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Contributions
of
Greece civilization

VIGEO GEORGE

ROLL NO: 30

EEE (PT)

GEC THRISSUR
The Land
The Land
Located in Europe in
Located in Europe in
the Aegean Sea
the Aegean Sea
Brief History of Greece

The first great civii!ati"# i# Greece a#$


Crete %as the &i#"a#'

It aste$ r"(gh) fr"* +000 ,C (#ti -.00


,C'

/r"(#$ -.00 ,C0 the &)ce#aea#


civii!ati"# s(11a#te$ the &i#"a#0 a#$
$"*i#ate$ Greece (#ti a2"(t --00 ,C0
%he# 2ar2aria#s 3#"%# as 4(ria#s
i#va$e$'
EXTEND EARLY BEGINING ! "LIS
#hat is "o$is%

A city state

A co&&unity of citi'ens (ith distincti)e custo&s* gods*


and (as a$so an o+,ect of intense re$igious-patriotic
de)otion

the Gree.s ans(er to the perennia$ conf$ict +et(een an


indi)idua$ and the co&&unity

#hat are so&e po$eis%


Athens* Sparta* The+es* /orinth* Argos* De$phi0

The po$is (as an independent* se$f-go)erning city of +et(een


12*222 and 322*222 peop$e0

Se)era$ do'en po$ises 4Gree. 5po$eis67 dotted the Gree.


countryside

In each po$is* po$itics* re$igion* and socia$ $ife (ere c$ose$y


intert(ined0
E&ergence of the "o$is*
or Gree. /ity-State

Starting around 822 B/ a ne( ci)i$i'ation*


the He$$enic* +eca&e do&inant in Greece0

The He$$enic ci)i$i'ation (as co&posed of


t(o strands* the Dorian and the Ionian0

This ci)i$i'ation ga)e rise to a ne( for& of


socia$9po$itica$ organi'ation: the po$is0
Gree. "o$is Ti&e Line

c0 ;22
c0 ;22
Ho&er
Ho&er

;12-112
;12-112
Age of /o$oni'ation
Age of /o$oni'ation

<=2
<=2
Athenians defeat "ersians at >arathon
Athenians defeat "ersians at >arathon

<82
<82
Xer?es in)ades Greece
Xer?es in)ades Greece

<;=
<;=
Spartans defeat "ersians at "$atea
Spartans defeat "ersians at "$atea

<;8-<;;
<;8-<;;
!or&ation of De$ian League
!or&ation of De$ian League

<3@
<3@
Start of "e$oponnesian #ar
Start of "e$oponnesian #ar

<@3
<@3
Athenian defeat at Syracuse
Athenian defeat at Syracuse
>a,or "o$is
Types of Go)ern&ent

T(o types of go)ern&ent (ere used in the


Gree. "o$ises0

The Dorians genera$$y had an o$igarchic


for& of go)ern&ent0

The Gree. (ord o$igarchy &eans ru$e +y


the fe(0

The Ionians de)e$oped the first de&ocratic


for& of go)ern&ent0

De&ocracy &eans ru$e +y the peop$e0


Sparta and Athens

Genera$$y spea.ing* the Dorians depended


upon agricu$ture* (hi$e the Ionians (ere
seafarers and &erchants0

The t(o pri&ary po$ises (ere Sparta and


Athens0

Sparta (as Dorian* o$igarchic* and had an


agricu$ture-+ased econo&y0

Athens (as Ionian* de&ocratic* and


depended on seafaring and trade0
The Great #ars

After the "ersian #ars* Greece (as di)ided into t(o


po(er +$ocs0

ne* the "e$oponnesian League* (as $ed +y Sparta0

The other (as the De$ian League* $ed +y Athens0

These po(er +$ocs fought a great (ar* fro& <3@-<2< B/0

The greatest cha$$enge to He$$enic ci)i$i'ation ca&e fro&


"ersia* to the east0

Greece fought t(o "ersian (ars* in <=2 B/* and in <8@


B/0

The Gree. po$ises for&ed an a$$iance* $ed +y Sparta and


Athens0

The Gree.s (on +oth (ars* ensuring that the roots of


(estern ci)i$i'ation (ou$d inc$ude Gree. thought0
Socrates and The Rise of
Socrates and The Rise of
"o$itica$ "hi$osophy
"o$itica$ "hi$osophy

ne of the greatest contri+utions of


He$$enic /i)i$i'ation (as its origination of
po$itica$ phi$osophy0

A ust +efore and during the Great #ar* an


Athenian citi'en* Socrates* +egan raising
Buestions such as* 5#hat is ,ustice%6

Socrates as.ed these Buestions of his fe$$o(


citi'ens* in pu+$ic p$aces0
"$ato
"$ato

Socrates most famous student was Plato, who


wrote the first great works of political
philosophy.

Platos most famous work is he !epublic,

Platos books are written as dialogues, or


conversations.

hese conversations are usually between a


character named Socrates, and other "thenian
citizens.

#n the Republic, Socrates is portrayed as talking


to two young men, "deimantus and Glaucon.
Aristot$e
Aristot$e

Plato started a school, called he "cademy.

$is most famous student was "ristotle.

"ristotle wrote many works of philosophy, and


made the first systematic effort to collect and
organize information on a wide variety of topics.

"ristotle might be considered the first scientist.

$is works are written as treatises, which are


more systematic, but much drier than dialogues.

%ne of these is the Politics, the first systematic


treatise on politics.
"$ato and Aristot$e
"$ato and Aristot$e
fro& Schoo$ of Athens +y Raphae$
fro& Schoo$ of Athens +y Raphae$
THALES ! >ILETCS
4B0/ DE1--1E<B0/7

"ny dia of circle divides it into e&ual parts.

he angles at the base of an isoceles triangle are


e&ual.

