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1 © Nokia Siemens Networks

Customer Confidential
Introduction to Orthogonal Subchannel
(OSC)

2 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Customer Confidential
Contents
1. Introduction
2. Feature details
• Pre-requisites and interdependencies Restrictions
• Recommended features
• RRM processes with OSC
3. Dimensioning aspects
4. Monitoring Performance
5. OSC Field results
6. Expected Benefits
7. OSC evolution and roadmap



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Customer Confidential
Introduction
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Customer Confidential
OSC-DHR solution - Introduction
AMR HR OSC-HR
2 users per TSL 4 users per TSL
OSC0
Half Rate voice codec Dual Half Rate voice codes
• OSC-HR introduces the concept of Dual Half Rate
• Dual Half Rate allows multiplexing of four AMR-HR users to one Timeslot
• QPSK in DL formed from Orthogonal Subchannels pairs(OSC0,OSC1)
• Every SAIC (DARP Phase 1) GSM handset supports OSC-HR
• Double AMR-HR capacity with AMR-HR like quality
De/Multiplexing
OSC1
Double AMR-HR capacity
AMR-HR like MOS quality
PESQ-MOS measured from voice samples
demultiplexing disabled
2
2.2
2.4
2.6
2.8
3
3.2
3.4
3.6
3.8
4
sample (CDF)
AMRHR
AMRDHR
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Customer Confidential
Orthogonal Sub Channel (OSC)

RG20
1 TS
B
A
B
A
B
A
2 AMR
Half Rate
What‟s the
Next Big IDEA?
Unique solution from NSN doubles existing Half Rate capacity ..
A
A
A
A
A
A
1 TS
1 AMR
Full Rate
B + D
A+C
B+D
A+C
B+D
A + C
1 TS
Double Half Rate =
4 AMR Half Rate
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Customer Confidential
Orthogonal Sub Channel (OSC)

Background
 Quad Rate capability allows 4 simultaneous GSM calls into one single timeslot
allowing for higher capacity efficiency in GSM networks.
Quad Rate Basics
 In DL, another call in the same HR Time Slot is introduced, where symbols are
orthogonal to the first call. Result is a new modulation scheme QPSK type, that
combines both.
 One user‟s signal is other user‟s interference and SAIC handsets are needed to
cancel this co-channel interference.
 In the UL, GMSK is still used and BTS utilizes receiver diversity and interference
rejection combining techniques to separate the two signals.
 OSC does not introduce any additional codecs but the existing AMR-FR/HR
ones.
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Customer Confidential
OSC DHR overview
OSC serves 4 AMR Half Rate calls in the same GSM timeslot
• Different training sequences separate users in downlink and uplink
• Two standard SAIC handsets receive their own sub channel in QPSK
• MIMO receiver in the BTS receives two standard GMSK signals
• Normal 2-way diversity antenna in BTS
• Standard AMR transcoding and TRAU frames
• Adaptation (e.g. AMR FR<->AMR HR<->DHR) to maintain quality & coverage
I(A)
Q(B)
(0,0) (1,0)
(0,1)
(1,1)
Users (A,B) in QPSK
Decoding
Decoding
MIMO
Receiver
A
B
QPSK
Transmitter
Encoding
Encoding
B
B
A
A
RG20
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Customer Confidential
OSC overview





• QPSK modulation carries two OSC channels, received by
legacy SAIC MS like normal GMSK
• Separate reception of two sub-channels is enabled by
channel orthogonality achieved with appropriately selected
TSC‟s
• BTS uses dynamically GMSK or QPSK modulation

RG20
6 5
5 6
4 3
3 4
7
2
1
0
TSC for OSC-0
1
0
7
2
TSC for OSC-1
6 5
5 6
4 3
3 4
7
2
1
0
TSC for OSC-0
1
0
7
2
TSC for OSC-1
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Customer Confidential
OSC overview





•General rule for MU-MIMO: “RX Antenna per user”
• Exploits (orthogonal) multi path propagations
• Pairing of users with similar path loss is preferred
• Level offset between two users minimized by power control
RG20
10 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Customer Confidential
Double Half Rate with SAIC MS
–Solution Architecture
• The two OSC subchannels OSC-0 and OSC-1 in a TCH/H
are called as double half rate (DHR) channels
• DHR subchannels OSC-0 and OSC-1 are independent of
each other, i.e. they have independent RR layer signalling

• OSC-0 is the subchannel using legacy Abis transport
resources and the legacy TSC of the TRX
• OSC-1 is the subchannel using additional Abis transport
resources and additional TSC

