Urolithiasis | Medicine | Diseases And Disorders

URINARY STONE

Urolithiasis

Ernie G. Bautista II
January 2014

FEU-NRMF
School of Medicine
URINARY STONE
Urolithiasis

1. CASE
2. REVIEW OF ANATOMY
3. CLASSIFICATION OF STONE
4. DIAGNOSIS
5. TREATMENT
6. PREVENTION

CASE
• 52 y/o, male

• Presented to the ER with severe right
flank pain radiating to the RLQ

• BP =154/96, PR = 79 bpm, RR = 24 cpm
and T = 36.7° C
• The pain was insidious in onset and
had an intensity of 10/10 on verbal
analog scale which decreased to 8/10
after administration of Toradol and
Morphine medications provided in the
ER.
• The pain was constant, lasting 3 hours
in duration, and he had 2 episodes of
emesis since its onset.

• He did not report experiencing any
chest pain, dyspnea, fever or bowel
and bladder dysfunction.
• His medical history included a similar
pain in the left flank 2 years earlier
which was diagnosed as kidney
stones.

Physical Examination
• E/N
• He did not display any signs of edema or
nausea, abdominal discomfort or
indigestion.
• Abdomen was soft with diffuse
tenderness which increased over the
RLQ.
• Urinalysis: moderate increase in specific
gravity (1.030), significant hematuria (3+)
and a trace of protein.

Diagnostic Imaging
• Abdominal
radiograph - right
ureteric calculus
• Discharged from
the ER with the
hope that he
would then pass
the stone
naturally.
• Unfortunately, the following day, the
patient returned reporting that the
medications did not significantly affect
his pain and his referral to the urology
department was expedited.
• CT scan:
– 7mm calcific density in the right proximal
ureter with associated moderate
hydronephrosis and perinephric stranding
– Multiple 1–2mm non-obstructing calculi
were additionally noted in the left renal
parenchyma.
• Diagnosis: right ureteric calculus
• Managed with pain reliever(Ketoroloc,
Morphine and Naproxen) and
antiemetic medications.


• The consulting urologist concluded
that because his symptoms were
refractory to analgesics, and because
the calculus was unlikely to pass on its
own, emergency laser lithotripsy was
indicated.

• Because his urine appeared murky
and was presumed to be infected and
the lithotripsy was abandoned.

• As an alternative, a ureteric stent was
placed to help drain the dilated and
infected collecting system.

• Antibiotics and Tamsulosin were
additionally prescribed.

• The patient was scheduled for stent
and calculus removal two months later
and instructed to attempt natural
passage of the stone during this
period.


URETER
• Smooth muscle fibers 
propel urine from the kidneys to
the urinary bladder
• 25–30 cm (10–12 in) long
• ~3–4 mm in diameter
• Histology: transitional epithelium and
an additional smooth muscle layer in
the more distal 1/3 to assist with
peristalsis.


UPJ
UVJ
What are the 3 common sites
of obstruction?
UROLITHIASIS
• Urinary calculus disease

• Obstruction (partial or complete) of
the urinary tract by >1 calculi

• Affects 10% of the population over the
course of lifetime

UROLITHIASIS

CLASSIFICATION OF STONE
• Urinary stones can be classified
according to the following aspects:
1. stone size
2. stone location
3. stone composition (mineralogy)
4. x-ray characteristics of stone
5. aetiology of stone formation
6. risk group for recurrent stone formation
Stone composition (mineralogy)

X-ray characteristics of stone
Radiopaque Poor
Radiopaque
Radiolucent
•Calcium oxalate
dihydrate
•Calcium oxalate
monohydrate
•Calcium
phosphates
•Magnesium
ammonium
phosphate
(struvite)
•Apatite
•Cystine
•Uric acid
•Ammonium urate
•Xanthine
•2,8-
dihydroxyadenine
•‘Drug-stones’
Aetiology of stone formation
Non-infection stones
• Calcium oxalates
• Calcium phosphates
• Uric acid

Infection stones
• Magnesium-
ammonium-
phosphate
• Apatite
• Ammonium urate
Genetic causes
• Cystine*
• Xanthine
• 2,8-dihydroxyadenine

