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Techniques of

Construction/Furniture Design
Flooring Types
Soft Flooring

Hard Flooring


Resilient Floor Coverings
Flooring with a semi-hard
surface that returns to its
original shape after stress
Warmer and quieter to walk
Not quite as durable
Vinyl and plastic laminate
Resists stains, affordable
Sheet Vinyl
6, 9, 12 foot sheets
Locking systems of carpets
Types of carpets
Materials of carpets
Installation of carpet tiles
Introduction to Textile.
A textile is a cloth, which is either woven by hand or machine.
"Textile" has traditionally meant, "a woven fabric".
The term comes from the Latin word texere, meaning to
Textiles are formed by weaving, knitting, knotting, or pressing
fibres together (felt).
Textiles are often associated with the production of clothing.
Types of textiles include
animal-based material such as wool or silk,
plant-based material such as linen and cotton, and jute,
synthetic material such as polyester,acrylic and rayon.
A carpet is a textile floor
covering consisting of
different type of layer of

The pile is generally either
made from wool or a
manmade fibre
(polypropylene, nylon or

Usually consists of twisted
tufts which are often heat-
treated to maintain their

according to locking

according to material
The carpet is produced on a loom, quite
similar to woven cloth.
The pile can be plush or berber.
Plush carpet is a cut pile
Berber carpet is a loop pile.
There are new styles of carpet combining the
two styles called cut and loop carpeting

Cut pile carpet constructions
can be used in both residential
and commercial installations.
Beautifully crafted and colored
yarns add personality to any
Very versatile decoratively,
ideal for casual rooms, kids'
rooms, etc.
Subtle color flecks help hide
soil that might appear between

Rarely used in the
home because of low
cost and reduced
Capability of providing
long time use, newer
constructions utilize
large loops, lower
It's structure makes it
easier to use.


Level loop
Acrylic : synthetic
material , it is a
manmade substance,
similar in
appearance and feel
to wool.

They are washable,
and easily can be
sticked on the floor
with glue.

The price starts from
45Rs/sq feet.

Cheapest yet strong.

Make some very
impressive and affordable
floor coverings.

Aesthetic in nature, have
an earthy look with
attractive weaves.

The price starts from
25Rs/sq feet

Knittedconstructed of knitted yarns held
together with latex backing.
NeedlepunchMasses of fibers rather than
yarns held together by an interlocking fiber-
punching machine; inexpensive.

Step 1: Mark the Center of the Room

Step 2: Square the Lines

Step 3: Distribute Tiles for Equal

Step 4: Find the Pile Direction

Step 5: Lay the Center Tiles

Step 6: Lay the First Large Square

Step 7: Trim Tiles At the Walls

Step 8: Roll the Floor

A small carpet
woven in a pattern
of colors, typically
by hand in a
traditional style.

Carpet Floors Uses
Carpet is typically installed wall-to-wall to eliminate
the maintenance of hard flooring surfaces around
the edge of a carpet. Rugs, on the other hand, are
often used to accentuate a tile or wood floor. In
areas where there is heavy foot traffic, rugs can be
used to equalize wear and help prevent tracking onto
other floor coverings.

Carpet offers a number of benefits over hard and
resilient flooring materials. Carpet prevents slipping;
it provides an additional source of insulation, it has
acoustical properties that can effectively lower noise
levels; and it is the most resilient of all floor
coverings, which is a major benefit to individuals
who must remain on their feet for extended periods.
Carpet Components:

Primary Backing

Secondary Backing

Pile is the yarn that we see and can readily
touch. The fibers can either be synthetic or
natural in composition.

Test of Pile Quality:
Pile density; the greater the density of pile, the
better the carpet. Carpet with greater pile density
hold their shape longer and are more resistant to dirt
and stains. One common test of density is to bend a
piece of carpet, and if the backing can readily be
seen, the carpet is of an inferior quality.
Face weight; is the weight of the carpets surface
fibers in ounces or grams per square yard. The
greater the face weight, the higher the quality.
Height of the pile; longer fibers are better
than shorter fibers.

Amount of twist the pile fibers have receives;
the tighter the twist, the better the carpet.
The backing is on the underside of the carpet;
it secures the tufts of pile and gives additional
strength and stability to the carpet. Most
carpets have a double backing, a primary
backing to which the yarn is attached and an
outer backing called the secondary backing. A
layer of latex adhesive is sandwiched between
the two layers to seal the pile tufts to the
primary backing.
Types of Backing:
Jute; a natural fiber imported from India and

Polypropylene; a synthetic thermoplastic

Foam rubber.

Padding can be placed under carpet to provide
extra insulation, deaden sound, add comfort,
and extend the life of the carpet by serving as
a shock absorber.
Types of Padding:
Foam rubber

Natural materials such as jute and
hair blends.
Sizes of Carpets:
Broadloom carpets 12 feet in width, but can
be ordered up to 15 feet in width.

Carpet runners 2 feet to 9 feet in width.