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Customer Confidential
Double Half Rate with SAIC MS
–Solution Architecture
TSC for
OSC-0
TSC for
OSC-1
0 2
1 7
2 0
3 4
4 3
5 6
6 5
7 1
• The separation between the simultaneous connections in a
TCH is enabled by the use of separate training sequences
• Subchannel specific Training Sequence Codes (TSC) are
optimised in pairs for the lowest cross-correlation
• TSC for OSC-1 is selected
based on the legacy value used
for OSC-0 according to the table
on the right
– values in the table are still subject to
optimization and may change
12 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Customer Confidential
Double Half Rate with SAIC MS
–Solution Implementation
TS
C
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
0 - Yes Yes Yes
1 - Yes Yes Yes
2 Yes Yes - Yes
3 Yes Yes - Yes
4 Yes - Yes
5 Yes - Yes
6 Yes Yes -
7 Yes Yes -
• In DFCA TSC pairs are not completely fixed but can be
selected among the available pairs in the table below
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Customer Confidential
cell B
main TSC = 0 main TSC = 2
paired TSC = 0
cell A
paired TSC = 2
cell B
main TSC = 0 main TSC = 3
paired TSC = 4
cell A
paired TSC = 2
Orthogonal Sub-channel
TSC planning
• If some cells suffer from relatively higher speech quality degradation after
OSC activation than others, the TSC plan should be reviewed
– speech quality may be monitored with e.g. OSC RX Quality Measurements
(counters: 122000-122079) and/or FER Measurement (counter 77002)
– if quality degradation detected, then TSC re-planning should be considered:
▪ interference relations between neighboring cells
▪ probability of paired TSC utilization dependent on OSC penetration
▪ fact that QPSK interference is more harmful for GMSK than GMSK interference
▪ there is significant performance deterioration of OSC DL transmission due to TSC
collision between OSC paired users and external interferer
14 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Customer Confidential
SAIC and DARP
SAIC = Single Antenna Interference Cancellation
Generic term for a receiver algorithm in a handset utilising one
antenna
Nokia‟s phase 1 SAIC is a proprietary algorithm
SAIC is digital signal processing technique, which uses the
correlation properties of a GMSK modulated signal to perform an
active cancellation of the interfering signals.

DARP = Downlink Advanced Receiver Performance
3GPP standardized feature for 2G utilising SAIC and uplink
signalling
Introduced in Rel-6 as release independent feature
Can be introduced to terminals supporting earlier 3GPP releases
Nokia‟s phase 2 SAIC is 3GPP compliant DARP feature


 
EGPRSMSC1-4
 
DARP Classmark
 
GPRS
 
AMR
 
Half rate speech
 
Full rate speech
Phase 2:
DARP
Phase 1:
SAI C
 
EGPRSMSC1-4
 
DARP Classmark
 
GPRS
 
AMR
 
Half rate speech
 
Full rate speech
Phase 2:
DARP
Phase 1:
SAI C
15 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Customer Confidential
OSC overview
Mobile station types naming convention

 SAIC is a generic term for the algorithm that suppresses
interference in a single antenna receiver (Single Antenna
Interference Cancellation)

 SAIC was standardized originally in 3GPP Rel.6 and
terminals having SAIC algorithm on board and signaling their
SAIC-capability to the network were officially named DARP
phase1 (Downlink Advanced Receiver Performance)
 currently MS SAIC-capability is 3GPP release
independent feature

 in 3GPP terminology, DARP phase1 MS signals its
capability to the network, while MS referred to as SAIC does
not have to indicate its capability


 VAMOS I MS supports new training sequences that have
been optimized for simultaneous use in OSC mode
 VAMOS II MS supports new training sequences and utilizes
advanced receiver providing further link gains over VAMOS I
or SAIC

 Note: in most of NSN materials the term “SAIC MS” refers to
a mobile that have SAIC capability and indicates it to the
network
Hi, I‟m SAIC…
DARP
MS
Hi, I wish I could
tell you that I‟m
SAIC, but…
SAIC-capable
MS
Hi, ... …
yyy yyy
Non-SAIC
MS
Hi, I‟m VAMOS I … ...
I better than SAIC
since I can use new
TSCs 
VAMOS I
MS
Hi, I‟m VAMOS II … …
I‟m even better than
VAMOS I 
VAMOS II
MS
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Customer Confidential
AMR HR AMR FR DHR
AMR HR DHR
DHR
DHR
C/I
~8 dB ~12 dB
Maintaining Quality by Channel Rate Adaptation
• AMR packing and un-packing
extended by OSC (DHR).

