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Data collection methods

Survey Methodologies
Observation Interviewing Questionnaires
Experimentation
Communication
Approach/Survey
Observational
Approach
Research
Question
Conditions
behaviors
Events,
processes,
procedures
Attitudes,
intentions
Motivations,
expectations

Lab experiments

Field Experiments



Pilot Surveys
Cross Sectional surveys

Longitudinal surveys

Trend
Cohort
Panel

Observation is a systematic process of
recording the behavioral patterns of people,
objects, and occurrences without questioning
or communicating with respondents
(Zikmund, 1999)


Also referred to as unobtrusive.

Data collected through observation could be
quantitative or qualitative.
Observation is an appropriate method of data
collection when

Purpose must be disguised.

Respondents unwilling to participate.

Natural setting is imperative.

Behavior data needed.

Need to avoid message filtering.
Spatial use of sites
Examines and discovers aspects of space utilization
at places like workplace, shopping malls, roads etc.

Examines the amount and direction of interaction
between people.

Workplace behavior
Observes physical actions and non-verbal behavior.
Basically used for quality checks.
Consumer Testing/mystery shopping
Observe and evaluate experience of using a facility
or service.

Complementary Research
Observation can be used to complement other
methods of data collection to remove sampling
variance.

Social behavior
Observe social behavior to build explanation.
E.g. observing kids at a playground to understand
how they socialize with each other.




Observation is direct or indirect

Observation is concealed or unconcealed.

Role of observer: participating or not
participating.



Direct Observation
When researcher is physically present and personally
monitors what takes place.


Indirect Observation
When recording of data is done through a technical
aid.

Concealed Observation
When observer shields themselves from participants
of their observation by using maybe one way
mirrors, hidden cameras, microphones etc.

Unconcealed Observation
When participants know about the presence of the
observer.

Role of Observer as participant
Observer participates in the situation or event (acts
as both observer and participant).

Role of observer as non participant
Observer keeps himself detached from the situation
(acts only as an observer).


Observation
Participant
Concealed
(mystery shopping)
Unconcealed
(lives in a tribe to understand
their culture and participate
in their activities)
Non-participant
Concealed
(observing people in a
grocery store but not
engaging in the situation)

Unconcealed
(Auditors, evaluators)
Choose a site
Choose observation points.
Choose study time periods.
Choose between continuous observation or
sampling.
Determine count frequency.
Decide what to observe.
Division of site into zones.
Design of recording sheet.
Conduct observation and Analyse data
Surveys
Qualitative
Method
In-depth
interviews
Focus groups
Quantitative
Methods
Questionnaire
Surveys
In-depth Interviews

Group interviews/Focus groups

Structured
Unstructured

Face to Face
Telephonic

Computer assisted Interviews
CATI
CAPI

Taking notes
Questionnaires.,
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.,..,TBC