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“I Praise Loudly, I Blame Softly” – Catherine
Born in German City of Slettin, 1729. influenced by her royal background. married at the age of 16 to Russia’s Grand Duke Peter.
Ramanov Dynasty Issues
After the Death of Peter the Great, nobles and the army determined succession. By the end of Elizabeth I rule, the tsar had lost almost all of its power. Catherine’s husband, Peter III now, succeeds Elizabeth to the throne. Unhappy Marriage.
for 20 years in Elizabeth’s court.
important Nobles and reads books of Philosophes widely. made her a shrewd person.
Murder of Peter. Familiarity with enlightenment and encouraged reforms. - “The Instruction” Relationship with Philosophes. 1767, summoned legislative commission. 1768, dismissed commission. Absolutism?
Relationship With Nobles
Limited Limited 1785,
Reforms on authority. educated class.
Charter of Nobility, Gave strong rights and power to nobility.
the Great ideas. Attempted to suppress internal trade barriers. Exports grew Favored expansion of middle class. Friendship with philosophes.
Drive For A Warm-Water Port
Required 1769, 1771,
Warfare with Ottoman Turks.
War declared by the Turks.
Russia gained control of Ottoman Provinces and Crimean coast. Treaty of Kuchuk-Kainardji
Partition of Poland
Causes: - Unwelcomed Russians. - Ottoman need for aid from Prussia.
Fredrick The Greats proposal - Defenseless Poland is no match for its more ambitious neighbors.
OF PEASANTS - Pugachev Rebellion French Revolution - Enlightenment halts - Offensive authors exiled
Enlightenment Ideas Despotism
•Friend and Supporter of Diderot and •Brutally suppressed Pugachev’s Voltaire Rebellion •Religious Toleration •Restrictions on Torture •Education for Women •The Instruction •Conceded more power to the nobles •Serfdom became equivalent to Slavery •Destruction of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth •Halted Enlightenment during French Revolution
“Catherine the Great”. Encyclopedia of World Biography. 11/17/09 <http://www.notablebiographies.com/Ca-Ch/Catherine-the-Great.html>. “Catherine the Great Quotes”. 11/17/09 http://thinkexist.com/quotes/catherine the great/. “Catherine II”. Enclycopaedia Britannica 2009. 11/17/09 http://www.britannica.come?EBchecked/topic/99597/Catherine-II. Lewis,Jone.”Catherine the Great”. 11/17/09 http://womenhistory.about.com/od/catherinegreat/p/catherinegreat.htm. “Character and Legacy”. The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. 11/17/09http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/people/A0857215.html. Kagan,Donald, Ozment Steven, and Turner Frank. The Western Heritage Ninth Edition. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2007.