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International Relations

State of State & Future of State
Third Topic
 Nations and Nation-States
 Nations are culturally homogeneous groups of people, larger
than a single tribe or community, which share a common
language, institutions, religion, and historical experience.
 When a nation has a State or country of their own, it is called
a nation-state. Places like France, Egypt, Germany, and Japan
are excellent examples of nation-states. There are some States
which have two nations, such as Canada and Belgium. Even
with its multicultural society, the United States is also
referred to as a nation-state because of the shared American
 There are nations without States. For example, the Kurds are
stateless people.

Historical Background

 Development of State
 Historical phase
 Medieval phase
 Modern phase
Different types of states
 1. Core states (Powerful States)
As G8, Developed States
 2. Periphery states
Under-developed or dependant states


Challenges to modern states
 There are several challenges faced by
modern state. Linked with their socio,
economic and political security. Most of
the states are griped in power-politics
game. The national interests of many
states is set on the cost of other states.
That has caused the world to go in dark
side of life where the norms of peace
have a very less value. Then this
beautiful world is caught into the law of
jungle. The sense of (Might is right)
Challenges to Modern State &
their nature (internal & External)
International terrorism
Political instability
(Dictatorships, weak institutionalism)
Economic weakness
(Poverty, inflation, unemployment, lawlessness)
Natural disasters
(Natural disasters such as earthquakes, tsunamis,
floods and increase in global warming can often
come at the least expected time. Others, such
as hurricanes and cyclones are increasing in
severity and destruction. Typically, the poor are
the worst hit for they have the least resources
to cope and rebuild.)

Social Chaos

(Poverty, illiteracy, crime, protest/strikes)
 Almost half the world — over 3.2 billion people — live
on less than $2.50 a day.
 The GDP (Gross Domestic Product) of the 41 Heavily
Indebted Poor Countries (567 million people) is less
than the wealth of the world’s 7 richest people
 Nearly a billion people entered the 21st century unable
to read a book or sign their names.
 Less than one per cent of what the world spent every
year on weapons was needed to put every child into
school by the year 2000 and yet it didn’t happen.
 1 billion children live in poverty (1 in 2 children in the
world). 640 million live without adequate shelter, 400
million have no access to safe water, 270 million have
no access to health services. 10.6 million died in 2003
before they reached the age of 5 (or roughly 29,000
children per day).

Poverty Around The World

 Around the world, in rich or poor nations, poverty has always been
 In most nations today, inequality—the gap between the rich and the
poor—is quite high and often widening.
 The causes are numerous, including a lack of individual
responsibility, bad government policy, exploitation by people and
businesses with power and influence, or some combination of these
and other factors.
 Many feel that high levels of inequality will affect social cohesion and
lead to problems such as increasing crime and violence.
 Inequality is often a measure of relative poverty. Absolute poverty,
however, is also a concern. World Bank figures for world poverty
reveals a higher number of people live in poverty than previously
 For example, the new poverty line is defined as living on the
equivalent of $1.25 a day. With that measure based on latest data
available (2005),
1.4 billion people live on or below that line.
 Furthermore, almost half the world—over three billion people—live
on less than $2.50 a day and at least 80% of humanity lives on less
than $10 a day.

Systemic tools of international relations

 Diplomacy is the practice of communication and negotiation between
representatives of states. To some extent, all other tools of international relations can
be considered the failure of diplomacy. Keeping in mind, the use of other tools are
part of the communication and negotiation inherent within diplomacy. Sanctions,
force, and adjusting trade regulations, while not typically considered part of
diplomacy, are actually valuable tools in the interest of leverage and placement in

 Sanctions are usually a first resort after the failure of diplomacy, and are one of the
main tools used to enforce treaties. They can take the form of diplomatic or
economic sanctions and involve the cutting of ties and imposition of barriers to
communication or trade.

 War, the use of force, is often thought of as the ultimate tool of international
relations. A widely accepted definition is that given by Clausewitz, with war being
"the continuation of politics by other means". There is a growing study into 'new
wars' involving actors other than states. The study of war in International Relations
is covered by the disciplines of 'War Studies’ and 'Strategic studies'.
Systemic tools of international relations
 The mobilization of international shame can also be thought of as a tool of
International Relations. This is attempting to alter states' actions through 'naming
and shaming' at the international level. This is mostly done by the large human rights
NGOs such as Amnesty International (for instance when it called Guantanamo Bay a
"Gulag") or Human Rights Watch. A prominent use of was the UN Commission on
Human Rights 1235 procedure, which publicly exposes state's human rights
violations. The current Human Rights Council has yet to use this Mechanism

 The allotment of economic and/or diplomatic benefits. An example of this is the
European Union's enlargement policy. Candidate countries are allowed entry into the
EU only after the fulfillment of the Copenhagen criteria.
 The Copenhagen criteria are the rules that define whether a country is eligible to
join the European Union. The criteria require that a state has the institutions to
preserve democratic governance and human rights, has a functioning market
economy, and accepts the obligations and intent of the EU. These membership
criteria were laid down at the June 1993 European Council in Copenhagen,
Denmark, from which they take their name. Excerpt from the Copenhagen
Presidency conclusions

Weaknesses to State

Structural weakness
Territorial weakness(Cross border
Less developed technology

Strengths of State

 Man power
 Natural Resources
 Ideology (New ideas)
 Strengthened defensive mechanism

Limitations to State
 Interdependence
 Many advocate that the current international system is
characterized by growing interdependence; the mutual
responsibility and dependency on others. Advocates of this
point argue that growing globalization is particularly with
international economic interaction. The role of international
institutions, and widespread acceptance of a number of
operating principles in the international system, reinforces
ideas that relations are characterized by interdependence.
 Dependency
 NATO (International Security Assistance Force ISAF) in
 Dependency theory is a theory most commonly associated
with Marxism, stating that a set of Core states exploit a set of
weaker Periphery states for their prosperity. Various versions
of the theory suggest that this is either an inevitability
(standard dependency theory), or use the theory to highlight
the necessity for change (Neo-Marxist).

Future of State
 Globalization has caused serious
impact on the life & credibility of state.
State does not exercise such influence
as it had in previous time but even
after all such developments state is
still a vital channel of national and
international life.