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3.

4 Linear Programming
Steps
1. Solve for y and graph each inequality.
2. Find the common area that the inequalities
cover. Determine the boundaries of this common
area.
3. Find locations where the graph changes
direction. Mark these points. These are your
constraint points.
4. You will be given an equation. To determine
which constraint point maximizes the equation,
plug each constraint point into the equation
What is Linear Programming?
Linear Programming is a technique that
identifies the minimum and maximum
value of some quantity. The quantity is
modeled with an objective function, a
separate equation that is used to
determine what the maximum and
minimum constraint points of the region
will be.
What is a constraint?
A constraint is a limit on the variables in
the objective function. The constraints are
the linear inequalities that are used to find
the feasible region.
Lets revisit the two graphs
we looked at last lecture.
GRAPHING CONSTRAINTS

x + y -1
x y 6
y 2
y -x 1
y x 6
y 2
(-3 , 2)
(8 , 2)
(2.5 , 3.5)
Which point maximizes f(x,y) = x + 2y ?

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(-3 , 2)
(8 , 2)
(2.5 , 3.5)
f(-3,2) = -3 + 2(2) = 1
f(8,2) = 8 + 2(2) = 12
f(2.5,3.5) = 2.5 + 2(3.5) = 9.5
GRAPHING CONSTRAINTS

2 x 6
1 y 5
x + y 8

2 x and x 6
1 y and y 5
y -x + 8

(6, 1)
(2, 1)
(2, 5)
(6, 2) (3, 5)
Which point maximizes f(x,y) = x 2y ?

_____________________________

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_____________________________

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(2, 5)
(3 , 5)
(6 , 2)
f(2,5) = 2 2(5) = -8
f(3,5) = 3 2(5) = -7
f(6,2) = 6 2(2) = 2
(6 , 1)
(2 , 1)
f(6,1) = 6 2(1) = 4
f(2,1) = 2 2(1) = 0
Using a graphing calculator, lets graph
the following inequalities with an
objective function of P = 13x + 2y


-3x + 2y < 8
-8x + y >-48
x>0
y>0
First step: get
the equations
into slope-
intercept form
(solve for y)



y < 3/2x +4
y >8x -48
x>0
y>0
Now lets use our Graphing Calculator.
Take out your Linear Programming Cheat
Sheet.
Linear Programming
Example #1
You want to buy tickets
for some concerts; rock and jazz.
You want at least 5 rock tickets
and at least 8 jazz tickets.
No more than 25 tickets total.
Rock tickets cost $30 and
jazz tickets cost $20.
You cannot spend more than $600. Find the
max # of tix each you can buy at the lowest
price total.

STEP 1
Set up Equations
For our example
x = rock Y= jazz
Use each piece of information given to
make an equation or restraint.
At least 8 jazz tix y > 8
No more than 25 tickets x + y < 25
At least 5 rock tix x > 5
Rock tix costs $30 , jazz tix cost $20. No more than $600
20x + 30y < 600
Objective function P=20x+30y
Use your calculator
x > 5
y > 8
x + y < 25
20x + 30y < 600
STEP 2
GRAPH
STEP 3
POINTS OF INTERSECTION

(5,16.6)
(15,10)
(17,8)
(5,8)
X = rock
Y = jazz
STEP 4
TEST VERTICES INTO OBJECTIVE FUNCTION

Now it is time to test the vertices to see what
combination of x and y, rock and jazz respectively,
will give us the max number of tickets at the lowest
price.
(x , y) f(x , y) = 20x + 30y
(5 , 8)
(15 , 10)
(17 , 8)
(5 , 16.6)
f(5, 8) = 20(5) + 30(8)
f(15, 10) = 20(15) + 30(10)
f(17, 8) = 20(17) + 30(8)
f(5, 16.6) = 20(5) + 30(16.6)
= $ 340
= $ 600
= $ 580
= who cares..?
Objective Notation
Linear Programming
Example #2
A pizza shop makes $1.50 on each small
pizza and $2.15 on each large pizza.
On a typical day, it sells between 70 and
90 small pizzas and between 100 and 140
large pizzas.
The shop can make no more than 210
pizzas in a day.
How many of each size of pizza must be
sold to maximize profit?

STEP 1
Set up Equations
For our example
x = small pizzas
Y= large pizzas
Use each piece of information given to
make an equation or restraint.
Between 100 and 140 large pizzas 100 < y < 140
Shop can make no more than 210 pizzas x + y < 210
Between 70 and 90 small pizzas 70 < x < 90
Objective function
A pizza shop makes $1.50 on each small pizza
and $2.15 on each large pizza.
P=1.50x+2.15y
Use your calculator
70 < x < 90
100 < y < 140
x + y < 210
STEP 2
GRAPH
70 80 90 100
100
110
120
130
140
STEP 3
POINTS OF
INTERSECTION

70 80 90 100
100
110
120
130
140
(70,140)
(90,120)
(70,100)
(90,100)
STEP 4
TEST VERTICES INTO OBJECTIVE FUNCTION

Now it is time to test the vertices to see what
combination of x and y, small and large pizzas
respectively, will give us the max profit.
(x , y) f(x , y) = 1.50x + 2.15y
(70 , 140)
(90 , 120)
(70 , 100)
(90 , 100)
f(70, 140) = 1.50(70) + 2.15(140)
f(90, 120) = 1.50(90) + 2.15(120)
f(70, 100) = 1.50(70) + 2.15(100)
f(90, 100) = 1.50(90) + 2.15(100)
= $ 406
= $ 393
= $ 320
= $ 350
Objective Notation