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- Lesson #18 - Dividing Whole Numbers by Fractions
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You are on page 1of 60

tool of all!!

This is a course in basic introductory

algebra.

Essential Prerequisites:

Ability to work with directed numbers (positives

and negatives)

An understanding of order of operations

Stephen is 5 years older than Nancy.

Their ages add to 80.

How old are they?

Without algebra, students would probably guess different

pairs of values (with each pair differing by 5) and hope to

somehow find a pair that add to 80. Eventually, we might

work out that Stephen is 42 and Nancy is 37 .

The problem, however, is that there can be too

much guesswork. Algebra takes away the

guesswork.

SEE THE SOLUTION!

Contents

1. Substituting numerals and

pronumerals

2. Like and unlike terms adding

and subtracting

3. Multiplying

4. Dividing

5. Mixed operations and order of

operations

GO!!

GO!!

GO!!

GO!!

GO!!

Section 1

Substituting numerals and pronumerals

When working with algebra, you will meet TWO different

kinds of terms..

NUMERALS

These are all the ordinary numbers youve

been working with all your life. Numerals

include 2, 5, 7, 235, 15, 9, 2.757, 3.07,

9, 7.6 , 0, and so on.

PRONUMERALS

These are symbols like , , , and letters

(either single letters or combinations) like x,

y, a, b, ab, xyz, x

2

, y

3

etcPronumerals often

take the place of numerals.

If a = 5

b = 2

c = 3

find the value of

(1) a + b (2) c a b

a + b

= 5 + 2

= 7 (ans)

c a b

= 3 5 2

= 4 (ans)

SOLUTION SOLUTION

NOTE

WHEN WORKING WITH PRONUMERALS YOURE

ALLOWED TO LEAVE OUT MULTIPLICATION SIGNS.

PRONUMERALS ARE USUALLY WRITTEN

ALPHABETICALLY (ab rather than ba)

3 x a = 3a

2 x p = 2p

a x b = ab

5 x a x b = 5ab

c x a x b = abc

THIS DOESNT APPLY WHEN WORKING ONLY

WITH NUMBERS

3 x 4 cant be written

as 34!

If a = 5

b = 2

c = 3

find the value of

(3) ab + c (4) 4bc 2a + ab

ab + c

= 5 2 + 3

= 13 (ans)

4bc 2a + ab

= 4 2 3 2 5 + 5 2

= 24 (ans)

SOLUTION SOLUTION

= 24 10 + 10

Remember to

do

multiplication

first!!

If a = 5

b = 2

c = 3

find the value of

(5) a(b + c) (6) 4b(7c 4a)

a (b + c)

= 5 (2 + 3)

= 25 (ans)

4b(7c 4a)

= 4 2 (7 3 4 5)

= 8 (ans)

SOLUTION SOLUTION

= 8 (21 20)

= 5 5

= 8 1

= 4 b (7 c 4 a) = a (b + c)

If a = 3

b = 10

c = 4

find the value of

(1) 3a + b (2) c (4a b)

= 3 a + b

= 9 + 10

= 1 (ans)

c (4a b)

= 4 (4 3 10)

= 18 (ans)

SOLUTION SOLUTION

= 3 3 + 10

= 3a + b

REMEMBER

ORDER OF

OPERATIONS

= c (4 a b)

= 4 ( 12 10)

= 4 ( 22)

= 4 + 22

Note a ( b) is

same as a + b !!

If a = 3

b = 10

c = 4

evaluate

(3) a

2

+ b

2

(4)

= a a + b b

= 9 + 100

= 109 (ans)

= 2.4 (ans)

SOLUTION

SOLUTION

= 3 3 + 10 10

= a

2

+ b

2

MULTIPLY

BEFORE

YOU ADD!!

Section 2

Like and Unlike terms

Adding and Subtracting

Work out the value of 5 7 + 3 7.

5 7 + 3 7

= 56

Now work out the value of 8 7.

8 7 = 56

So here we have two different questions that give the

same answer, 56. So we can make this conclusion:

57 + 37 = 87

= 35 + 21

5 7 + 3 7 = 8 7

Or, in words,

5 lots of 7 + 3 lots of 7 = 8 lots of 7

Can you predict the value of 9 5 2 5?

If you said 7 5 then you would be correct!

Check that both sums equal 35!

Try these! Make sure you write the SHORT SUM first,

then the answer!

Long sum Short sum Answer

2 x 8 + 5 x 8 7 x 8 56

6 x 9 + 2 x 9

4 x 7 + 1 x 7

8 x 9 3 x 9

7 x 6 3 x 6

5 x 2 + 2

8 x 9

5 x 7

5 x 9

4 x 6

Rewrite as

5 x 2 + 1 x 2

6 x 2

72

35

45

24

12

So by now you are hopefully beginning

to see the general pattern. For example

using the fact 3 + 4 = 7 we can write.

