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Artificial Intelligence In

Power System
Doshi Pratik H. Darakh Bharat P.
Power system has grown tremendously over a few
As the size and complexity of the power system consisting
of generators, transmission lines, power transformers,
distribution transformers, etc increases the possibility of
inviting faults.
The acquisition of data, the processing of those data for use
by the operator, and control of remote devices are the
fundamental building blocks of all modern utility control
Need of SCADA
In most systems there are locations where operations, must
be done from time to time and under specified norms and
constraints in accordance with a directed action , but the
cost of providing and maintaining an operator attendance
all the 24 hours in a day cant be justified.
The manual process works well for small networks but
consumes time, labours and efficiency in large networks &
also decreases reliability levels.
SCADA operates as a stand alone, autonomous system,
monitoring sensors, displaying data, outputting controls,
activating alarms and logging information to facilitate and
optimize the plant processes and on-going operations
SCADA is acronym for Supervisory Control and Data
What is SCADA?
SCADA is not a full control system, but rather focuses on
the supervisory level.
SCADA systems are used to monitor and control a plant or
equipment in industries such as telecommunications, water
and waste control, energy, oil and gas refining and
Fig: Typical SCADA system
Components of a SCADA system
Multiple Remote Terminal Units (also known as
RTUs or Outstations).
Communication infrastructure.
Master Terminal Unit (MTU) or HMI computer(s)
Master Station:
The "Master Station" are the servers and software
responsible for communicating with the field equipment
(RTUs, PLCs, etc), and to control system with the help of
Dual server is provided to the SCADA system hence
server failure does not affect the system.
In larger SCADA systems, the master station may include
multiple servers, distributed software applications, and
disaster recovery sites.
Human Machine Interface (HMI):
The Human-Machine Interface is a interaction among
human & machine to monitor and to control multiple
remote controllers, PLCs and other control devices.
An HMI also linked to a database, to provide trending,
diagnostic data, and management information such as
scheduled maintenance procedures, logistic information,
detailed schematics for a particular sensor or machine, and
expert-system troubleshooting guides.
Remote Terminal Unit (RTU):
The RTU connects to physical equipment, and reads
status data or analog measurement data, and send out
digital commands or analog setpoints.
By sending signals to equipment the RTU can control
equipment, such as opening or closing a switch or a
setting the rate of transmission of current.
An important part of most SCADA implementations are
ALARAMS which are digital status point that has either
the value NORMAL or ALARM.
Characteristics of RTUs
Data Networking,
Data Reliability
Data Security
Communication infrastructure
SCADA systems have traditionally used combinations of
radio and direct serial or modem connections to meet
communication requirements.
Now Ethernet and IP over SONET is also frequently used
at large sites such as railways and power stations.
Hardware Solutions
SCADA solutions often have Distributed Control System
(DCS) components.
Smart" RTUs or PLCs, which are capable of autonomously
executing simple logic processes without involving the
master computer, are increasingly used.
A functional block programming language, IEC 61131-3, is
frequently used to create programs which run on these
RTUs and PLCs.
IEC 61131-3 are easy to learn and require minimal training
Working of SCADA system
Most of the control is performed automatically by RTUs or
by PLCs. Host control functions are usually restricted to
basic site overriding or supervisory level intervention.
Data acquisition begins at the RTU or PLC level (meter
readings / equipment status reports) and are communicated
to SCADA as required.
Data is compiled and formatted in such a way that using the
HMI the controller can make supervisory decisions to adjust
or override normal RTU (PLC) controls.
SCADA systems include input-output signal hardware,
controllers, HMI, networks, communications, databases,
and software.
Fig 2: shows basic working of SCADA
Operational philosophy:
Hardware for SCADA systems is generally made durable to
withstand temperature, vibration, and extreme voltage, but
reliability is enhanced by having redundant hardware and
communication channels.
Detection of faults and isolation of faulty equipments from
healthy equipments.
It not only manages the Power System Infrastructure, but
also manages the Information Infrastructure.
It provides uninterrupted power supply.
The SCADA systems established are playing a vital role in
displaying the exact rate at the appropriate time, reliability
level and helping a lot in reducing the risks and restoring
normalcy in grid in case of occurrence of sudden