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Language Analysis

and Education
A.Sources of Language Analysis
B. Language Analysis and How We
Think
C. Metaphysics is Out
D. Is Philosophy of Education
Possible?
E. Values of Language Analysis

Language Analysis
Language any means of expressing
thoughts or feelings however had
influence.

The term language
analysis is the most
narrowly specific name
which can be used for the
philosophy
A. Sources of Language
Analysis
A. Sources of
Language Analysis
The name most associated with language
analysis considered as definite movement:
1. Ludwig Joseph Wittgenstein (1899-
1951)

2. Bertrand Arthur William Russel
3. George E. Moore (1873-1958)
4. Alfred Jules Ayer (1910-)
12
•Tractacus Logico Philosophicus, (Logical-
Philosophical Treatise)

•In 1929, he was appointed to the faculty
at Cambridge University and served with
distinction over a period of about two
decades.

The name most associated with language analysis considered as definite
movement:

1. Ludwig Joseph Wittgenstein (1899-
1951)

•His primary concerned with language in his
earlier years was to determine those
requirements it must meet in order
accurately to describe elements and structures
of nature.

•His later concern was more with language
itself than with its function of mirroring the
world it was with the limits of language and the
kinds of questions that language can sensibly
pose and answer.

The name most associated with language analysis considered as definite
movement:

1. Ludwig Joseph Wittgenstein (1899-
1951)

2. Bertrand Arthur William Russel

•great British philosopher and
mathematician and was one of
Wittgenstein’s teacher.

•His most trusted language is
mathematics and his willingness to deal
with verbal symbols is no doubt tinged
with some condescension.

2. Bertrand Arthur William Russel

• Mathematics is for him a language par
excellence in which precision of meaning
can really be expressed.
•Verbal language can do only with great
difficulty, if at all, necessity.

• Most people are creatures of words, and
if there is to some degree of precision in
the use of words as well some sense as to
the limits of any kind of language, then
verbal language must receive attention
however tempting the luxury and
exclusiveness of mathematical language
3. George E. Moore (1873-1958)
•was at least generally influential in
contributing to the rise of language
analysis by his vigorous opposition to
idealism.

•He was a man of “common sense” who
dealt with “real” objects.

•He was a neo- realist and therefore,
oversimplified our way of knowing objects
in nature, as the critical realists were at
pains to point out.


3. George E. Moore (1873-1958)

• He felt that he know what an individual
man with a body is and could talk about
people in the particular. But when the
idealist discoursed about the self or a
soul, this was outside his ken and
probably nothing.

•The “outside” world of nature was very
real and for Moore it was absurd to use
language to speculate about things which
not manifestly existent in this world.
•It was the proper function of philosophy,
therefore the proper function of language
to deal with things which exist in the here
and now, subject to observation.

4. Alfred Jules Ayer
(1910-)
•One of the leading language analysis who is
regarded by his peers both with criticism and
appreciation.

•His Language, Truth and Logic, first published on
1936 and since 1952 in paperback in the United
States, is a kind of classic of the field of language
analysis.


Other present leaders are:

1. Gilbert Ryle (1900) of Oxford

2. W. V. Quine (1908) of Harvard


B. LANGUAGE ANALYSIS
AND
HOW WE THINK


•Men very commonly misunderstand one another
because of ambiguity or confusion in discourse.

•One meaning is often intended but an entirely
different meaning is heard.

•The philosophical analysis of language is not only
directed to precision in communication but also it
considers precision as exceedingly important in
determining the kinds of statements for which
meaning is possible.


.
•In fact language analysis is philosophical
because it is concerned to sort out those concepts
which can have meaning from those which
cannot.


•Philosophical analysis of language discloses
such precision in matching misconceptions with
what exists in nature is by no means.


.
•Descriptive statements compared to logical
statements.



Example: “ All animals have four legs”.
If all animals have four legs
Since a cat is an animal
It has four legs.


