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Administrative Office Management, 8/e
by Zane Quible
©2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Systems Analysis
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Administrative Office Management, 8/e
by Zane Quible
©2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Integrated Systems
Are used by many organizations to control office
costs and improve their operating efficiency.
Areas typically incorporated into integrated systems
include these:
Sales
Production
Marketing Purchasing
Finance
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Administrative Office Management, 8/e
by Zane Quible
©2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Integrated
Systems
Are often comprised
of several subsystems,
which commonly
encompass the
organization’s
functional areas.
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Administrative Office Management, 8/e
by Zane Quible
©2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Functional Systems and Subsystems
Incorporate Several Components:
Equipment Employees
Forms/
Materials
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Administrative Office Management, 8/e
by Zane Quible
©2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Through systems analysis, the
interrelationships of the components are
studied:
 to simplify work processes
 to provide a solid foundation for managerial
decision making.

Systems Analysis
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Administrative Office Management, 8/e
by Zane Quible
©2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
System
Is a series of subsystems
comprised of interrelated
procedures to help achieve a
well-defined goal.
Procedures
Consist of related methods
necessary to complete various
work processes.
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Administrative Office Management, 8/e
by Zane Quible
©2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Objectives for Developing and Using Systems
1. To maximize the efficient utilization of the
organizational resources.
2. To control operating costs.
3. To improve operating efficiency.
4. To help achieve the objectives of the organization.
5. To help carry out the various functions of the
organization.
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Administrative Office Management, 8/e
by Zane Quible
©2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Advantages of Systems
1. Various functions of the organization are better
coordinated.
2. Wasteful, unproductive, and uneconomical
activities are eliminated.
3. The operating efficiency of the organization is
improved.
4. More effective control can be exerted over various
activities and functions.
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Administrative Office Management, 8/e
by Zane Quible
©2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Disadvantages of Systems
1. A certain amount of operating flexibility may be
destroyed when using a system.
2. Any inefficiency that is built into the system likely
will disproportionately increase as work flows
through the system.
3. A totally integrated system may be affected
somewhat when changes are made in one of its
subsystems.
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Administrative Office Management, 8/e
by Zane Quible
©2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Characteristics of Well-Designed Systems
Flexible
Adaptable
Systematic
Functional
Simple
Resourceful
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Administrative Office Management, 8/e
by Zane Quible
©2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Elements of Systems
(1 of 2)
Processing
Input
Flow of work through a system
begins with the input of some
type of resource.
The transformation of input into
desired output takes place during
the processing element, which
is composed of methods and
procedures.
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Administrative Office Management, 8/e
by Zane Quible
©2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Elements of Systems
(2 of 2)
Feedback
Interaction between the input
and processing elements
produces output.
Output
Enables the system to determine
whether results are meeting
expectations.
Controlling
Has both internal and external
dimensions.
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Administrative Office Management, 8/e
by Zane Quible
©2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Knowledge
Management
Is the result of increasing the
amount of technological
integration used in designing
operating systems and
procedures.
1. Is emerging from what used to be known as
document management.
2. Involves capturing and communicating
information to those who seek it or who need
it.
3. Involves providing information to the right
person at the right time.
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Administrative Office Management, 8/e
by Zane Quible
©2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Systems and Procedures Staffing Alternatives
Outside consultants
Full-time
Systems Staff
Part-time
Systems Staff

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Administrative Office Management, 8/e
by Zane Quible
©2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
1. Size of the organization.
2. Type of the organization.
3. Organization’s commitment to the total or
integrated systems approach.
4. Philosophy of top management toward the
systems and procedures function.
5. Type and extent of technology incorporated into
the system.
Factors That Determine Which
Staffing Alternative To Use
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Administrative Office Management, 8/e
by Zane Quible
©2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Outside Consultants
Frequently are hired on a retainer basis.
Advantages
Provide expertise that may not be available with the
other alternatives.
Can be more objective in their recommendations.
Are able to keep the system up to date.
Disadvantage
Are a costly alternative.
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Administrative Office Management, 8/e
by Zane Quible
©2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Full-time Systems Staff
Advantages
Disadvantage
Enables the organization to develop and improve on
a continual basis all of its systems and work processes.

Help is available when needed.
Potential conflict between line managers
and the systems staff.
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Administrative Office Management, 8/e
by Zane Quible
©2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Part-time Systems Staff
Advantages
Disadvantage
When an organization cannot afford the other
alternatives, a part-time staff is usually used.

Least costly alternative.
Staff may not have time nor expertise to carry
out needed assistance.
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Administrative Office Management, 8/e
by Zane Quible
©2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Steps Used in Designing or Modifying Systems
1. Clearly define the process to be studied.
2. Outline the details of the present process.
3. Analyze the present process.
4. Outline the improved process.
5. Install the new process.
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Administrative Office Management, 8/e
by Zane Quible
©2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Systems and Procedures Tools
Workload Chart
Flow Process Chart
Office Layout Chart
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Administrative Office Management, 8/e
by Zane Quible
©2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Workload Chart
Is also referred to as work distribution chart.
Identifies
1. Major activities performed by a given work
unit.
2. Amount of time a work unit as a whole spends on
each activity.

3. Activities performed by each employee and the
amount of time he/she spends performing the
activities.
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Administrative Office Management, 8/e
by Zane Quible
©2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Workload Chart Provides Answers
To These Questions
(1 of 2)
1. Is the work unit performing the work it is
intended to perform?
2. Are employees performing too many duplicate
operations?
3. Are the tasks that each employee performs of a
related nature?
4. Are the special skills and talents of the
employees being used to the fullest extent?
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Administrative Office Management, 8/e
by Zane Quible
©2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Workload Chart Provides Answers
To These Questions
(2 of 2)
5. Are the major functions of the work unit
actually consuming the greatest amount of
work time and effort?
6. Are the employees’ workloads evenly
distributed?
7. Are the employees productive?
8. Is the flow of work efficient?
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Administrative Office Management, 8/e
by Zane Quible
©2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Documents Used in Workload Chart Method
Daily Log
Used by employees to keep
track of their daily activities.
Summary Log
Identifies the tasks per-
formed by employees over
a longer period of time.
Activity List
Provides a composite list
of departmental activities
listed in descending order.
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Administrative Office Management, 8/e
by Zane Quible
©2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Flow Process Chart
Is especially useful for identifying each
step in a specific work process.
Various steps comprising a process are
categorized as:
Operation
Transportation
Inspection
Delay
Storage
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Administrative Office Management, 8/e
by Zane Quible
©2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Each operation step is classified as a get ready, do,
or put away step.


Special attention should be focused on the
do steps because if they can be eliminated,
then the get ready and the put away steps can
probably be eliminated as well.
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Administrative Office Management, 8/e
by Zane Quible
©2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Office Layout Chart
Is frequently used in conjunction with the flow
process chart.
Is well-suited for visualizing workflow.
Is used to identify backtracking, criss-crossing,
and inefficient workflow patterns.
Is completed by charting flow of work through the
premises.