3 1 + 4 1 = 7 1

3 2 + 4 2 = 7 2

3 8 + 4 8 = 7 8

3 9 + 4 9 = 7 9

In fact, the pattern holds for all numbers (not just 1, 2,

8 and 9) and can be written more generally as

3 a + 4 a = 7 a

or

3 x + 4 x = 7 x

or

any pronumeral (letter) of your choice!

Now try these:

7 b + 8 b =

2 y + 9 y =

4 p 2 p =

6 q 1 q =

8 x + 1 x =

4 x + x =

8 a 2 a =

15 b

11 y

2 p

5 q

9 x

5 x

6 a

Remember x

really means 1x

What would be a single statement that

would cover all possibilities in this pattern?

8 7 + 5 7 = 13 7

8 2 + 5 2 = 13 2

8 12 + 5 12 = 13 12

Ans:

8 a + 5 a = 13 a

5 9 2 9 = 3 9

5 2 2 2 = 3 2

5 79 2 79 = 3 79

Ans: 5 w 2 w = 3 w

And this pattern?

Of course we could have

used any pronumeral here

it does not have to be a or w.

When youre writing algebra sums, youre

allowed to LEAVE OUT

MULTIPLICATION SIGNS!

So,

3 c can be written as 3c

7 a b can be written as

7ab

x y can be written as

xy

BUT

3 4 CANT be written as 34!!

Now try these:

4a + 7a =

5y + 8y =

2p 6p =

q + 7q =

x + x =

10x + x =

a 7a =

11a

13y

4p

8q

2x

11x

6a

Remember x really

means 1x

7z + 5z =

2z

When terms are multiplied, the

order is not important.

6 5 is the same as 5 6 (both = 30)

a b is the same as b a. i.e. ab =ba. We usually

use alphabetical order though, so ab rather than ba.

a b c = b a c

= a c b

= c a b etc .

6 a is the same as a 6 i.e. 6a = a6

But the number is usually written first!

Although its still correct, we dont write a6.

Always write 6a. So. PUT THE NUMBERS

BEFORE PRONUMERALS

Again, we prefer

alphabetical order

so abc is best.

More about like terms

We know that ab and ba are the same thing,

so we can do sums like

4ab + 5ba =

7xy + 9yx =

3abc 2bca + 8cab =

9ab

16xy

9abc

mnp 2mpn 7pmn = 8mnp

Note that in each case,

the number goes first

alphabetical order is used for the answer

(though it is still correct to write 9ba, 16yx etc)

Key

Question:

We know we can write

7 5 + 4 5 as a short sum 11 5,

but is there a similar way of writing

6 3 + 5 7 ?

If we calculate this sum, it is equal to 18 + 35 = 53

But there are no factors of 53 (other than 1 and 53)

so there is NO SHORT SUM for 6 3 + 5 7 !!

Because of this, we can conclude that there is no

easy way of writing 6a + 7b, other than 6a + 7b!

In summary, we can simplify 6a + 7a to get 13a.

But cannot simplify 6a + 7b.

6a + 7a is an example of LIKE TERMS.

Like terms can be added or subtracted to

get a simpler answer (13a in this case)

6a + 7b is an example of UNLIKE TERMS.

Like terms cannot be added or subtracted.

You will encounter terms with powers such as x

2

,

3a

2

, 5p

3

, 3a

2

b etc. These are treated the same

way as terms with single pronumerals. x

2

and x

are UNLIKE, just as x and y are.

2a and 3a

2

are UNLIKE and cant be added or subtracted

3b and 3b

4

are UNLIKE and cant be added or subtracted

2ab and 4ab

2

are UNLIKE and cant be added or subtracted

2a

2

and 3a

2

are LIKE and can be added to get 5a

2

. Subtracted to get 1a

2

or a

2

9a

6

and 4a

6

are LIKE and can be added to get 13a

6

. Subtracted to get 5a

6

2a

2

band 4ba

2

are LIKE and can be added to get 6a

2

b. Subtracted to get 2a

2

b

2a

2

band 4ab

2

are UNLIKE and cant be added or subtracted. Theyre unlike

because the powers are on different pronumerals

ab and ac are UNLIKE and cant be added or subtracted

3a and 5 are UNLIKE and cant be added or subtracted

3a and 3 are UNLIKE and cant be added or subtracted

4a 11pk

2

6w 2kp

2

6 7a

ab 9bca

3y h

7pk

2

2c

2

7d 12c

5c 7d

3h 5w

3p

2

k 5ba

3c

2

y

4abc 2

In the table below, match each term from Column 1 with

its like term from Column 2

Answers next slide

4a 11k

2

p

6w 2kp

2

6 7a

ab 9bca

3y h

7pk

2

2c

2

7d 12c

5c 7d

3h 5w

3p

2

k 5ba

3c

2

y

4abc 2

In the table below, match each term from Column 1 with

its like term from Column 2

Like terms very important in addition

and subtraction algebra sums !

