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An institution is any structure or mechanism

of social order and cooperation governing the

behavior of a set of individuals within a given
human community.
The term "institution" is commonly applied to
customs and behavior patterns important to a
society, as well as to particular formal
organizations of government and public
Institutions are also a central concern for law,
the formal mechanism for political rule-
making and enforcement.
Marriage and the family
Religion and religious institutions
Educational institutions - schools (preschool,
primary/elementary, secondary, and post-
Research community - Academia and
universities; research institutes
Law and legal system - courts; judges; the
legal profession (bar) jurisprudence,
Criminal justice or penal systems - prisons
Military or paramilitary forces
Police forces
Mass media - including the news media
(television, newspapers) and the popular
media -
Industry - businesses, including
corporations- financial institution, factory,
capitalism, division of labor
Civil society or NGOs - Charitable
organizations; advocacy groups; political
parties; think tanks; virtual communities

Marriage (or wedlock) is a social union or
legal contract between people that creates
It is an institution in which interpersonal
relationships, usually intimate, are
acknowledged in a variety of ways, depending
on the culture or subculture in which it is
found. Such a union, often formalized via a
wedding ceremony, may also be called
People marry for many reasons, including one
or more of the following: legal, social,
emotional, economic, spiritual, and religious.
These might include arranged marriages,
family obligations, the legal establishment of a
nuclear family unit, the legal protection of
children and public declaration of
commitment. The act of marriage usually
creates normative or legal obligations between
the individuals involved. In some societies
these obligations also extend to certain family
members of the married persons. Some
cultures allow the dissolution of marriage
through divorce or annulment.
Marriage is usually recognized by the state,
a religious authority, or both. It is often
viewed as a contract. Civil marriage is the
legal concept of marriage as a governmental
institution irrespective of religious affiliation,
in accordance with marriage laws of the
Although the institution of marriage pre-
dates reliable recorded history, many cultures
have legends concerning the origins of
marriage. The way in which a marriage is
conducted and its rules has changed over
time, as has the institution itself, depending
on the culture or demographic of the time
A marriage is usually formalized at a wedding
or marriage ceremony. The ceremony may be
officiated either by a religious official, by a
government official or by a state approved
Within the parameters set by the law in which
a marriage or wedding takes place, each
religious authority has rules for the manner in
which weddings are to be conducted by their
officials and members.

Hinduism sees marriage as a sacred duty that
entails both religious and social obligations.
Old Hindu literature gives many different types of
marriages and their categorization ranging from
"Gandharva Vivaha" (instant marriage by mutual
consent of participants only, without any need for
even a single third person as witness) to normal
(present day) marriages, to "Rakshasa Vivaha"
("demoniac" marriage, performed by abduction of one
participant by the other participant, usually, but not
always, with the help of other persons).
The Hindu Widow's Remarriage Act 1856 empowers
a Hindu widow to remarry. Though traditionally
widow remarriages were frowned upon and are still
considered taboo in many parts.
Kinship is a relationship between any entities
that share a genealogical origin, through
either biological, cultural, or historical
descent. And descent groups, lineages, etc.
are treated in their own subsections.
In anthropology the kinship system includes
people related both by descent and marriage.
Human kinship relations through marriage
are commonly called "descent" .
Kinship is one of the most basic principles for
organizing individuals into social groups,
roles, categories, and genealogy.
Family relations can be represented
concretely (mother, brother, grandfather) or
abstractly after degrees of relationship.
Draw a Kinship chart
Religion is a collection of cultural systems,
belief systems, and worldviews that
establishes symbols that relate humanity to
spirituality and, sometimes, to moral values.

Many religions have narratives, symbols,
traditions and sacred histories that are
intended to give meaning to life or to explain
the origin of life or the universe. They tend to
derive morality, ethics, religious laws or a
preferred lifestyle from their ideas about the
cosmos and human nature.
The word religion is sometimes used
interchangeably with faith or belief system,
but religion differs from private belief in that
it has a public aspect.
Most religions have organized behaviors,
including a definition of what constitutes
adherence or membership, regular meetings
or services for the purposes of veneration of a
deity or for prayer, holy places (either natural
or architectural), and/or scriptures.
The practice of a religion may also include
sermons, commemoration of the activities of
a god or gods, sacrifices, festivals, feasts,
matrimonial services, meditation, music, art,
Christianity - 2.1 billion 2.2 billion
Islam - 1.5 billion 1.6 billion
Buddhism - 500 million 1.9 billion
Hinduism - 1.0 billion 1.1 billion
Indian religions are practiced or were founded in
the Indian subcontinent. Concepts most of them
share in common include dharma, karma,
reincarnation, mantras, yantras, and darana.
Hinduism is a religion describing the similar
philosophies of Vaishnavism, Shaivism, and
related groups practiced or founded in the Indian
subcontinent. Concepts most of them share in
common include karma, caste, reincarnation,
mantras & darana.
Hinduism is not a
monolithic religion in the Romanic sense but a
religious category containing dozens of separate
philosophies amalgamated as Santana Dharma.