• DFCA based pairing optimizes path
loss offset between OSC sub
channels, by searching best pair
among candidates.

• When quality decreases or RX level
offset increases DHR is unpaired

• Good RX-Quality
• Matched UL RX levels
• Degraded RX-Quality
• Un-matched UL RX levels
DH
R
HR
17 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Customer Confidential
Circuit Switched Dynamic Abis Pool for OSC
• Dynamic allocation of additional 8k
for DHR calls from CSDAP similar to
EDAP.
•Can be shared between TRXs under
a BCF
• Abis resources are included to
channel assignment message
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
0
1
O&TSIG 1 TRXSIG 2
2
TRXSIG 3 TRXSIG 4
3
TRXSIG 5 TRXSIG 6
4
TRXSIG 7 TRXSIG 8
5

TRX 1
6
7

TRX 2
8
9

TRX 3
10
11

TRX 4
12
13

TRX 5
14
51

TRX 6
16
17

TRX 7
18
19

TRX 8
20
21


CSDAP (384k)
22
23
24
25
26
27

EDAP (320k)
28
29
30
31
Example: 3+3+2 equivalent to 4+4+4+ in E1
CSDAP size (example)
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
1/1/1 2/2/2 3/3/3 4/4/4 5/5/5 6/6/6 7/7/7 8/8/8
site configuration
C
S
D
A
P

(
P
C
M

T
S
L
)
60%FR / 20%HR / 20%OSC 40%FR / 20%HR / 40%OSC
BHR at the same time in each sector
18 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Customer Confidential

SAIC MS penetration confirmed by measurements
VF India Top 2 city SAIC penetration figures :
April 2010 : ~42% and Aug 2010 : ~50%
GUJ circle SAIC penetration as on May 2011 : 52% (BSC level values available varies from 44% to 64%
New Monthly report is already in place – will be started from 25
th
June 2011
What SAIC MS penetration can operators expect?
SAIC MS penetration – predicted vs. measured
Source: Yankee Group 2009
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
SAIC Global predicted
SAIC APAC measured
SAIC Europe measured
SAIC Africa measured
SAIC MS penetration…
•depends on operators past MS marketing strategy
•can be measured with available KPIs (both BSS and BR)
•at end of 2010 it was typically 40-60 % with annual growths of ca. 10%-units
19 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Customer Confidential
OSC gain evolves with penetration of MS types
Global penetration of handset capabilities
SAIC shipment data 2003..2013 from Yankee Group, 4 years MS renewal period assumed
0
20
40
60
80
100
2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 2016 2018 2020
EOY
P
e
n
e
t
r
a
t
i
o
n
%Non SAIC
SAIC
DARP
VAMOS
Measured DARP%in India
OSC gain evolution with SAIC, DARP and VAMOS1&2
All 3GPP improvments APSK, new TSC ,Shifted-SACCH and non SAIC multiplexing included for VAMOS. 50%
gain is measued gain for OSC with SAIC handsets.
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 2016 2018 2020
EOY
C
a
p
a
c
i
t
y

G
a
i
n
%
with SAIC
with DARP
with VAMOS
Total
Measured in demo
Assumptions:
• Just global shown. But e.g. India is
almost a year ahead in penetration vs.
global
•VAMOS2 handsets in 2012 (in volume)
• VAMOS2 provides maximum OSC gain
of 10% over SAIC. [3GPP 45.914]
• 50% gain for OSC is measured gain
without KPI or MOS degradation.
RG30
RG20
MS Type Applicability for OSC
non-SAIC • Only with VAMOS2 handsets.
SAIC • Only with QPSK or positive AQPSK
DARP = SAIC with capability indicator
VAMOS1 • New TSC
•+ 4% gain over SAIC
(MS vendors may skip this)
VAMOS2 • Better receiver
• Shifted SACCH.
• Enables non-SAIC in OSC
• 10% gain over SAIC
10% over SAIC by VAMOS in 2019
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Customer Confidential