3a + 2a = 5a

6ab 2ab = 4ab

7a

2

3a

2

= 4a

2

2ac 7ca

= 5ac

8xy

2

3xy

2

= 5xy

2

x 7x + 2x

= 4x

8x 3y

= 8x 3y

5x

2

3x

= 5x

2

3x

2ab 3ac

= 2ab 3ac

8x

2

3x

2

= 5x

2

These questions have

algebra parts that are

like (the same). When

that happens, you can

simplify them!

These questions have

algebra parts that are

different. When that

happens, you cant

simplify them!

A mixed bag. Which have like terms? Simplify those that do.

5a 3a

2x + 7x

3x + 8y

4a 2b

5a + 4

2x + 7x

2

3xy + 8yx

4ab 2b

5a + 4a

2

3x 9x

xy + 7yx

4ab 7ba

5a + 6

x + 6x

8x + 8y

a 7a

5abc + 4cba

2x

3

+ 2x

2

xy + yx

ab ba

5 + 4a

2

x 9x

4x

3

+ 5x

3

7ac ca

2a

9x

11xy

6x

6xy

3ab

7x

6a

9abc

2xy

0

8x

9x

3

6ac

Simplifying expressions with more than two terms

3x + 5x + y + 8y

= 8x + 9y (ans)

The like terms are added

together

2a 3a + 5b 6b

= a b (ans)

The like terms are simplified

5a

2

+ 3a + 2a

2

+ a

= 7a

2

+ 4a (ans)

The like terms are simplified

Remember that terms with a

and a

2

are unlike and cant be

added

Simplify 5 7 + 6 2

Working left to right 5 7 + 6 2

= 2 + 6 2

= 4 2

= 2

But we can also rearrange the terms in the

original question using cut n paste

using cut n paste

5 7 2 +6

First, draw lines to separate the

terms, placing lines in front of

each + or sign

Now, cut any term between the

lines (with its sign) and move it to a

new position. Well move the +6

next to the 5, swapping it with the

7

5 2

Now the original question appears as

5 + 6 7 2

Which can now easily be simplified to the

correct answer, 2.

Note that we did not HAVE to cut and paste the

+6 and the 7 . We are allowed to cut and

paste ANY TERMS we like.

We will now apply this to help us simplify ALGEBRAIC

EXPRESSIONS, and aim to cut and paste so like terms

are together.

Example 1: Simplify 3a + 2b + 5a 9b

Here well use cut n paste

to bring the as together

and the bs together by

swapping the +2b and +5a

3a

+2b +5a 9b

3a

9b

The question now becomes 3a + 5a + 2b 9b

= 8a 7b ans

Simplifying like terms, we get

3a +5a =8a

2b 9b = 7b

Example 2: Simplify a 9b 2b + 8a

Again use cut n paste to

bring the as together and

the bs together by

swapping the 9b and +8a

a

9b 2b +8a

a

2b

The question now becomes a + 8a 2b 9b

= 9a 11b ans

Simplifying like terms, we get

a +8a =9a

2b 9b = 11b

Example 3: Simplify 2x 5 + 4x + 8

Again use cut n paste to

bring the xs together and

the numbers together by

swapping the 5 and +4x

2x

5 +4x +8

2x

+8

The question now becomes 2x + 4x 5 + 8

= 6x + 3 ans

Simplifying like terms, we get

2x +4x =6x

5 +8 =+3

Example 4: Simplify 3y 2x 5x

2

+ 4y + x 2x

2

Here there are 6 terms which

can be grouped into 3 pairs of

like terms (2 terms contain an x,

2 terms contain an x

2

and 2

terms contain y.

