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“Engaging Communities in Looc,

Lapulapu City in Solid Waste

Management Planning and
Implementation: A Learning

Emma Irene M. Mende, MForSt., RPF

Engr. Andres E. Muego, Msc., C.E., EnvP.
Rey O. Nunez, RPF
Master of Science in Environmental Management -University
of Southern Philippines Foundation Inc., (MSEM-USPF)
• This project is under the auspices of SEA-
UEMA, which is a collaborative effort
between the Canadian International
Development Agency (CIDA) and Asian
Institute of Technology (AIT)

• Primarily, aside from the growing problem of

solid wastes, RA 9003 inspired the
conceptualization and implementation of this
• Specifically, this was borne out of the
premise that:
a) solid waste problem requires a
concerted effort between the local
government unit and the waste producers
such as the households, industries, etc. ;
b) waste issues and problems are
seemingly unique to every area and thus
it is best to do address them locally;
c) there is better community cooperation if
members of the larger community are
involved in planning and implementation

• Hence, the conceptualization and

implementation of this project.
• Provide a learning experience to looc,
Lapulapu City barangay government
officials and its constituents particularly
purok leaders and women health workers in
solid waste management planning and
• Facilitate drafting of 5-year solid waste
management plan in Looc, Lapulapu City,
Philippines; and
• Document approaches and processes in
solid waste management planning and
The Project Area – its location, area and
purok distribution

• Brgy. Looc is an urban Brgy. that lies at the

center of the City (Figure 1 and 2).

• It has a land area of 104.30 ha

• It has five sitios and 16 puroks with its own

political boundary and elected community

Profile of the area
• Looc is classified as urban/ commercial area
as per approved CLUP of Lapulapu City

• Population count in 2006 was 12,401

distributed in 2082 households with an
average of 5 persons per household

• Population density is 119 persons per ha

Project Implementation and
Documented Learning Experiences
1. Social Preparation
a) Establishing relationships with
different actors – entry to LGU and
larger community were done
b) Re-activating the Brgy. Solid Waste
Management Committee



What are the JAR team
went to exposure What are the
implications ? What implications? What went to exposure
went wrong?
trip cum planning trip cum planning
went wrong?

- Initially suspicious PLAN Most pressing JAR team mee
OBSERVE JAR team meeting What were the most How to establish
- the process took How to establish issues obtained cum planning o
What was the reaction cum planning on pressing issues in the relationship with
longer than relationship with Brgy . through approaches an
of the Brgy . officials approaches and community larger community
expected because Council consultations strategies
strategies members
election was and visits in
approaching community

ACT - Sent letter of introduction

Courtesy visit to local ACT - Series of community
- Courtesy visit to Brgy. Captain
brgy . officials and Held community consultations which
- Dinner meeting with Brgy ,
explained to them the consultations in 16 served as pre-
Council members
project puroks planning also
- JAR team attendance in
monthly Council meetings

Output 1 and 3
Community entry and community consultations cum pre -planning activities
Continuation … social preparation
• Entry at the Brgy. LGU level – How, when
and what happened? Why?
- The 1st three months was considered a
“courtship” or “trust-building” stage. This
was done through letters and attendance in
council meetings.
- JAR team introduced the project as an
initiative that would facilitate the Brgy in
performing its mandate in RA 9003 and not
as a research project
- JAR team experienced difficulty /resistance
Continuation … social preparation
• Entry to larger community
- started on 2nd month.
- Series of community consultations were
done to identify problems and issues on
solid waste management including
information on waste service needs of the
Community Consultation Meetings
Waste burning Some of the waste related issues


Clogging of canals
Continuation … social preparation
- During community consultations the JAR
team explained the purpose of the project
and sought their cooperation in solid waste
management planning and implementation.
- Community consultations became venue
also for solid waste management campaign
Project Implementation and Documented Learning
Experiences- Waste Characterization and HH survey

JAR team meeting to

REFLECT discuss the next steps:
Based on the waste characterization
information obtained , survey and survey on
what should be the household waste
- Weight and volume per next step?
capita waste computed management practices
classifying high, medium
and low-income waste PLAN
production How to go about - Met with EcoGov team
waste characterization and undertake planning to
- Socio-economic What were relevant
and survey on gender
information including information obtained
role on waste
draft questionnaire and
household waste management reach consensus on
management practices approaches

