts and coils

A rung is the contact symbolism required to control

an output. Each rung is a combination of input

conditions connected from left to right with the

symbol that represents the output at the far right.

The input and output field devices remain the same

as those required for the hardwired circuit.

Hard Wired versus Programmed Logic

Example 4-1

Hard Wired versus Programmed Logic

Example 4-2

Hard Wired versus Programmed Logic

Example 4-3

Hard Wired versus Programmed Logic

Example 4-4

Hard Wired versus Programmed Logic

Example 4-5

Hard Wired versus Programmed Logic

Example 4-6

Hard Wired versus Programmed Logic

Example 4-7

Hard Wired versus Programmed Logic

Example 4-8

Hard Wired versus Programmed Logic

Example 4-9

Selecting Word-Level Logic Instructions

If you want to know when matching bits in two different

words are both ON use the AND instruction.

If you want to know when one or both matching bits in

two different words are ON use the OR instruction.

If you want to know when one or the other bit of

matching bits in two different words is ON use the

XOR instruction.

If you want to reverse the status of bits in a word use

the NOT instruction.

Programmed AND Instruction

There is a 1 at

B3:10 only

when Source A

and B bits are

1 and input A

is true

Programmed AND Instruction

There is a 1 at

B3:10 only

when Source A

and B bits are

1 and input A

is true

Programmed OR Instruction

There is a 1 at

B3:20 when

either or both

the Source

A or B bits are 1

Programmed XOR Instruction

There is an

output only

when Source A

and B bits are

different

Programmed NOT Instruction

The bits from

B3:9 are sent

to B3:10 and

inverted when

input A is true

11. Hardwired logic is changeable only by altering

the way devices are connected.

(True/False)

12. Each programmed rung is a combination of

input conditions connected from left to right with

the symbol that represents the output at the far

right.

(True/False)

13. Which gate logic shown represents the Boolean

equation: ( A + B ) C = Y

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

14. The correct Boolean equation for the

combination logic gate circuit shown is:

a. Y = A B C D c. Y = ( A + B ) ( C + D )

b. Y = ( AB ) + ( CD ) d. Y = ( AB ) + ( CD )

15. The correct Boolean equation for the

combination logic gate circuit shown is:

a. Y = ( A + B + C ) D c. Y = ( AB + C ) D

b. Y = ( A + B ) ( C + D ) d. Y = ( ABC ) D

16. The correct Boolean equation for the

combination logic gate circuit shown is:

a. Y = A B C c. Y = A + B + C

b. Y = ( A B ) C d. Y = ( AB ) + ( BC )

17. The correct Boolean equation for the ladder

logic program shown is:

a. Y = (A B) + (CD) c. Y = A + B + C + D

b. Y = (A+B ) (C+D) d. Y = ABCD

18. The correct Boolean equation for the ladder

logic program shown is:

a. Y = (A B) + (CD) c. Y = A + B + C + D

b. Y = AB (C+D) d. Y = ABC + D

19. If you want to know when matching bits

in two different words are both "on", you

would use the _____ logic instruction.

a. AND c. XOR

b. OR d. NOT

20. If you want to reverse the state of bits in a

word, you would use the ______ logic

instruction.

a. AND c. XOR

b. OR d. NOT

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