= 7y x 7x

2

ans

Simplifying like terms,

we get

3y +4y =7y

x 2x = x

5x

2

2x

2

= 7 x

2

3y

2x 5x

2

+4y +x 2x

2

Now swap +x with 5x

2

= 3y

2x 5x

2

+4y +x 2x

2

Swap +4y with 2x

= 3y

2x 5x

2

+4y +x 2x

2

This puts the ys together

This puts the xs together

and the x

2

terms together

Section 3

Multiplying and working with brackets

Remember the basic rules

Place numbers before letters

Keep letters in alphabetical order

Two negatives multiply to make a positive

A negative and a positive multiply to make a negative

If an even number of negatives is multiplied, the

answer is a positive (because they pair off)

If an odd number of negatives is multiplied, the

answer is a negative (one is left after they pair off)

You can rearrange terms that are all being multiplied

(3 x 4 x 5 = 5 x 3 x 4 = 4 x 5 x 3; ab = ba etc)

When doing multiplication, we do not have to bother

with like terms!

x 3y =

4a 4 a =

3xy

c a b =

abc

a 5 2 =

3kw w 3 k =

10a

x a b w = abwx

a 3bc = 3abc

3b a = 3ab

a 5c =

5ac

2a b = 2ab

5x 3y 6p = 90pxy

2a 3b c 5d

=

30abcd

a 5b 6c = 15abc

NOTE in this last question, its

easier to change the order and do

a x 6c x 5b

a a

= aa

= a

2

b b b

= bbb

= b

3

x x x

= xxx

= x

3

a

2

a

= aa a

= a

3

b

2

b b

3

= bbbbbb

= b

6

( x)

4

= ( x)(x)( x)(x)

= x

4

= aaa

(3a)

2

= 3a 3a

= 9a

2

7b 7b 7b 7b

(7b)

4

= 2401b

4

(5x)

3

= 5x 5x 5x

= 125x

3

( ab)

4

= ab ab ab ab

= +a

4

b

4

NOTE: negatives raised to an even power give a POSITIVE

negatives raised to an odd power give a NEGATIVE

QUESTION ANSWER QUESTION ANSWER

2a b = 2a 5a a =

5a 3b = a b ab 2ba =

2a 3 = 4a 3a

2

=

a a = a

2

a

3

=

2 a = y y y =

3a 2a = 2ab 3a

2

b

3

=

4p 2p = cd 2cd =

2a 4a 7a = 2a 3a 5a =

ab 3ab = 2a + 3a + 5a =

a 3ab 5b 2 = (2ab)

3

=

ab 2ab 3a = (5abc)

2

=

a 3 2a 6b (2cdg)

3

=

2ab

15ab

6a

a

2

2a

6a

2

8p

2

56a

3

3a

2

b

2

30a

2

b

2

6a

3

b

2

36a

2

b

10a

3

2a

3

b

3

12a

3

a

5

y

3

6a

3

b

4

2c

2

d

2

30a

3

11a

8a

3

b

3

25a

2

b

2

c

2

8c

3

d

3

g

3

Note the blue one! Its an addition!!

Section 4

Dividing

Basically, all expressions with a division sign can

be simplified, or at least rewritten in a more

concise form.

Consider the expression 24 18.

This can be written as a fraction and simplified

further by dividing (cancelling) numerator and

denominator by 6.

18

24

18

24

3

4

4

3

The same process can be applied to algebraic

expressions.

Simplify 12x 3

3

12x

3

12x

Example 1

Solution

12x 3

Writing as a fraction

= 4x ans

Now think. What is the largest number that divides

into both numerator and denominator? (the HCF )

4

1

Note when there is only a

1 left in the

denominator, ignore it!

3

1

4x

Simplify 8ab 2a

a

ab

2

8

a

ab

2

8

Example 2

Solution

8ab 2a

Writing as a fraction

= 4b ans

Dividing numerator and denominator by

HCF 2

4

and also by a.

1

acd

abc

18

28

acd

abc

18

28

Example 3

Solution

28abc 18acd

Writing as a fraction

Dividing numerator and denominator by

HCF (2) and by a and by c.

d

b

9

14

14

9

Note in this question (and

many others) your answer will

be a fraction!

abbcccc

aaabbc

8

20

Simplify 20a

3

b

2

c 8ab

2

c

4

abbcccc

aaabbc

8

20

Example 4

Solution

20a

3

b

2

c 8ab

2

c

4

Writing as a fraction and in expanded

format to make dividing easier

Dividing numerator and denominator by

HCF (4)

and cancelling matching pairs of

pronumerals (a with a, b with b etc)

ccc

aa

2

5

5

2

3

2

2

5

c

a

xxyyyzzzzz

xyyz

15

5

Simplify 5xy

2

z 15x

2

y

3

z

5

xxyyyzzzzz

xyyz

15

5

Example 5

Solution

5xy

2

z 15x

2

y

3

z

5

Writing as a fraction and in expanded

format to make dividing easier

Dividing numerator and denominator by

HCF (5)

and cancelling matching pairs of

pronumerals (x with x, y with y etc)

xyzzzz 3

1

1

3

4

3

1

xyz

IMPORTANT NOTES

(1) When a negative sign remains in top or

bottom, place it in front of the whole fraction

(2) When only a 1 remains in the top, you

must keep it. (Remember when a 1

remains in the bottom, you can ignore it)

Section 5

Mixed Operations

Before anything, simplify all BRACKETS

Then..