Data tabulation and

analysis and initial ACT - Waste characterization
discussions Conducted the waste conducted ahead of
characterization study survey. Community
and survey on gender members were used
role on waste
tapped waste collectors
while Barangay Health
Workers were tapped as
Output 2
Undertaking waste characterization study and survey on household waste
management practices
Project Implementation and
Documented Learning Experiences
2. Waste Characterization and Survey on
Household Waste Management Practices
Some of the highlights :
- Community members were tapped as waste
collectors, 14 collectors, 2 men and 12
- Brgy. Health Workers (all women) were
tapped as enumerators to conduct survey
(socio-economic and household waste
management practices)
Continuation … waste characterization
Table 1. Current Waste Generation of Households in Looc, Lapulapu City, 2006
Income Waste Daily waste waste produced per Per Capita
Level Production Generated household (kg/day)
(kg.) (kg./day) (kg./hh/day)

Low 14908.59 496.95 0.9 0.18

Middle 16254.9 541.83 1.33 0.27

High 16414.76 547.16 1.96 0.39

Total 47578.25 1585.94

* Classification was not based at the national level but rather determined by JAR team only
• Highlights of the survey
Socio-economic Profile
- Respondents were mostly males and were
non-degree holders
- Ages of most respondents ranged from 30-
- Most of the respondents’ annual HH income
was less than 100 thousand
HH solid waste management
- Almost all respondents believed that segregation is a good
practice but when asked if they practice it, only few (30%)
said yes.
- Burning was highly practiced in the area.
- More female members were involved in waste segregation
- More women were still involved in waste disposal than men
but latter’s participation improved in this activity. The same
with waste segregation, individual family members’
involvement in waste disposal has gender consideration.

Available solid waste mgt. support

- Waste collection but irregular
Re-activating the BSWMC
- JAR team reflecting re :
Is it high time to engaging the BSWMC
engage the BSWMC and larger community in
in strategic planning planning and drafting of
and initial drafting of BSWM plan
BSWM plan?

OBSERVE How to strongly - Continuous follow -up
How did the BSWMC pushed re -activation in council meetings
accept the re- of Brgy . Solid Waste regarding re -activation
activation of Management
committee as driven of BSWM committee
by project

- Observed the
BSWM Committee
members dyanamics

ACT - BSWM committee

Set meetings for the meeting conducted

Output 2
Re-activating the BSWM Committee
Continuation… Re-activating
3. Reactivating the BSWMC
• BSWMC which is composed of
representatives from different sectors did
not function since its creation; hence
• Reactivation took longer than expected
because of some political differences within
the council
• Several meeting postponements
Strategic planning and initial drafting of
the SWMP
REFLECT - Reflecting on NEXT
What needs to be STEPS
done further to come
up with realistic plan?


Brgy. Captain OBSERVE How to go about
and community Did the participants strategic planning and
actively participate partial drafting of
- JAR team prepared for
working together the strategic planning
BSWM plan?
partial drafting of BSWM

Conducted the - BWM Committee and purok
strategic planning leaders involved in strategic
and partial drafting of planning and partiall drafting of
BSWM plan with BSWM plan
greater community

Output 5
Solid waste management planning and initial drafting of the
solid waste management plan
Continuation… strategic planning
4. Strategic planning and initial drafting of the
BSWM plan
• Results of the survey and waste
characterization were presented for
validation during strategic planning and
initial drafting of the plan.
• Data were used as input in planning
• Participants were mostly women.
Strategic planning
Continuation… strategic planning
a). Vision
“We envision a progressive community whose residents
respect God above all, demonstrate self-discipline and live in
a clean surroundings through proper management of waste”
b). Mission
“We will work together in educating the community on proper
waste management and find resources to achieve our vision”

c). Goals

• To implement the Barangay Solid Waste Management Plan

for a clean and healthy environment
• To manage solid waste problems in the barangay by focusing
on reduction, reuse, recycling and recovery of waste materials
generated from households
Drafting of the BSWM Plan
The JAR team
- The BSWMC reviewed discussed as to how to
What preparations to
the drafted plan make for the BSWM proceed with completing
- The JAR team and other plan to be adopted ? the draft
USP-MSEM faculty
reviewed the plan
Is the plan
How to go about
substantive? Are
finishing the drafting
there other things to
of the plan ? - JAR team collated the initially
drafted BSWM plan