‘Drug stones’


High risk stone formers
I. General factors
• Early onset of urolithiasis in life (especially
children and teenagers)
• Familial stone formation
• Brushite containing stones (calcium
hydrogen phosphate; CaHPO4 . 2H2O)
• Uric acid and urate containing stones
• Infection stones
• Solitary kidney
High risk stone formers
II. Diseases associated with stone formation
• Hyperparathyroidism
• Nephrocalcinosis
• Gastrointestinal diseases or disorders (i.e.
jejuno-ileal bypass, intestinal resection,
Crohn’s disease, malabsorptive conditions
• Sarcoidosis

III. Drugs associated with stone formation

High risk stone formers
IV. Genetically determined stone formation
• Cystinuria (type A, B, AB)
• Primary hyperoxaluria (PH)
• Renal tubular acidosis (RTA) type I
• 2,8-dihydroxyadenine
• Xanthinuria
• *Lesh-Nyhan-Syndrome (inc. uric acid)
• Cystic fibrosis
High risk stone formers
V. Anatomical and urodynamic abnormalities
associated with stone formation
• Medullary sponge kidney (tubular ectasia)
• Ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction
• Calyceal diverticulum, calyceal cyst
• Ureteral stricture
• Vesico-uretero-renal reflux
• Horseshoe kidney
• Ureterocele
• Urinary diversion (via enteric hyperoxaluria)
• Neurogenic bladder dysfunction
DIAGNOSIS

DIAGNOSIS
I. Medical history and PE
• Loin pain, vomiting, and sometimes fever
• Asymptomatic vs Symptomatic
II. IMAGING STUDIES
• Ultrasonography  used as d 1’
procedure
• Non-contrast enhanced CT > intravenous
urography (IVU)  standard method for
diagnosing acute flank pain


Recommendation

NCCT should be used to confirm a stone
diagnosis in patients presenting with acute
flank pain because it is superior to IVU


• Uric acid & xanthine stones
– Radiolucent on plain films and can be
detected by NCCT

DIAGNOSIS
III. Basic Analysis
BLOOD
• Serum blood sample
– Creatinine, Uric acid, Ionized calcium, sodium,
Potassium
• Blood cell count
• CRP
• Coagulation test (PTT and INR) - If
intervention is likely or planned

DIAGNOSIS
III. Basic Analysis
URINE
• Urinary sediment/dipstick test out of spot
urine sample
– red cells
– white cells
– nitrite
– urine pH level by approximation
• Urine culture or microscopy
Analysis of Stone Composition
• Stone analysis should be performed in all
first-time stone formers.
• Repeat stone analysis is needed in case
of:
– recurrence under pharmacological
prevention;
– early recurrence after interventional therapy
with complete stone clearance;
– late recurrence after a prolonged stone-free
period
• Preferred analytical procedures are
– X-ray diffraction
– Infrared spectroscopy
1. For renal/ureteral colic
2. Sepsis in the obstructed
kidney
3. Stone relief

TREATMENT
For Renal/Ureteral Colic
• 1st choice: treatment should be
started with an NSAID
– Diclophenac sodium*
– Indomethacin
– Ibuprofen

• 2nd choice:
– Hydromorphine
– Pentazocine
– Tramadol
Management of sepsis in the
obstructed kidney
• Decompression
– placement of an indwelling ureteral catheter
under GA for a period of time
– percutaneous placement of a nephrostomy
catheter
• Collect urine following decompression for
antibiogram.
• Start antibiotic tx after

Definitive treatment of the stone should be
delayed until sepsis is resolved.