Working from left to right, do all

DIVISON and MULTIPLICATION

operations

Then..

Working from left to right, do

all ADDITION and

SUBTRACTION operations

B

DM

AS

Example 1

Solution

Simplify 20 2 9

No brackets.

Do the multiplication first

20 2 9

= 20 18

Now do the subtraction

= 2 (ans)

NOTE good setting out has all the = signs

directly under one another, and never more

than one = sign on the same line.

Example 2

Solution

Simplify 13 (6 + 5) 4

Do brackets first.

Now do the multiplication

= 13 11 4

= 13 44

Now do the subtraction

= 31 (ans)

13 (6 + 5) 4

Example 3

Solution

Simplify 2x 3 + 4 5x

No brackets.

Do the two multiplications

working left to right

= 6x + 20x

= 26x (ans) Now do the addition

2x 3 + 4 5x

2x 3 + 4 5x

Remembering

that you can

only add LIKE

TERMS

Example 4

Solution

Simplify 2x 6xy 4y 3x

2

No brackets.

Do the two multiplications

working left to right

= 12x

2

y 12x

2

y

= 0 (ans) Now do the subtraction

2x 6xy 4y 3x

2

2x 6xy 4y 3x

2

Example 5

Solution

Simplify 12ab (2b + 3b) 4a

Do brackets first.

Now do the multiplication

= 12ab 5b 4a

= 12ab 20ab

Now do the subtraction

= 8ab (ans)

12ab (2b + 3b) 4a

Example 6

Solution

Simplify 8a 12ab (4b + 2b) + 3a a 5a

2

Brackets first.

Division &

multiplication

= 8a 12ab 6b + 3a a 5a

2

= 8a 2a + 3a

2

5a

2

Now subtract like terms

= 6a 2a

2

(ans)

8a 12ab (4b + 2b) + 3a a 5a

2

Example 7

Solution

Simplify (3ab

2

)

2

(ab + ab) 4ab

3

+ 2a

3

b ab

Brackets

first

(3ab

2

)

2

(ab + ab) 4ab

3

+ 2a

3

b

5

ab

= 9a

2

b

4

2ab 4ab

3

+ 2a

3

b

5

ab

Note (3ab

2

)

2

= 3ab

2

x 3ab

2

= 9a

2

b

4

Multiplication

& Division

= 9a

2

b

4

8a

2

b

4

2a

2

b

4

Note 2ab x 4ab

3

= 8a

2

b

4

Note 2a

3

b

5

ab

= 2a

2

b

4

= a

2

b

4

Subtract as

these are all

like terms

The solution to our introductory problem on

Slide #3

Let Nancys age = x

So Stephens age = x + 5

These add to 80, so

x + 5 + x = 80

2x + 5 = 80

2x = 75

x = 75 2

x = 37

So Nancys age is 37 and

Stephen (who is 5 years older)

must be 42

NO GUESSWORK!!!

BACK TO

CONTENTS

- Lesson #18 - Dividing Whole Numbers by FractionsUploaded byMR.E
- Envisions and InvestigationsUploaded byShevette Snell
- Guide to RM CityUploaded by1dulles
- Algebra a Very Short IntroductionUploaded byJHON WILNER PAREDES CONDORI
- eureka math grade 3 module 5 parent tip sheetUploaded byapi-340575766
- Gr4_LP_4_NF_B_4MultFract.docxUploaded byJalaineLoisLatoja
- 162907790-Platinum-Mathematics-Grade-4-Lesson-Plans.docxUploaded byPortia Mudalahothe
- 07 MathematicsUploaded bysimpletonts
- Yearly Lesson Plan Mt4Uploaded byummionna
- newsletter 2016-2017 2 17 17 - google docsUploaded byapi-331727818
- JG Dividing by FractionUploaded byjedisam
- Math Observation 2Uploaded byGarrett Maternick
- case study presentationUploaded byapi-438871711
- chapter 5Uploaded byapi-167135013
- fractions unitUploaded byapi-298602124
- tx69698_ApxUploaded byChristian Pinedo Reategui
- par-br5-u7Uploaded byapi-262824283
- 2. Mathematics Review Part 1 p135 p176Uploaded byAirotciv Ivy Blaise Mangawang
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