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PRESENTATION
ON
EARTHING SYSTEMS
AT
LPG PLANT
BY
SIDDHI NATH JHA
ON
29/09/2009
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The earth system is required for any plant or electrical
equipment or distribution network so that whenever any
fault occurs due to break down of insulation, the
equipment and personnel are protected.


Earth resistance of the System should not exceed 1
Minimum spacing between 2 electrodes should be 2 mts.
Earth Grid shall be 2meter away from building column
and to be buried at the depth of 600 mm.


PRACTICES TO BE FOLLOWED IN EARTHING SYSTEM
PURPOSE
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Interconnections of G.I strips in the earth grid should be
done by welding instead of bolting and to avoid rusting it
should paint coated with zinc-rich paint (EPIL 4X-4 or
Black bitumen paint)
The connection of the grid strip with the earth electrodes
shall be made in way that it shall be possible to isolate
the earth electrode and measure its earth resistance
Down conductors of lightening arrestors shall be
connected to the separate earthing pits not to the
earthing grid directly
All the earthing pits shall be interconnected so as to
obtain a minimum earth resistance 1

PRACTICES TO BE FOLLOWED IN EARTHING SYSTEM
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All earthing connections to be checked for tightness,
loose connections leads to sparking which can be
dangerous and rusted connections should be rectified by
applying zinc rich paint
To maintain records all the earth connections should
numbered serially to maintain records and co-relate
Motor Generators or diesel generators which are coupled
flexibly and which are not mounted on the common bed-
plate are to be provided with a common earthing bond
between the two machines
All the lightning fixtures made of metal should be
earthed.

PRACTICES TO BE FOLLOWED IN EARTHING SYSTEM
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Earthing conductor of transformer Neutral shall be
connected to the 2 Nos separate & distinct earthing pits
and not to the earthing grid directly.
Earthing conductor of Generator (s) Neutral shall be
connected to the 2Nos separate & distinct earthing pits
and not to the earthing grid directly
Earthing conductor of Low voltage equipment like
Computers, UPS VHF Antina shall be connected to the
2Nos separate & distinct earthing pits and not to the
earthing grid directly.

PRACTICES TO BE FOLLOWED IN EARTHING SYSTEM
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TYPICAL ARRANGEMENT OF PIPE EARTHING TYPICAL ARRANGEMENT OF PIPE EARTHING
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Llayers of Charcoal (30 KG) mixed with sand
Mixed 150 gm of Bentonite, Calcium chloride, Sodium
Carbonate and Copper sulphate alternately along with
above mixture
Add 10 lit. water in each layers (Normally 10% of the
weight of the dry soil)
Compressed soil layer on the top

NOTE:- Minimum qty of Charcoal & Sand = 60 kg and
Maximum moisture content should not exceed 20% of
the weight of the dry soil.
CONSTRUCTION OF EARTH PIT
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TYPICAL SCHEMATIC EARTHING &
PROTECTIVE CONDUCTOR
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Conductivity of the soil or resistivity of the soil- Can be
Improved by:
1. Adding Coke
2. Adding Salt
3. Adding Bentonite
4. Adding Water

MOISTURE CONTENT OF THE SOIL

GENERAL REQUIREMENT OF HEALTHY EARTHING
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MAINTENANCE OF EARTH ELECTRODES
If the earth resistance is high, pour salt water in the
ratio of 1:10 + 150gm of bentonite
Records shall be kept of the resistance of sub-station
and generating station individual earth electrodes and
the grid, as measured after installation as well as when
subsequent tests are carried out
Normally annual measurement of earth resistance shall
be carried out but local circumstances in the light of
experience may justify increase or decrease in this
interval but it should not be less than once in two years

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In case of LPG earth measurement should be done once
in six months.
Periodical visual inspection of all earth electrodes
connection, shall be carried out to ensure there rigidity
and other signs of deterioration
The neighboring soil to the earth electrode shall be kept
moist, where necessary, by periodically pouring water
through a pipe if fitted along- with it or by pouring water
in the immediate vicinity of the earth electrode.



MAINTENANCE OF EARTH ELECTRODES
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SAFE PRACTICES FOR HANDLING ELECTRICITY
Ensure Earthing and Bonding:-
The Resistance value of an earthing system to general
mass of earth should not exceed:-
4 Ohms for electrical systems and metallic structures.
7 Ohms for Storage Tanks.
1.0 Ohms for main earth grid and bonding
connections between joints in pipe lines and
associated facilities.
2 Ohms for each electrode to the general mass of
earth

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THANK YOU