Stone relief
I. Observation of Kidney Stones
II. Medical expulsive therapy (MET)
III. Chemolytic dissolution of stones
IV. ESWL (extracorporeal shock wave
lithotripsy)
V. Endourology techniques
I. Percutaneous nephrolitholapaxy (PNL)
II. Ureterorenoscopy (including retrograde
access to renal collecting system)
VI. Open and laparoscopic surgery






Stone relief
I. Observation of Kidney Stones
• Ureteral stone < 10 mm and if active
stone removal is not indicated,
observation with periodic evaluation is
an option for initial treatment.
• May be given medical therapy to
facilitate stone passage during the
observation period*.
– Medical expulsive therapy (MET)
Likelihood of passage of ureteral stones

II. Medical expulsive therapy
(MET)
• Alpha-blockers (tamsulosin*,
doxazosin, terazosin, alfuzosin and
naftopidil)
• Calcium-channel blockers (nifedipine)
• Alpha-blockers + Corticosteroids

Duration of MET tx: 1 month

III. Chemolytic dissolution of
stones
• Knowledge of stone composition is
therefore mandatory prior to
chemolysis.

3.1. Percutaneous irrigation chemolysis
3.2. Oral chemolysis
3.1. Percutaneous irrigation
chemolysis
At least 2 nephrostomy catheters should be used to allow irrigation of the
renal collecting system, while preventing chemolytic fluid draining into
the bladder and reducing the risk of increased intrarenal pressure
Methods of percutaneous irrigation chemolysis
3.2. Oral Chemolysis
• Efficient ONLY for uric acid calculi.
• Tx is based on alkalinisation of the urine
1. alkaline citrate or
2. Na bicarbonate
• pH should be adjusted to b/w 7.0 & 7.2.

Recommendations:
• Dipstick monitoring of urine pH .
• Compliance.
IV. ESWL (extracorporeal shock
wave lithotripsy)
•Shock wave rate: optimal shock wave frequency is 1.0 Hz
•Prospective randomised trials have shown that lowering wave
frequency from 120 to 60-90 shock waves/minute improves the stone-
free rate, especially in stones >100 mm2
Extracorporeal shockwave
lithotripsy
• Can remove > 90% of stones in adults

• Success rate for ESWL depends on the
efficacy of the lithotripter and upon the
following factors:
– size, location of stone mass (ureteral, pelvic
or calyceal), and composition (hardness) of
the stones
– patient’s habitus
– performance of ESWL
Contraindications of ESWL
• Pregnancy
• Bleeding diatheses
• Uncontrolled urinary tract infections
• Severe skeletal malformations and severe
obesity
• Arterial aneurysm in the vicinity of the
stone treated
• Anatomical obstruction distal of the stone
ESWL-related complications
V. Endourology techniques
A. Percutaneous nephrolitholapaxy
(PNL)
– a minimally invasive surgical procedure
for the removal of renal (kidney) stones

1. Rigid nephroscopes
2. Flexible nephroscopes
3. Intracorporeal lithotripsy

Rigid nephroscopes

Flexible nephroscopes
Intracorporeal lithotripsy
• Intracorporal lithotripsy is usually
necessary prior to extraction of larger
fragments.
• Intracorporeal stone disintegration can
be performed in several different ways:
– Laser Lithotripsy
– Electrohydraulic Lithotripsy
– Ballistic Lithotripsy
– Ultrasonic Lithotripsy

Intracorporeal lithotripsy
Laser Lithotripsy

Electrohydraulic
Lithotripsy (EHL)

Ballistic Lithotripsy

Ultrasonic
Lithotripsy

>uses a
holmium:YAG laser
to vaporize kidney
stones

>can fragment all
types of kidney
stones

>a ureteroscope is
first placed. Then,
fibers of different
sizes can be
placed through
the endoscope to
reach the stone.
>Uses two
electrodes to
produce a spark
that creates a
shockwave to
break apart the
stone

>D/A: potential for
damaging
adjacent tissue
>Uses a small
endoscopic
jackhammer to
generate energy
that uniquely
targets inflexible
stones

>D/A: requires a
rigid lithotriper and
a straight
ureteroscope.
>First
intracorporeal
technique

>A rigid probe
inserted to the site
emits high-
frequency sound
waves


Laser Lithotripsy Electrohydraulic Lithotripsy (EHL)
Pre-operative imaging
• Pre-procedural imaging for PNL, which
includes a contrast media study, is
mandatory to assess stone
comprehensiveness, view the anatomy of
the collecting system, and ensure safe
access to the kidney stone.
• Ultrasonography or CT of the kidney and
the surrounding structures can provide
information about interpositioned organs
within the planned percutaneous path.
Positioning of the patient:
prone or supine?
• Traditionally, the patient is positioned prone
for PNL.
• The supine position is as safe as the prone
position.
• Compared with the prone position, the
advantages of the supine position for PNL are:
– shorter operating time;
– possibility of simultaneous retrograde
transurethral manipulation;
– more convenient position for the operator;
– easier anaesthesia.
B. Ureterorenoscopy URS
(including retrograde access to renal
collecting system)
• Instruments
– Rigid scopes
– Flexible scopes
– Digital scopes

