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What is an endocrine system?

The endocrine system is a complex network of chemical
signals and messages that control many immediate and
life-long bodily responses and functions.

The endocrine system works hand-in-hand with the
nervous system to:
-maintain the body's internal steady state
-react to stimuli from outside the body
-regulate growth, development and reproduction
-produce, use and store energy.
3 parts of the endocrine system:
1. Glands – organs that secretes and releases hormone.
2 types of glands:
a. Exocrine
b. Endocrine
2. Hormones – chemical messengers that are transported by
2 kinds of hormones:
a. Peptide hormones
b. Steroid hormones

3. Target cells – an area in the body where the hormones act
Endocrine gland secrete hormones that regulate many body activities
such as:

-Metabolic rate
-Water and mineral balance
-Immune system reactions
-Sexual functioning

*Hyperfunction of the gland – oversecretion or hypersecretion
*Hypofunction of the gland – deficiency or hyposecretion
Pituitary gland
2 parts of the pituitary gland
1. Anterior lobe – regulates other endocrine glands

Hormones secreted:
-Thyroid-stimulating hormone(TSH)
-Adrenocorticotropic hormone(ACTH)
-Follicle-stimulating hormone(FSH)
-Luteinizing hormone(LH)
-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone(MSH)
2. Posterior lobe – regulates water conservation, milk
letdown, and urine contraction in women

Hormones secreted:
*Antidiuretic hormone(ADH) – controls water balance
in the body and blood pressure
*Oxytocin – a peptide hormone that stimulates uterine
contraction during childbirth
TSH Present Present Present Present Present
LH Present Present
FSH Present
ACTH Present Present
GH Present Present Present Present Present
Prolactin Absent Absent Absent Present Present
MSH Present Present Present Present Present
ADH Absent Present Present Present Present
Oxytocin Absent Present
Pineal gland
 Located in the midbrain of verebrates
 Secretes Melatonin

Fishes Amphibia & Reptilia Aves & Mammalia
Function Act as Third eye Controls color change Allows to respond to
Thyroid gland
 It produces, stores, and releases two separate thyroid
hormones that regulate metabolic rate,
metamorphosis, growth, and reproduction.

 2 types of thyroid hormones:

Fishes Reptilia Amphibia Aves Mammalia
Metabolism UNRESPONSIVE Elevate oxygen consumption
and heat production by
Growth and
Growth depends on
Thyroid hormones
Their thyroid
hormones arrest the
growth of larvae and
Normal growth depends on
normal levels of thyroid
Molting Thyroxine promotes sloughing or shedding of skin
Reproduction Correlates with
gonad maturation
and oogenesis or
Arrest physiological
processes that
promote reproduction
Correlates with gonad
maturation and oogenesis or

 Hyperfunction – results in expthalmic goiter(swelling
of gland and speeded metabollic rate)

 Hypofunction
-results in cretinism(no growth) in young
-results in myxedema(mentally and physically
lethargic) in adult
-results in simple goiter
Ultimobranchial body and parathyroid gland
Ultimobranchial body
• Secretes calcitonin which lowers blood levels of
• Calcitonin causes calcium to be extracted from the
blood and used to built new bone matrix, causing
blood levels of calcium to fall

Parathyroid gland
• Secretes parathormones which is responsible for
maintaining normal phosphorous metabolism
• Raises blood levels of calcium by promoting kidney
retention of calcium, encouraging its absorption
across the walls of the digestive tract, and affecting
bone deposition
 Hyperfunction in
parathyroid gland results
in soft bones and reduced
irritability of muscles.

 Lies in the upper part of the chest, behind the breast-
bone and consists of 2 lobes that join in front of
 Secretes thymosine which stimulates the development
and differentiation of T-cells which defends the body
against viruses
Parathyroid gland
Fishes Amphibia Reptilia Aves Mammalia
Location Absent Either on the thyroid or dispersed
along the major veins in the neck
Mouse, cat, &
humans –
embedded on the
thyroid gland

Goat & rabbit –
embedded near the
thyroid gland
Adrenal gland
 One of the most important
functions of the adrenal glands
is coordinating the whole
organism’s response to stress
Parts of the adrenal glands:
1. Cortex – produces steroid hormones, namely:
a. Androsterone – affects male sex hormone
b. Cortisone – maintains normal sodium and
calcium levels in blood.

2. Medulla – secretes adrenalin that increases all
metabolic activities
 A composite gland consisting of exocrine which consists of Acini that
secrete digestive enzymes into ducts and endocrine portions known as
the Islets of Langerhans consists of masses of endocrine cells
embedded within the exocrine pancreas
 Hypofunction results in high glucose level in the blood, the excess
glucose being excreted by the kidney. This result is also known as
Diabetes Mellitus.
 Secretes insulin
Islets of Langerhans
 Secretes insulin and glucagon
Insulin removes glucose from the blood
Glucagon returns glucose to the blood
 Alpha cells produces glucagon
 Beta cells produces insulin
 In males, gonads is known as testes which secretes
testosterone and androgen
 In females, gonads is known as ovaries which secretes
estrogen and progesterone
• Luteinizing hormone stimulates the testes to produce
several kinds of steroid hormones called androgens.
One of these androgens is testosterone, the main sex
hormone in males
• Luteinizing hormone stimulates the ovaries produce
estrogen and progesterone, the female sex
• Sex hormones are responsible for the development of
secondary sex characteristics, which develop at
• Follicle-stimulating hormone controls gamete (egg or
sperm) production