You are on page 1of 13

JAPANESE GARDENS

JAI SHREE
06 EAL 10
MANISHA KUMARI
06 EAL 34
The Characteristics of Japanese Gardens

 ARTISTIC USE OF ROCKS, SAND, ARTIFICIAL HILLS, PONDS AND
FLOWING WATER.
 TRADITIONALLY CREATES A SCENIC COMPOSITION THAT, AS
ARTLESSLY AS POSSIBLE, MIMICS NATURE.
 THREE BASIC PRINCIPLES -
• REDUCED SCALE - to the miniaturization of natural views of
mountains and rivers so as to reunite them in a confined area

• SYMBOLIZATION - abstraction, an example being the use of
white sand to suggest the sea, and

• BORROWED VIEWS - they used background views that were
outside and beyond the garden, such as a mountain or the ocean,
and had them become an integral part of the scenic composition.
TYPICAL FEATURES/ ELEMENTS
• :BRIDGES : HASHI - TO THE ISLAND, OR STEPPING STONES
• FLOWERS : HANA
• ISLANDS : SHIMA
• SAND : SUNA
• STONES : ISHI/IWAKURA - ARRANGED IN A DEFINED ORDER
(SETTING)
• TREES : KI
• WATER : MIZU - REAL OR SYMBOLIC
• WATERFALLS : TAKI.
• LANTERN : TYPICALLY OF STONE
• TEAHOUSE OR PAVILION
• ENCLOSURE DEVICE - SUCH AS A HEDGE, FENCE, OR WALL OF
TRADITIONAL CHARACTER.




History of the Japanese Garden

• THE ASUKA PERIOD(552-644A.D.) - CHINESE SYMBOLISM -
PEOPLE BELIEVED THAT THE LANDSCAPE WAS FILLED WITH
SPIRITS OR ‘KAMI’ MOUNTAINS, COMMONLY REPRESENTED IN
THE GARDEN.

• THE NARA PERIOD (645-782 A.D.) - BUDDHISM ARRIVED -
DEPICTION OF HUMAN ELEMENTS IN THE GARDEN

• THE HEIAN PERIOD (784-1183 A.D.) - GARDENS WERE REVERED
AS PARADISE AND FLOWERS WERE INTRODUCED INTO THE
GARDEN

• THE KAMAKURA PERIOD (1183TO 1333 A.D.) - ZEN BUDDHISM
EMPHASIZED CONTEMPLATION AND MEDITATION.
• THE MUROMACHI PERIOD (1394-1572 A.D.) - EMERGENCE
OF ABSTRACTION IS SEEN DURING THIS PERIOD.

• THE MOMOYAMA PERIOD (1573-1602 A.D.) - WAS WHEN
EVERGREENS AND THEIR SHAPING WERE INTRODUCED INTO
THE GARDEN - AZALEAS WAS A COMMON PLANT - STONE
LANTERNS WAS ANOTHER ELEMENT FROM THIS PERIOD.

• THE EDO PERIOD(1605-1867 A.D.) - WAS WHEN THE
KATSURA IMPERIAL VILLA WAS BUILT AND IS A GOOD
EXAMPLE OF A WATER GARDEN

To-in. This 8
th
century pond garden was
discovered during archaeology excavation of
the Imperial Palace grounds in Nara. The
restored pavilion is based upon similar
structures in Korea.
Kyueski. This meandering stream garden of the 8
th

century came to light during excavation in the
ancient capital of Nara in the1970’s. It may have
been inspired by Chinese or Korea garden.
TYPES
TSUKIYAMA GARDENS (HILL GARDENS) -
• Ponds, streams, hills, stones, trees, flowers, bridges
and paths are used to create a miniature
reproduction of a famous natural scenery of China
or Japan.
• vary in size and in the way they are viewed
• Smaller gardens are usually enjoyed from a single
viewpoint, such as the veranda of a temple
• larger gardens are best experienced by following a
circular scrolling path



Tsukiyama (Suizenji Koen, Kumamoto)

 KARESANSUI GARDENS (DRY GARDENS) –
• reproduce natural landscapes in a more abstract way by
using stones, gravel, sand and sometimes a few patches
of moss for representing mountains, islands, boats, seas
and rivers.
• strongly influenced by zen buddhism
• used for meditation
• Example: Ryōan-ji, temple in Kyoto, has a garden famous
for representing this style. Daisen-in, created in 1513, is
also particularly renowned.

CHANIWA GARDENS (TEA GARDENS)

 Chaniwa gardens are built for the tea ceremony.
 contain a tea house where the actual ceremony is held
and are designed in aesthetic simplicity according to
the concepts of sado (tea ceremony).
 typically features –
• stepping stones that lead towards the tea house,
• stone lanterns and
• a stone basin (tsukubai) - where guests purify
themselves before participating in the ceremony



sand garden with byobu matsu pines and
stepping stones around the kikugetsu-tei.


the kikugetsu-tei summer villa shortly
after renovation in 1980. mount shiun
rises behind it.
MORE STYLES
• Kanshoh-style gardens - which are viewed from a
residence.
• Pond gardens - for viewing from a boat.
• Strolling gardens (kaiyū-shiki) - for viewing a
sequence of effects from a path which
circumnavigates the garden. E xample- The 17th-
century Katsura garden in Kyoto .