- BSWMC, the ACT - BSWM Committee, purok

Brgy. Captain Conducted series of leaders , BHWorkers, industry
and community writeshop to complete representatives participated in
working together the plan writeshop

Output 5
Drafting of the solid waste management plan
Drafting of the BSWM Plan
5. Drafting of the BSWM plan
• Highlights of the BSWM plan
- The Five-Year Work Plan
- Funding options
a) private companies operating in the area
b) other personalities

6. Adopting the BSWM Plan

Adopting the BSWM Plan
The JAR team
- The JAR team went over discussed with the Brgy.
with the plan and REFLECT Captain regarding
integrated suggestions of What is the next step adoption of plan in the
the members of the Brgy . Brgy.
Are there things PLAN
needed polishing as How to ensure that
per suggestions / the BSWM plan will
comments of the be adopted by the
Brgy. Counci council? - JAR team polished the plan in
members preparation of its adoption by
the Brgy. Council

- JAR team provided members
Conducted special
of the council copies of the draft
Brgy, Council session
BSWM plan two weeks before
to approve the
the planned session
BSWM plan

Output 6
Adoption of the solid waste management plan
Project Implementation and
Documented Learning Experiences
- Presentation of the BSWM Plan to the larger
members of the community through general
assembly meeting
Presenting the BSWM plan
The JAR team
- The JAR team went over discussed with the Brgy.
REFLECT Captain regarding
with the plan and What to do to fully
integrated suggestions of implement the plan ?
presentation of the plan
the members of the Brgy . to the general public
OBSERVE How to present the
How did the members plan to the general
of the community public ? Who shall
accept the plan ? make the
presentation ? - JAR team polished the plan in
preparation of its adoption by
the Brgy. Council

Conducted a general - JAR team provided members
assembly meeting to of the council copies of the draft
present the plan to BSWM plan two weeks before
larger members of the planned session
the community

What will happen after

Presentation of the solid waste management plan as initial step to this???
1. The learning-by-doing exercise improved the
capability of the brgy. council and members of the
larger community to undertake planning.

2. Solid waste management becomes a priority

project of the Brgy because of the implementation
of this JAR initiative.

3. Social preparation is a crucial step in solid waste

management planning and implementation.

4. A project that is seen to address an important need

generates community support. Also, planning at
the “purok” level would improve community
participation and cooperation.
5. Purok level community consultations provided
members of the larger community an avenue to
ventilate issues affecting them such as waste,
health and sanitation.

6. Bringing the Brgy. Council and members of the

community in one venue such as in “pulong-
pulong” promotes cohesiveness which is essential
in any initiative

7. Solid waste management plan provides

mechanism to source out funds from personalities
and government officials (e.g. congressman)
8. Providing in-kind or small incentives to community
cooperators was important in keeping their energies
high. The opportunity lost from participating in the
activity must be compensated in other ways.

9. Rule of thumb is “never bypass local officials”

otherwise your project can not move forward. Hence,
the JAR team exercised patience in dealing with
council members.

10. “barangay ownership” of the plan must be

emphasized to encourage council and community
11. Utilizing Women Barangay Health Workers as
enumerators proved useful as they have better
understanding of the area and thus can provide better
explanation re: context of the information gathered.

12. Other provisions of RA 9003 such as MRF is impossible

to comply at least for Looc, Lapulapu City because of
space limitation.
1. Poor timing in project implementation.

2. Election fever. Election season affected the project

implementation. “Courtship” with the Brgy. took
longer than expected. There were several
postponements of activities because of the election.

“The project was thought of a disguise so that the

Governor who is a political enemy of the Mayor can
obtain entry in the community through its small
3. There was also initial resistance of the brgy.
council because (a) they lack the technical
knowledge in solid waste management planning
and (b) they have no funding.

4. Availability of council members. Some council

members are full time employees also thus, there
were difficulties in ascertaining their availability.
• The formulation of the SWMP has been completed,
there is a need to test its applicability in the
community and see how it works with the financial
support from private companies and the city
government of Lapu-lapu City.

• Brgy. Council or at least some of the members

should be trained to be equipped with the capability
to source out funds “not just by mere preparation of
a resolution” or solicitation letter