Carpet squares or tiles 18 square inches.
Carpet Maintenance:
Inspection and Prevention

Interim Cleaning Method

Restorative Cleaning Method

Spot Cleaning
Inspection and Prevention
The most frequent activity, which should occur on a
continual basis. Carpets need to be inspected for
spills and stains, which are far easier to remove if
they are treated before they have a chance to set.
Prevention includes the use of mats to absorb dirt
and spills around food preparation areas and the use
of grates, track-off mats, and carpet runners to
absorb dirt and grit and control wear at entrances
and in high-foot-traffic locations.
Interim Cleaning Method
Interim cleaning methods include carpet
sweeping, vacuuming, bonnet cleaning, and
spot stain removal.
Interim carpet care is absolutely necessary to
remove gritty soil and spots before these
elements become embedded in the carpet,
causing the pile to wear prematurely.
Restorative Cleaning Methods
Interim cleaning methods do not remove the
gummy, sticky residues and the dry
particulates that have become stuck to them.

Deep cleaning methods must be employed to
restore the carpet to a near original condition.

Spot Cleaning
Spot and spills call for immediate action. If
allowed to set, many substances can
permanently stain a carpet, especially one
that is made of nylon or wool.
Carpet Problems:
Pile distortion




Shedding / pilling
Pile Distortion
A general term for a number of problems with
the carpets face fibers. Fibers can become
twisted, pilled, crushed, or flared and matted.
Pile distortion occurs when the carpet receives
heavy foot or equipment traffic. Improper
cleaning methods can also cause pile
Shading occurs when the pile in a carpet is
brushed in two different directions so that
dark and light areas appear.
Shading is normal feature of almost all
carpets/Vacuuming or pile lifting the carpet in
one direction can help to reduce a shading
problem, but will probably not eliminate it.
Every carpet will fade with time. Sunlight,
wear, cleaning, and natural aging can combine
to accelerate color loss.
Premature fading may occur if the carpet is
improperly cleaned. Improper cleaning or spot
removal can actually do more damage than
some permanent stains. Always pretests
carpets before using aggressive spot-removal
Wicking (sometimes called browning) occurs
when the backing of the carpet becomes wet
and the face yarns draw or wick the moisture
and color of the backing to the surface of the
carpet. Wicking can often be prevented by
promptly attending to spills and by following
proper cleaning procedures that avoid over
wetting the carpet.
Shedding / Pilling
Short pieces of face fibers are often trapped in the
carpet when it is manufactured. As the new carpet is
walked upon, these pieces work themselves to the
surface of the carpet and can make a new carpet
look littered and unkempt. Shedding will eventually
top. In the meantime, frequent vacuuming will
prevent the carpet from looking littered. Pilling,
often the result of cleaning, can be removed by
heavy vacuuming or by gently cutting loose fibers
from the carpet with scissors.
Difference Between Carpet & Rugs
Usually the two words carpets and rugs are used interchangeably. Both are
floor coverings with the only difference in size. Rugs are smaller than
Rugs do not usually exceed the length of 2m (6.5ft). They usually have
multiple uses. They may be used as centerpiece flooring, or hung on wall.
They may be used as foot rugs sofa or bed throws or as table decor. They
usually have an artistic or stylish touch in terms of patterns, shape or
color. They may be as per the themes for a kids room, prayer rugs, for a
lounge for a dressing room etc.
The style of the rug varies with the purpose. Hand knotted rugs may have
intricate patterns of traditional Persian style or more contemporary types
but have a rather fine finish. As per the size and purpose, they can be used
as wall decor, on table tops and sofas or to give an accent to the flooring.
Tufted and felt wool rugs are also used in the same manner. Shagged rugs
are more commonly used as bed or sofa throws or corner foot rugs.

Usually anything larger than 2m or 6.5ft is termed as carpets.
They are primarily used as floor coverings. They accentuate
the theme of the room. They may form the plain wall to wall
covering to the wide centerpieces.

They may be hand-knotted, tufted, machine made or felt
wool. The hand knotted carpets may have intricate patterns or
simple geometrical ones over all, in center or in the corner
with the traditional appeal or the contemporary style.
Machine made plain or with an overall patterns are used for
wall to wall coverings.
Why Buy a Rug?

There are a number of reasons to add a rug or two to any room in ones home. A rug is not
simply a decorative choice, but also a very functional piece of soft furnishing.


Modern rugs are largely chosen as decoration. Rugs are made in such a large variety of colors
that they tie in nicely to any style of home decor as well as any color scheme. Decorative rugs
can be surprisingly ornate, and the designs can vary from popular childrens cartoon
characters to very detailed contemporary subjects. A decorative rug can bring the rest of a
room together nicely and can turn a stark living space into a much more sumptuous one.


Carpets are installed wall-to-wall for a number of reasons, including their soundproofing
properties. An alternative, popular flooring choice is hardwood or laminate. While this type
of surface is very easy to keep clean, sounds do reflect off of hard surfaces. An area rug can
remedy this in an attractive way. Since sound is absorbed by the fibers of the rug rather than
being reflected off the floor, it creates a much quieter space.


Whether it is placed on carpet or on a hardwood or laminate floor,
a rug will often add additional cushioning to the floor. This can be
very useful in households with smaller children who are prone to
falling over and hurting themselves. It also creates a pleasant
surface to walk on.


While hard flooring is practical, it does not offer the same insulative
properties as a carpet and underlay. Placing rugs on the floor can be
an attractive solution. Because of the packed nature of the fibers,
heat is trapped in the winter, and cool indoor temperatures are
maintained in the summer.