(True statement because it is preceded the
conditional “if”)


Two kinds of statements which can be “true”.


1. There are logical statements which are always
set within the “if” or “if and only” if condition. These
can be true if flawlessly constructed because they
deal only with relations when certain conditions
prevail and do not say anything about matters of
facts. If they do speak of matters of fact which
they correspond, it is quite incident and not all
primary to the statements.


Two kinds of statements which can be“ true”.



2. There are also some statements about matters of
facts which may be confirmed by reference to the
facts with which these statements deal. The more
direct and immediate the confirmation can be use in
pointing to that “cat”, for example, the more
acceptable the confirmation.




•Therefore, for most language analysts that logical
statements may be verified by checking that they
proceed flawlessly from the if - and only - if
condition.
Statements about matters of fact may be confirmed
to a degree. But more immediate or direct the
observation of the matter of fact and more free it is
from generality, then the more acceptable the
statement.




Other present leaders are:

1. Gilbert Ryle (1900) of Oxford

2. W. V. Quine (1908) of Harvard


METAPHYSICS
IS
OUT

• According to language analysis, metaphysical
statements do not constitute a proper use of
language. This is an important and significant
negation because a good portion of philosophy has
concerned itself with alleged meta -physical truth.

• Metaphysics has been the major concern of many
philosophers. But language analysis rules it out as
not a legitimate subject about which language to
use. Therefore it is not legitimate concern of
philosophy.

Metaphysics is out

•Language analysis is that language can only be
used legitimately to deal with that which can be
confirmed or is verifiable.

•Language can be used to formulate statements
which can be logically verified.

•The exclusion of metaphysics statements by
language analysis is made because such
statements can neither be confirmed nor are they
conceivably capable of confirmation.

Metaphysics is out

•Language analyst do not consider alleged truths
about nature to be metaphysical because they deal
with some reality, but rather they can considered
descriptive statements based on observation and
confirmed thereby.

•The function of language is to make statements
which are true because they can be confirmed or
verified as true.

Metaphysics is out

•It would seem fair to say that language analysis
greatly limits the range of philosophy.

•Philosophy can deal with history of philosophy.

•Philosophy cannot deal with value



Metaphysics is out


• The great exceptions seems to be that
philosophy can deal with epistemology to extent
that it devotes itself to statements of knowledge to
determine their verifiability as accurate & precise.
This would seem virtually to limit the legitimate
range of epistemology to logic. This is possibly the
reason that the terms “logical analysis,”
“philosophical analysis” and “language analysis”
seem to be used almost interchangeably.

Metaphysics is out
Other present leaders are:

1. Gilbert Ryle (1900) of Oxford

2. W. V. Quine (1908) of Harvard


IS PHILOSOPHY
OF EDUCATION
POSSIBLE?
• The great exceptions seems to be that
philosophy can deal with epistemology to extent
that it devotes itself. The effect of language
analysis upon philosophy of education as it had
common been conceived is, therefore, largely one
of the deflation, if not demolition.


Is Philosophy of Education Possible?

• Another approach which may be explored is
whether there can be a philosophy of education
comprised of principles derived from various
sources. If so, philosophy of education could be
equated with a general theory of education. In
addition to the history of educational thought and
practices, there are a few sciences focusing on
man which conceivably could be the source of
ideas if not principles which as a composite could
conceivably comprise a general theory of
education. Among these sciences of man are
physiology, psychology and sociology.


Is Philosophy of Education Possible?

• From Plato to the present, there have been those
who have put forward both in writing and practice
their thought as to what education should be.
Although there are of course, conflicting views
which would have to be resolved or from which
preferential selections would need to be made, it is
conceivable that this history of thought and
practice could provide a fund of theory about
education which might constitute philosophy of
education as a general theory of education.



Is Philosophy of Education Possible?