Jainism, taught primarily by Parsva (9th century
BCE) and Mahavira (6th century BCE), is an ancient
Indian religion that prescribes a path of non-
violence for all forms of living beings in this
world. Jains are found mostly in India.
Buddhism was founded by Siddhattha Gotama in
the 6th century BCE. Buddhists generally agree
that Gotama aimed to help sentient beings end
their suffering (dukkha) by understanding the
true nature of phenomena, thereby escaping the
cycle of suffering and rebirth (sasra), that is,
achieving Nirvana.
Sikhism is a monotheistic religion founded on the
teachings of Guru Nanak and ten successive Sikh
Gurus in 15th century Punjab. Sikhs are found
mostly in India. There are dozens of new religious
movements within Indian religions and Hindu
reform movements.
family (from Latin: familia) is a group of people
affiliated by affinity, or co-residence. In most
societies it is the principal institution for the
socialization of children.
Extended from the human "family unit" by
biological-cultural affinity, marriage, economy,
culture, tradition, honour, and friendship are
concepts of family
It grows increasingly inclusive extending to
community, village, city, region, nationhood,
global village and humanism. A family group
consisting of a father, mother and their children
is called a nuclear family. This term can be
contrasted with an extended family.
Mother: a female parent
Father: a male parent
Son: a male child of the parent(s)
Daughter: a female child of the parent(s)
Brother: a male child of the same parent(s)
Sister: a female child of the same parent(s)
Grandfather: father of a father or mother
Grandmother: mother of a mother or father
Cousins: two people that share the same

Nuclear Family
Extended Family
Uncle: father's brother, mother's brother, father's
sister's husband, mother's sister's husband
Aunt: father's sister, mother's sister, father's
brother's wife, mother's brother's wife
Nephew: sister's son, brother's son, wife's
brother's son, wife's sister's son, husband's
brother's son, husband's sister's son
Niece: sister's daughter, brother's daughter,
wife's brother's daughter, wife's sister's daughter,
husband's brother's daughter
1. Marriage increases the likelihood that fathers
have good relationships with their children.

2. Cohabitation is not the functional equivalent
of marriage.

3. Growing up outside an intact marriage
increases the likelihood that children will
themselves divorce or become unwed parents.

4. Marriage is a virtually universal human

5. Divorce and unmarried childbearing increase
poverty for both children and mother.

6. Married couples seem to build more wealth on
average than singles or cohabiting couples.

7. Married men earn more money than do single
men with similar education and job histories.

8. Parental divorce
appears to increase
childrens risk of
school failure.

9. Parental divorce
reduces the
likelihood that
children will
graduate from
college and achieve
high-status jobs.
10. Children who live
with their own
two married
parents enjoy
better physical
health, on
average, than do
children in other
family forms.
11. Parental marriage is associated with a
sharply lower risk of infant mortality.

12. Marriage is associated with reduced rates
of substance abuse for both adults and

13. Married people, especially married men,
have longer life expectancies than do
otherwise similar singles.

14. Marriage is associated with better health
andlower rates of injury, illness and
disability for both men & women.

Education in its broadest, general sense is the
means through which the aims and habits of a
group of people lives on from one generation to
the next.
Generally, it occurs through any experience that
has a formative effect on the way one thinks,
feels, or acts.
In its narrow, technical sense, education is the
formal process by which society deliberately
transmits its accumulated knowledge, skills,
customs and values from one generation to
another, e.g., instruction in schools
Systems of schooling involve institutionalized
teaching and learning in relation to a
curriculum, which itself is established
according to a predetermined purpose of the
schools in the system.
the purpose of schools include:

reasoning about perennial questions, master
the methods of scientific inquiry, cultivate the
intellect, create change agents, develop
spirituality, and model a democratic society
In formal education, a curriculum is the set of
courses, and their content, offered at a school or
university. A curriculum is prescriptive, and is based
on a more general syllabus which merely specifies
what topics must be understood and to what level to
achieve a particular grade or standard.
An academic discipline is a branch of knowledge
which is formally taught, either at the university, or
via some other such method. Each discipline usually
has several sub-disciplines or branches, and
distinguishing lines are often both arbitrary and
ambiguous. Examples of broad areas of academic
disciplines include the natural sciences, mathematics,
computer science, social sciences, humanities and
applied sciences.

Primary schools - education consists of the first
57 years of formal, structured education. In
general, primary education consists of six or
eight years of schooling starting at the age of
five or six, although this varies between, and
sometimes within, countries. Globally, around
89% of primary-age children are enrolled in
primary education.
Secondary schools
Post-secondary, or "higher" education