Pre-requisites and interdependencies

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Customer Confidential
Dependency table for OSC Half Rate with SAIC MS (BSS21309)
BSS BSC*
BTS
TalkFamily
BTS
MetroSite
Release RG20 S15 Not supported Not supported
Orthogonal Sub-channel
Pre-requisites and interdependencies
DX200
Platform
MS SGSN MCS RAN NetAct
Release
No
dependency
SAIC indicating
its capability
No
dependency
No
dependency
No
dependency
OSS5.2 CD set 3
* supported by BSCi, BSC2i, BSC3i and FlexiBSC
BTS
Flexi EDGE
BTS
UltraSite
BTS
Flexi Multiradio
Release SW: EX4.0 RG20REP1 RG20EP1
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Customer Confidential
Orthogonal Sub-channel
Pre-requisites and interdependencies
Pre-requisites
 Features being prerequisites for OSC Half Rate with SAIC MS (BSS21309)

 SAIC-capable MS indicating its capability to the network – BSC may apply OSC
only if it is aware of MS SAIC capability (no dedicated feature from the network side is
required)
 Circuit Switched Dynamic Abis Pool (BSS30385) or Packet Abis (BSS21454 or
BSS21440) – required to provide additional Abis capacity for one of paired OSC calls
 Rx Diversity (BSS01073) – without Rx Diversity UL Quality in OSC mode could be very
poor

 Features being specific prerequisites for OSC Half Rate with SAIC MS
(BSS21309) activation
 AMR Half Rate (BSS30060) - target channels for OSC HR are searched only among
channels already allocated to AMR HR connections

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Customer Confidential
 Baseband Frequency Hopping and Antenna Hopping
 OSC cannot be applied in case BB hopping or AH is in use in BTS comprising any non-OSC-
capable TRX
 to apply OSC in BB hopping or AH scenario, all TRXs of the hopping group (in case of BB hopping)
/ of the BTS (in case of antenna hopping) must be OSC configured (by BSC)

 Double Power TRX and Intelligent Downlink Diversity
 OSC is not applicable in either DPTRXs or IDD TRXs

 Intelligent Underlay-Overlay, Handover Support for Coverage Enhancements
 OSC is not supported in super reuse layers of a BTS

 Extended Cell Range
 OSC is not supported in TRXs of the extended or super extended coverage area

 4-way UL Diversity
 OSC is not supported in TRXs with 4UD feature in use

 OSC mode is not applied to Emergency Calls, Dual Transfer Mode connections nor
WB-AMR FR connections
Orthogonal Sub-channel
Pre-requisites and interdependencies
Restrictions
24 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Customer Confidential
Orthogonal Sub-channel
Pre-requisites and interdependencies
Recommended features (1)
 Features recommended to be considered when introducing OSC (
 AMR Unpacking Optimization (BSS21120) – allows improving the performance in
terms of call drop rate in both non-OSC and OSC mode and allows controlling/tuning
OSC demultiplexing HOs


 AMR HO Signaling Optimization (BSS20916) – allows improving the performance in
terms of call drop rate and MOS statistics (less FACCH blocks needed during HO
procedure)
 Robust AMR Signaling (BSS20872) comprising FACCH & SACCH Repetition and
FACCH Power Increment – allows improving the performance in terms of call drop rate
– may be beneficial also in OSC mode
25 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Customer Confidential
Orthogonal Sub-channel
Pre-requisites and interdependencies
Recommended features (2)
 Features recommended to be considered when introducing OSC

 Discontinuous Transmission (BSS11610) – less interference in the network and
better performance of OSC mode
 Soft Channel Capacity (BSS30080) – allows for TRX configurations exceeding
maximum TCH handling capacity of BCSU
 Dynamic SDCCH Allocation (BSS07036) – higher network capacity resulting from
OSC introduction may require higher SDCCH channel capacity to keep GoS at
satisfactory level; instead of creating additional permanent SDCCH channel (needed
only during busy hour) Dynamic SDCCH Allocation may be applied
 Extended CCCH (BSS21538)– higher network capacity achieved with OSC may result
in higher paging load and hence a feature improving paging performance may be
needed
26 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Customer Confidential
• A selection between the EGPRS and OSC starting mode is done when:
– the first TRX of the Epsilon(ExxA) or Odessa(ExxB) Dual TRX (DTRX) of the
Flexi EDGE BTS is started up
– the EDGE TRX of the Ultra Site BTS is started up
• A new information element, i.e. the TRX starting mode message sent from a BSC
to a BTS in the BTS_CONF_DATA message is introduced to initialise a TRX in the
right mode
• A BSC sets a TRX to the OSC mode with the TRX starting mode if:
– OSC (DFR or DHR) has been enabled in the BTS
– None of the two TRXs of the DTRX is an EGPRS TRX (GTRX=N for both TRXs)