• Stones that cannot be extracted directly
must first be disintegrated.
• If it is difficult to access stones in need of
disintegration within the lower renal pole,
it may help to displace the calculi into a
more accessible calyx.
Complications of URS*
VI. Open and laparoscopic
surgery for removal of renal
stones

6.1. Open surgery
6.2. Laparoscopic surgery
Open surgery
• Become a 2
nd
or 3
rd
treatment option
after ESWL and endourological surgery
(i.e. URS and PNL)

• Incidence of open stone surgery
– developed countries - 1.5%
– developing countries - from 26% to 3.5 %
Indications for open surgery
1. Concomitant open surgery
2. Non-functioning lower pole (partial
nephrectomy), non-functioning kidney
(nephrectomy)
3. Patient choice following failed minimally invasive
procedures; the patient may prefer a single
procedure and avoid the risk of needing more
than one PNL procedure
4. Stone in an ectopic kidney where percutaneous
access and ESWL may be difficult or impossible
5. For the paediatric population, the same
considerations apply as for adults
Indications for open surgery
6. Complex stone burden
7. Treatment failure of ESWL and/or PNL, or
failed ureteroscopic procedure
8. Intrarenal anatomical abnormalities:
infundibular stenosis, stone in the calyceal
diverticulum (particularly in an anterior
calyx), obstruction of the ureteropelvic
junction, stricture
9. Morbid obesity
10. Skeletal deformity, contractures and fixed
deformities of hips and legs
11. Co-morbid medical disease
Laparoscopic surgery
• Laparoscopy is associated with lower
post-operative morbidity, shorter hospital
stay and time to convalescence, and
better cosmetic results with comparably
good functional results

• It can also be an alternative to PNL in the
absence of availability (developing
countries) or PNL failure and as an
adjunct to PNL, especially when access
proves difficult (ectopic kidneys).

Laparoscopic ureterolithotomy
• Although highly effective, it is not a
first-line therapy in most cases
because of its
– invasiveness,
– longer recovery time,
– and the greater risk of associated
complications compared to ESWL and
URS
Laparoscopic ureterolithotomy
• Indications for laparoscopic kidney-
stone surgery include:
– Complex stone burden
– Failed previous ESWL and/or
endourological procedures
– Anatomical abnormalities
– Morbid obesity
– Nephrectomy in case of non-functioning
kidney
Laparoscopic ureterolithotomy
• Indications for laparoscopic ureteral
stone surgery include:
– Large, impacted stones
– Multiple ureteral stones
– In cases of concurrent conditions
requiring surgery
– When other non-invasive or low-invasive
procedures have failed
Recommendations
• Laparoscopic or open surgical stone
removal may be considered in rare cases
where ESWL, URS, and percutaneous URS
fail or are unlikely to be successful.
• When expertise is available, laparoscopic
surgery should be the preferred option
before proceeding to open surgery. An
exception will be complex renal stone
burden and/or stone location.

Recommendation






• Treatment choices should be based on
the size and location of the stone and
available equipment for stone removal.
PREVENTION

THANK YOU!
MANAGEMENT OF
URINARY STONES and
RELATED PROBLEMS
DURING PREGNANCY
Diagnostic option
• Ultrasonography is the method of
choice in the practical and safe
evaluation of a pregnant women.
• In symptomatic patients with suspicion
of ureteral stones during pregnancy,
limited IVU, MRU, or isotope
renography is a useful diagnostic
method.
Management
• If intervention becomes necessary,
– placement of a internal stent,
– percutaneous nephrostomy, or
– ureteroscopy
Recommendation
• Following the establishment of the
correct diagnosis, conservative
management should be the firstline
treatment for all non-complicated
cases of urolithiasis in pregnancy
(except those who have clinical
indications for intervention)

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