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Linear Programming slides

Linear Programming slides

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4 Linear Programming

Steps

1. Solve for y and graph each inequality.

2. Find the common area that the inequalities

cover. Determine the boundaries of this common

area.

3. Find locations where the graph changes

direction. Mark these points. These are your

constraint points.

4. You will be given an equation. To determine

which constraint point maximizes the equation,

plug each constraint point into the equation

What is Linear Programming?

Linear Programming is a technique that

identifies the minimum and maximum

value of some quantity. The quantity is

modeled with an objective function, a

separate equation that is used to

determine what the maximum and

minimum constraint points of the region

will be.

What is a constraint?

A constraint is a limit on the variables in

the objective function. The constraints are

the linear inequalities that are used to find

the feasible region.

Lets revisit the two graphs

we looked at last lecture.

GRAPHING CONSTRAINTS

x + y -1

x y 6

y 2

y -x 1

y x 6

y 2

(-3 , 2)

(8 , 2)

(2.5 , 3.5)

Which point maximizes f(x,y) = x + 2y ?

_____________________________

_____________________________

_____________________________

(-3 , 2)

(8 , 2)

(2.5 , 3.5)

f(-3,2) = -3 + 2(2) = 1

f(8,2) = 8 + 2(2) = 12

f(2.5,3.5) = 2.5 + 2(3.5) = 9.5

GRAPHING CONSTRAINTS

2 x 6

1 y 5

x + y 8

2 x and x 6

1 y and y 5

y -x + 8

(6, 1)

(2, 1)

(2, 5)

(6, 2) (3, 5)

Which point maximizes f(x,y) = x 2y ?

_____________________________

_____________________________

_____________________________

_____________________________

_____________________________

(2, 5)

(3 , 5)

(6 , 2)

f(2,5) = 2 2(5) = -8

f(3,5) = 3 2(5) = -7

f(6,2) = 6 2(2) = 2

(6 , 1)

(2 , 1)

f(6,1) = 6 2(1) = 4

f(2,1) = 2 2(1) = 0

Using a graphing calculator, lets graph

the following inequalities with an

objective function of P = 13x + 2y

-3x + 2y < 8

-8x + y >-48

x>0

y>0

First step: get

the equations

into slope-

intercept form

(solve for y)

y < 3/2x +4

y >8x -48

x>0

y>0

Now lets use our Graphing Calculator.

Take out your Linear Programming Cheat

Sheet.

Linear Programming

Example #1

You want to buy tickets

for some concerts; rock and jazz.

You want at least 5 rock tickets

and at least 8 jazz tickets.

No more than 25 tickets total.

Rock tickets cost $30 and

jazz tickets cost $20.

You cannot spend more than $600. Find the

max # of tix each you can buy at the lowest

price total.

STEP 1

Set up Equations

For our example

x = rock Y= jazz

Use each piece of information given to

make an equation or restraint.

At least 8 jazz tix y > 8

No more than 25 tickets x + y < 25

At least 5 rock tix x > 5

Rock tix costs $30 , jazz tix cost $20. No more than $600

20x + 30y < 600

Objective function P=20x+30y

Use your calculator

x > 5

y > 8

x + y < 25

20x + 30y < 600

STEP 2

GRAPH

STEP 3

POINTS OF INTERSECTION

(5,16.6)

(15,10)

(17,8)

(5,8)

X = rock

Y = jazz

STEP 4

TEST VERTICES INTO OBJECTIVE FUNCTION

Now it is time to test the vertices to see what

combination of x and y, rock and jazz respectively,

will give us the max number of tickets at the lowest

price.

(x , y) f(x , y) = 20x + 30y

(5 , 8)

(15 , 10)

(17 , 8)

(5 , 16.6)

f(5, 8) = 20(5) + 30(8)

f(15, 10) = 20(15) + 30(10)

f(17, 8) = 20(17) + 30(8)

f(5, 16.6) = 20(5) + 30(16.6)

= $ 340

= $ 600

= $ 580

= who cares..?

Objective Notation

Linear Programming

Example #2

A pizza shop makes $1.50 on each small

pizza and $2.15 on each large pizza.

On a typical day, it sells between 70 and

90 small pizzas and between 100 and 140

large pizzas.

The shop can make no more than 210

pizzas in a day.

How many of each size of pizza must be

sold to maximize profit?

STEP 1

Set up Equations

For our example

x = small pizzas

Y= large pizzas

Use each piece of information given to

make an equation or restraint.

Between 100 and 140 large pizzas 100 < y < 140

Shop can make no more than 210 pizzas x + y < 210

Between 70 and 90 small pizzas 70 < x < 90

Objective function

A pizza shop makes $1.50 on each small pizza

and $2.15 on each large pizza.

P=1.50x+2.15y

Use your calculator

70 < x < 90

100 < y < 140

x + y < 210

STEP 2

GRAPH

70 80 90 100

100

110

120

130

140

STEP 3

POINTS OF

INTERSECTION

70 80 90 100

100

110

120

130

140

(70,140)

(90,120)

(70,100)

(90,100)

STEP 4

TEST VERTICES INTO OBJECTIVE FUNCTION

Now it is time to test the vertices to see what

combination of x and y, small and large pizzas

respectively, will give us the max profit.

(x , y) f(x , y) = 1.50x + 2.15y

(70 , 140)

(90 , 120)

(70 , 100)

(90 , 100)

f(70, 140) = 1.50(70) + 2.15(140)

f(90, 120) = 1.50(90) + 2.15(120)

f(70, 100) = 1.50(70) + 2.15(100)

f(90, 100) = 1.50(90) + 2.15(100)

= $ 406

= $ 393

= $ 320

= $ 350

Objective Notation

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