• A BSC sets a TRX to the EGPRS starting mode with the TRX starting mode if:
– The EGPRS enabled (EGENA) parameter is set to a value „enabled‟ in BTS
– The GPRS enabled (GTRX) parameter is set to value „Y‟
TRX Capability - OSC Support

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Customer Confidential

• Flexi EDGE DTRX version ExxA does not support concurrent use of EGPRS and OSC
within a Dual TRX unit (this limitation refers to EGPRS only and not to GPRS)
– if EDGE is enabled in one TRX of an ExxA Dual TRX then OSC cannot be applied even
in the other TRX of this Dual TRX
• If Baseband Hopping or Antenna Hopping is used, and one TRX is in EGPRS mode,
then all TRXs (of the same BB/AH group) need to be in EGPRS mode. OSC can not
be used simultaneously, if even one of the TRXs in the BB/AH group is of type ExxA
– If all the TRXs in the BB/AH hopping group are of type ExxB, which supports EGPRS
and OSC concurrently, OSC can be applied without any limitations (even though the
BSC has started all of them in EGPRS mode)
• In case of BTSs equipped only with ExxA TRXs, there must be at least one Dual TRX
unit on which neither of TRXs is started in EGPRS mode, to enable OSC

• In case of BTS equipped with only one Dual TRX this means that either EGPRS or
OSC may be supported (Workaround: sharing of Dual TRXs between sectors of the
same site under study )
OSC Restrictions with Flexi EDGE Version ExxA

Above restriction do not apply to Flexi EDGE ExxB and Flexi MR
29 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Customer Confidential

• Either EDGE or OSC is supported within one TRX Module - both cannot be
supported within the same TRX Module.
– if EDGE is enabled in a Ultrasite TRX, OSC cannot be applied in the same TRX

• If Baseband or Antenna Hopping is used, then all the TRXs within a BTS Object
must be of type OSC or EDGE.
– OSC cannot be applied in case BB hopping is in use in a BTS comprising OSC and non-
OSC capable TRXs
– To apply OSC in a BB hopping scenario, all TRXs of the hopping group must be OSC
configured




OSC Restrictions with Ultrasite EDGE TRX
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Customer Confidential

RRM processes with OSC

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Customer Confidential
Double Half Rate with SAIC MS
–Solution Implementation (DHR multiplexing)
• the packing of traffic into DHR is called as DHR multiplexing
• DHR multiplexing is performed as an intra-cell handover
within a BTS object
• the target channel for DHR multiplexing handover is a TCH/H
where an AMR call is going on with sufficient signal level and
quality
• the call to be handed over to the target TCH/H is another
adequate AMR call so that the UL Rx levels of the two
connections can be adjusted close enough to each other
• during multiplexing BTS switches from GMSK modulation to
QPSK modulation in downlink transmission for the original
connection on the target TCH/H

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Customer Confidential

DHR
HR
• Good RX-Quality (UL and DL)
• Matched UL RX levels
• Degraded RX-Quality
• Un-matched UL RX levels
Orthogonal Sub-channel
Channel Rate Adaptation RG20
• Pairing to DHR is triggered when Load Threshold is exceeded (e.g. 50%)
• Pairing only for SAIC (DARP Ph1) handsets
• Rx-quality and Rx-level to be sufficient for pairing (e.g. Rxlevel -85dBm and Rxqual 1 for
OSC-HR pairing)
• Pairing optimizes path loss offset between OSC sub channels, by searching best pair
among candidates (e.g. <10db difference to allow OSC pairing, <14db difference for OSC
unpairing)
• When quality decreases (e.g. below RXqual 3) or RXlevel offset increases (e.g. >14db) DHR
is unpaired.
• OSC pairing/un-pairing thresholds are operator adjustable
AMR-HR
AMR-FR
DFR
DHR
OSC
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Customer Confidential
RRM: DHR multiplexing
Orthogonal Sub-channel
OSC Half Rate with SAIC MS
Search for the 1
st

candidate (target
channel)
DHR multiplexing HO of 2
nd

candidate to the target
channel
Load criterion
fulfilled?
Yes
No
Search for the 2
nd

candidate
Report from
HO&PC
ready
suitable target
channel found?
Yes
suitable 2
nd
candidate
found?
end
No
No
end
Yes
end
Enter DHR
multiplexing mode
A
B
C
34 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Customer Confidential
Load Criterion
• DHR multiplexing mode is triggered based on load criterion
– if the percentage of free FR TCHs decreases below Limit for
Triggering OSC DHR Multiplexing, the BTS enters DHR multiplexing
mode

