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Polity & Society Presentation

Legislature Concept, Types

and Functions
Branches of Government
Since the time of Aristotle it has been
generally agreed that political power is
divisible into three broad categories.
1) Legislative Power - Which formulates and
expresses the will of the state.
2) Executive Power To see whether the
laws are being obeyed and there is no
infringement of them.
3) Judicial Power To interpret the laws and
protect the rights of the citizens.
Legislature - Concept
What is Legislature?
A legislature is a type of deliberative assembly with
the power to pass, amend and repeal laws.
The law created by a legislature is called legislation
or statutory law.
Legislatures are known by many names, the most
common being parliament.
In parliamentary systems of government, the
legislature is formally supreme and appoints a
member from its house as the prime minister which
acts as the executive.
Legislature - Types
The primary components of a
legislature are one or more chambers
or houses.
The Legislatures are broadly divided
into the following categories:
1. Unicameral Legislature
2. Bicameral Legislature
Legislature - Types
Unicameral Legislature:
A legislature with only one house is called as
an Unicameral Legislature.
More Common in Communist countries like
China, Singapore, Sri Lanka, New Zealand,
Some of the sub national entities with
unicameral legislatures include Nebraska,
Guam and the Virgin Islands in the United
States; Hong Kong, etc.

Legislature - Types
Advantages of Unicameral
1. Permits Speedy Action
2. Avoids obstruction of will of the people
3. Permits clarity of responsibility of the cabinet
in the parliamentary system of government.
4. Reduces duplication and confusion of
responsibility relating to legislature.
Legislature - Types
Advantages of Unicameral
5. Adds to the quality and prestige of
6. It is less expensive
7. Since only one body is responsible for
legislation, there is greater transpearancy
and accountability
8. It's easier and cheaper to maintain a
legislature with only one chamber and thus
fewer representatives.

Legislature - Types
Bicameral Legislature:
A bicameral legislature possesses two
separate chambers.
Usually described as an upper house and a
lower house.
Both the houses differ in duties, powers, and
the methods used for the selection of
Examples: Parliament in India, Parliament in
Italy, Parliament in Malaysia.
Speaker of the Lok Sabha
Smt. Meira Kumar
Legislature - Types
Advantages of Bicameral Legislature:
1. Provide a check on Hasty and ill-considered
2. Avoid despotism of a single chamber.
3. Help public opinion to crystallize by
interposing delay.
4. Reflect the popular will at all times and there
is no time lag in doing that.
Legislature - Types
Advantages of Bicameral Legislature:
5. Help divide the work load.
6. Do useful and careful revision of legislation.
7. Allow representation to different classes and
8. Account for their necessity in a federation.
9. Protect individual freedom against legislative

Legislature Functions
Functions of the Legislature are also
divided in the following categories:
1) Legislative Functions
2) Deliberative Functions
3) Financial Functions
4) Administrative Functions
5) Judicial Functions
6) Constituent Functions
7) Electoral Functions
8) Miscellaneous Functions
Legislature - Functions
Legislative Functions:
The first and foremost function of the
legislature is to make laws.
Keeping a close watch on the
direction of the public opinion,
Making new laws, amending old laws,
and canceling obsolete and useless
Legislature - Functions
Deliberative Functions:
More or less similar to Legislative
functions. It is more
Legislature - Functions
Financial Functions:
Raising Revenues
Incurring Expenditures
Presentation, consideration and
authorization of Budgets.
No money can be raised or spent by
the executive without the prior
consent and approval and legislature.

Lok Sabha (Vote of Confidence Motion)
Legislature - Functions
Administrative Functions:
Supervising the executive
functions/activities i.e. Controlling the

Legislature - Functions
Judicial Functions:
Impeachment Proceedings

Legislature - Functions
Constituent Functions:
Adding new laws or making
amendments to the constitution of a
Legislature - Functions
Electoral Functions:
Appointing the President and Vice-
Casting a vote incase of any tie.
Legislature - Functions
Miscellaneous Functions:
Removing of Judges
Appointment of Committees and