• The science of psychology has alleged learned
many things about man and having acquired at
least some of the discipline of a science, can be
fairly precise about these findings, which are
relevant could also be poured into the blend of
general principles which would comprise a general
theory of education.




Is Philosophy of Education Possible?

• The branch of child psychology which supposedly
has sufficiently documented a certain knowledge
about children which would be especially
applicable to the lower reaches of education.


•The science of physiology is supposedly able to
tell us those relevant facts about the body life of
people which would a helpful part of general theory
of education.




Is Philosophy of Education Possible?

• Sociology can tell us in disciplined term
considerably more precise than common sense
how individuals act in group as well as the nature
of groups and how they function. Since a very
large portion of education is an institutional affair in
which groups, if not masses of individual people
are involved. Sociology, it could be assumed, has
a fund of relevant knowledge which would help
comprise a general theory of education.




Is Philosophy of Education Possible?

Two observations are clearly in order at this
point:

1. The first is that as a matter of facts schools and
colleges of education have four years offered
courses in educational psychology and educational
sociology. This is not to mention courses in special
methods of teaching particular subjects as well as
courses in the administration of education.



Is Philosophy of Education Possible?

Two observations are clearly in order at this
point:

2. The other observation is that such a general
theory of education is not at all what philosophers
of education to be. Philosophy of education and
such a general theory of education are two
different things, according to philosophers of
education. But according to language analysis,
there can be no philosophy of education as
educational philosophers have common conceived
it.


Is Philosophy of Education Possible?

• One thing wrong with philosophy of , which is far
less a criticism than those bearing on its
verifiability, is that it always envisions the
stereotype of a school, teacher, classes of
students, different subject matters areas, etc.

Is Philosophy of Education Possible?

• An attempt will be to exemplify a model as a
legitimate form of philosophizing in education for
language analysis. In doing this, we will lean
heavily upon Kenneth B. Henderson’s article,” A
Logical Model for Conceptualizing and Other
Related Activities”. This is a model for teaching
concepts and possibly also the process of
conceptualizing, generalizing and abstracting.



Is Philosophy of Education Possible?
• In teaching of a concept, the context must be
taken fully into account because it may otherwise
change the meaning of the name given the
concept.

The role of a teacher in teaching a
concept:

•make sure that the students associate the same
thing with the term used for the concept that within
her/his mind.


Is Philosophy of Education Possible?
The role of a teacher in teaching a concept:


• The teacher should be clear and precise in giving
the point of reference in using the term for the
concept .

•There are also connotative concepts, the terms
which point to a characteristic in a condition of a
thing which itself is pointed to by a denotative term.


Is Philosophy of Education Possible?
The role of a teacher in teaching a concept:


• The teacher would propose a model for the
teaching of concepts which he is convinced will
function successfully for all concepts when
followed with care.




Is Philosophy of Education Possible?
Other present leaders are:

1. Gilbert Ryle (1900) of Oxford

2. W. V. Quine (1908) of Harvard


VALUES OF
LANGUAGE ANALYSIS
• The single-mindedness of language analysis is
striving for statements which are accurately
confirmed as describing matters of facts is most
commendable and much to be desired. In the
same single-minded way language analysis
demands statements which are logically verifiable.
In both of these single-minded efforts precision can
be seen as a prime value which is of great worth.





Values of Language Analysis
• Words should constitute more than a
communication which is predominantly emotional
are activities and unconsciously designed to effect
“togetherness”, antagonism, persuasion by the
impact of propaganda, covert grasping of power,
the enclosing of the in-group more securely, the
excluding of the out-group more disdainfully, or
some other similar desiderate of questionable
value. At least language analysis respects words
as signs and tries to make these signs signify
without ambiguity.




Values of Language Analysis
• Man is concerns about many more matters than
can be factually confirmed or logically verified as
language analysis wants them to be.

• Language analysis closed the door of
inquisitiveness about such things because it is not
possible for precise language to represent this,
they are meaningless subjects.




Values of Language Analysis