Competency Mapping

• A Competency is an underlying characteristic of a person which enables him /her to deliver superior

performance in a given job, role or a situation.

• Competencies are seen mainly as inputs. They consist of knowledge, attitudes and skills that could affect an individual’s ability to perform.

Relates to information

Relates to the ability to do,

Relates to qualitative aspects personal traits


Outstanding Performance of tasks or activities

Behaviour Indicators
• A Competency is described in terms of key behaviours that enable recognition of that competency at the work place. • These behaviors are demonstrated by excellent performers on-the-job much more consistently than average or poor performers.

Analytical Thinking (an example of competency) What is it? • The ability to
– – – – break problems into component parts consider or organize parts in a systematic way Identifying root causes Proactively assessing the consequences of different courses of action for solution of the problem.

Examples of Key Behaviour Indicators
– Independently researches and seeks information and solutions to issues – Ability to identify what needs to be done and take steps to get it done – Seek information when not sure of what the problem is or to gain more insight – Able to identify the root cause – Willing to experiment with non traditional ways

What is a Competency Model
• A competency model is a valid, observable, and measurable list of the knowledge, skills, and attributes demonstrated through behavior that results in outstanding performance in a particular work context. • Typically A competency model includes
– Competency titles – Definitions of those titles – Key Behaviour indicators

Broad Categories in Competency
• Generic – Competencies which are considered essential for all employees regardless of their function or level. For example - Communication, initiative, listening skills etc. • Managerial Competencies – Competencies which are considered essential for managerial or supervisory responsibility

Broad Categories in Competency
• Technical / Functional Specific competencies which are considered essential to perform a specific role in the organisation within a defined technical or functional area of work.

Why Competency approach?
Conventional Job Analysis leads to • long lists of tasks and the skills / knowledge required to perform each of those tasks • Data generation from the experts • Results in Effective Performance Competency model leads to • a condensed set of personal characteristics • Data generation from outstanding performers in addition to experts and other job incumbents • Results in Outstanding Performance

Identify Outstanding from Satisfactory Performance
• Competency approach allows managers to make a distinction between a person's ability to do a set of particular tasks at specified minimum acceptable level and the ability to do the whole job containing these tasks in an outstanding manner.

Remember Competencies are always Behaviour Specific
• Asking whether an employee "takes initiative," (a very general concept) is open to interpretation • Instead ask, "Was it typical of Him to carry out tasks without your having to request that they be done?,"
– This question has only 2 sides : either a ‘yes’ or ‘no’, isn’t it?

• Competencies help……
– companies ‘raise the Bar’ of performance expectations – teams and individuals align their behaviours with key organisational strategy – each employee understand how to achieve stated expectations

Competency based recruitment
• Competency based recruitment processes reduce the chances of a costly hiring mistake and increase the likelihood of identifying and selecting the right person for the right job

Competency based Performance Appraisal
• Competencies enable – establishment of clear high performance standards – Collection and proper analysis of factual data against the set standards. – Conduct of objective feedback meetings – direction with regard to specific areas of improvement

Competency based Training
• Opportunity to identify/ develop specific training programmes • Focused Training enabling improvement in specific technical and managerial competencies • Better ROI on training?

Competency based Development
• Competencies – enhances the understanding of ‘development’ and the individual gets the necessary tools to take responsibility for their own ‘development’ – give the managers a tool to empower them to develop people

Competency based Pay
• Provide an incentive for employees to grow and enhance their capabilities

Methodology of competency mapping
The steps in building of a model are….. • • • • • • • • • Collect enough background information about the organisation Decide on the Job Positions that require competency Models Discuss the application of the competency model Select a data collection method and plan the approach Organize Data collected Identify main themes or patterns Build the model Defining specific behaviour Indicators Review the model

Data Collection Methods
Structured process to get all the participants to think systematically about the job, skills and personal characteristics needed for success. Structured interviews with superior performers which involves detailed analysis of a large number of events and experiences.

Data Collection Methods
• Generic competency Dictionaries can give…… Conceptual frameworks of commonly encountered competencies and behaviour indicators Serve as a starting point to the model building team Can be used in by asking the participants to select a set of generic competencies related to the job and rate the importance

Model building methods
• • • • Full information about the company Decision on the job positions Discussion on the CM application Basic data collection on the job responsibilities – – – – Review job description understand performance criteria Discuss specific behaviours List top ten competencies

Model building methods
• Critical incident technique (CIT) - interviewing top performers on incidents – – – – – – that lead to effective performance that lead to ineffective performance Find out and discuss specific behaviours List those behaviours List the competencies

Model building methods
• Content Analysis
– Group behaviours – Match behaviours to competencies using competency dictionary as a guideline – Evolve new set of competencies if any – Match behaviour indicators identified through CIT to the top 10 competencies identified earlier – Review the model and make make changes wherever necessary