'hen two straight lines cross, the opposite angle


are e&ual.

"ngle in a semicircle is a right angle.

Property possessed by all right(angled


triangle.

)S&uarring of rectangle or construction


of a s&uare having the same area as a
given rectangle.
Ph)thag"ras
(,C'5607500)
Archi&edes
Archi&edes
4+c0E8;-E@E7
4+c0E8;-E@E7

Made fire using mirrors, burning glass and


burned Roman ships.

Screw of Archimedes (a device for raising


water)

Method of measuring the specific gravity

Area of circle.

olume of spere.

Arrived very good appro! for the value of pi.


(between ".#$%& and ".#$'()

)riciples of the lever and pulley,on spirals,on


parabola.
Apo$$onius
Apo$$onius
4+c E12-E227
4+c E12-E227

Showed all the conic curves can be


obtained from a single one by cutting the
section at different angles

*ave present names


#.)arabola + y2 =ax (the application
'.,llipse - y2= ax-bx2 (the deficiency)
here y' being in defficiency by b!'
"..yperbola- y2=ax+bx2(the e!cess) y'
being in e!cess by b!'
diophantus

#ntroduced algebraic methods into


maths

Systematic use of symbols *to denote


powers,e&uality, negative sign etc+

,ethods to solve e&uation of first and


second degree.
Eratosthenes 4+c E;D-@=17

-arth circumference is ./,0.1 miles * actually


./,234+

ilt of the earth a5is of rotation is


.6deg 47 *actually .6 deg /0+
Engineering achi)e&ents
Engineering achi)e&ents

8ifting of water using water screw*water wheel


having pots for lifting water on its
circumference+

9orce pump

'ater clocks * calculating time+

Cyclo meter * for surveying+

,illing grain * man power : animal power used


for turning+

Ship building

;now the operation of five simple machines like


7+lever .+wheel :a5le 6+the pulley /+wedge 4+
screw
Gree. &edicine
Gree. &edicine
$ippocrates<

8r"te eariest c"ecti"# "f gree3 *e$ica


%"r3s'
Galen *".= 7.>(7>>)

4isc"vere$ the circ(ati"# "f 2""$'

9(#cti"# "f the vei#s a#$ the arteries'

The "1erati"# "f the heart vaves

R"e "f res1irati"# i#the 1(rificati"#


"f2""$
GREEF THEATER
The rigins f Dra&a
The rigins f Dra&a
0

Thespis* a popu$ar (riter of


Dithyra&+s* is said to ha)e in)ented
dra&a (hen he as.ed one
5perfor&er6 to stand outside the
chorus to engage in so&e 5ca$$ and
response06
The Stage
Three >ain
"ortions of Gree.
Theatre:
S.ene G "ortion of
stage (here actors
perfor&ed 4inc$uded
@-3 doors in and out7
rchestra G
5Dancing "$ace6
(here chorus sang
to the audience
Theatron G Seating
for audience
Stages
Theatron
Theatron

The theatr"# (:vie%i#g71ace:) is %here the


s1ectat"rs sat' The theatr"# %as (s(a) 1art
"f hisi$e "ver""3i#g the "rchestra0 a#$ "fte#
%ra11e$ ar"(#$ a arge 1"rti"# "f the
"rchestra'
Ancient Gree. Art
Doric sty$e
Doric sty$e
(beauty of proportion was enhanced
(beauty of proportion was enhanced
by optical refinements)
by optical refinements)

U1%ar$ c(rvi#g "f 1atf"r*s gave vitait) a#$


c"rrecte$ a#) saggi#g i(si"#s'

S%ei#g "(ti#e "f the c"(*# shaft ((se$ t"


1reve#t a#) se#sati"# "f c"#cavit))

I#%ar$ i#ci#ati"# "f the c"(*# a;es

/$<(st*e#ts "f *e*2ers (3ee1i#g the <"i#ts


i#visi2e)
Geo&etric Art
Geometric Krater from the Dipylon
cemetery, Athens
ca. 740 B.C.E.
Hero and centaur ca. 70!7"0 B.C.E.
#ron$e
%oti&e 'tatuette of a Horse
late (th Century B.C.E.
#ron$e
rienta$i'ing Art
)anti*los Apollo
ca. 700!+(0 B.C.E.
#ron$e
Corinthian #lac*!fi,ure amphora
ca. +-!+00 B.C.E.
ceramic
"ep$os Fore
fro& the Acropo$is* Athens* Greece
ca0 132 B0/0E0
&ar+$e
<8 in0 high
Ear$y /$assica$ Art
Kritios Boy
ca. 4(0 B.C.E.
mar#le
.eus /or 0oseidon1
ca. 4+0!40 B.C.E.
#ron$e
)yron
ca. 40 B.C.E.
2oman mar#le copy after a #ron$e ori,inal
3*tinos and Kalli*rates
0arthenon, 4emple of
Athena 0arthenos
Acropolis, Athens, Greece
447!4"( B.C.E.
Caryatids from the 'outh 0orch of the Erechtheion Acropolis,
Athens, Greece
ca. 4-5!40 B.C.E. mar#le
Erechtheion
Acropolis, Athens,
Greece
ca. 4-5!40 B.C.E.
2eli,ion 6 reli,ious #eliefs
God H Goddess
God H Goddess
00

' Greeks had different gods for specific


activities'
-5<(

God of war

Goddess of love

God of music

;ing of gods
g"$$ess "f "ve
!e(s 3i#g "f g"$s
ares g"$ "f %ar
a11"" g"$ "f 1(rit) *(sic g(i$a#ce
conc$usion

Greek introduced to modern world new


disciplines of geometry, medicine, art,
philosophy, democracy and engineering
technology which helped the progress of
mankind.
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