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Concepts of State and

Meaning of State
A state is a community of persons more
or less numerous, permanently occupying
a definite portion of territory, having a
government of their own to which the
great body of inhabitants render
obedience, and enjoying freedom from
external control.
The Philippines is a state.
Elements of a state
1. People
- The mass of
the population
living within the
answers the question, who governs
no specific number requirement
the state shall neither be too small nor
yet one that seems great but has no
unity. (Plato)

Elements of a state
2. Territory
- demarcated area
that rightly
belongs to the

answers the question, where?
Terrestrial, water and aerial
should be permanent and large enough
to be self-sufficing
Elements of a state
3. Government
- Refers to the agency
to which the will of the
state is formulated,
expressed, and carried
Elements of a state
4. Sovereignty
- May be defined as the supreme power
of the state to command and enforce
obedience to its will from the people
within its jurisdiction and corollarily to
have freedom from foreign control.

a. Internal power of the
state to rule within its
b. External the freedom
of the state to carry out
its activities without
subjection to or control
by other states.

Origin of states

1. Divine right theory
2. Necessity or force theory
3. Paternalistic theory
4. Social contract theory
Divine right theory
God created the state and that he gave certain people the divine right to
govern this land.

Necessity or force theory
one or a grouped forced all people within the area to obey his or their

Paternalistic theory
Aristotle, the Founding Father of the theory, believed that the State is a
natural form of human life, that it is impossible for man to communicate
with other men without the State. As social beings men aspire to
unification, to creating a patriarchal family. Rise of amount of the
families their unification result in forming the State. Aristotle posited
that the State Power is actually continuation of father's power.

Social contract theory
Government was born out of necessity people agreed
for the need to create a government and gave the state
its necessity.

State distinguished from nation

The state is a political concept while
a nation is an ethnic concept.

State distinguished from nation

A state is not subject to external control
while a nation may or may not be
independent of external control.
State distinguished from nation

A single state may consist of one or more
nations or people and conversely, a single
nation may be made up of several states.
State distinguished from

they are usually regarded as identical. As
ordinarily, the acts of the government are
the acts of the state.
State distinguished from

A state cannot exist without a
government, but it is possible to have a
government without a state.
State distinguished from

A government may change, its form may
change, but the state, as long as its
essential elements are present, remains
the same.
Forms of Government

forms of government refer to the basic
rules by which a nation carries out its
there is no standard for the classification
of governments
actual arrangements differ from
theoretical ones

governments: Aristotelian
Number of
As to extent of powers exercised by the
central or national government
a. Unitary - control of national and
local affairs is exercised by the
central or national government
b. Federal powers of the government
are divided between to sets of
organs, one of the national and the
other for local affairs
As to the relationship of the between the
executive and the legislative branches of the
a. Parliamentary legislative and executive
bodies are fused together

b. Presidential the executive is
constitutionally independent of the