A
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Customer Confidential
1
st
Candidate (Target Channel selection)
• DHR multiplexing is realized by handing over AMR HR/FR
connection to the target channel with ongoing AMR HR call
having sufficient quality and UL Rx Level
– load criterion is checked upon receiving a report from HO&PC
algorithm with updated values of Rx Quality, Rx Level and power
reduction
B
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Customer Confidential
Identifying suitable 2
nd
candidate
• Algorithm searches for the best pair of calls to be multiplexed
to ensure optimal quality in DHR mode
– first, the best target channel is searched for (the 1st candidate)
▪ only TCHD is allocated to SAIC MS for AMR call may be regarded as a target
channel for DHR multiplexing
– next, the best connection to be handed over to target channel is searched for (the 2nd
candidate)
▪ both half rate and full rate AMR SAIC connections may be regarded as candidates
to be handed over to previously determined target channel

C
37 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Customer Confidential
 Searching for the best target channel (the 1
st

candidate)










 the list of channels fulfilling above criteria is
sorted in descending order according to UL path-
loss criterion (UL RxLev +current power
reduction)
 the 1
st
channel in the list (with the lowest path-
loss) is selected as the best target channel (1
st

candidate)
DHR multiplexing
Orthogonal Sub-channel
DHR Multiplexing
These parameter should be based
on RXquality_Level distribution.
If not enough samples, RF planning
is needed.
38 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Customer Confidential
 The list of 2
nd
candidates is created based on the UL Rx Level Window criterion:
(UL RxLev
2nd
+Current Power Reduction
2nd
)≥(UL RxLev
1st
-Multiplexing UL RxLev
Window)
and
(UL RxLev
2nd
+Current Power Reduction
2nd
)≤(UL RxLev
1st
+Multiplexing UL RxLev
Window +Max Power Reduction
2nd
)

RRM: DHR multiplexing
Orthogonal Sub-channel
DHR Multiplexing
Multiplexing Window for 2nd
candidate
UL RxLev
1st

RxLev
RxLev
1st
- Window
RxLev
1st
+ Window + Max Power Reduction
2nd

Level window, 2 HR users should be close enough to be DHR users
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Customer Confidential
RRM: DHR multiplexing
Orthogonal Sub-channel
DHR Multiplexing
 Among all the connections meeting DHR multiplexing
HO criteria the best 2
nd
candidate is searched
 The best 2
nd
candidate is determined based on:
These parameter should be based
on RXquality_Level distribution.
If not enough samples, RF planning
is needed.
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Customer Confidential
Presentation / Author / Date
Double Half Rate with SAIC MS
–Solution Implementation (DHR downlink power control)
• BSC does individual DL power control for paired DHR calls
• BTS transmits with the highest BS power level given for the paired DHR
calls
BTS
BSC
MS1
MS2
PC Command (BS Power Level
= 5)
PC Command (BS Power Level
= 8)
5
5
42 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Customer Confidential
Presentation / Author / Date
Double Half Rate with SAIC MS
–Solution Implementation (DHR demultiplexing)
• unpacking from DHR, also called as demultiplexing, can be
caused by
▪ deteriorating Rx quality of a DHR connection
▪ weakening UL Rx level balance between the DHR connections in a
TCH/H
▪ weakening Rx level of a DHR connection

• during demultiplexing one of the two DHR connections in a
TCH/H is handed over to another TCH as a traditional AMR
connection
43 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Customer Confidential
Presentation / Author / Date
• the remaining DHR call in the original TCH/H is changed to AMR HR call
• BTS switches to GMSK modulation in downlink transmission for the
connection that remains in the original TCH/H

Double Half Rate with SAIC MS
–Solution Implementation (DHR demultiplexing)
DH
R
AM
R
HR
AMR FR TRX
TSL
3
TSL
4
DH
R
Intra cell HO to another
TCH in the cell
AM
R
HR
AMR FR TRX
TSL
3
TSL
4
AM
R
HR
44 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Customer Confidential
Orthogonal Sub-channel
Handover
• DHR demultiplexing HO (intra-cell HO from DHR to non-DHR mode) can
be triggered by:
– Rx Quality criterion
▪ demultiplexing HO to non-DHR mode is performed if UL or DL Rx Quality of DHR
connection is greater than or equal to Demultiplexing Rx Quality Threshold
– UL Rx Level Balance criterion (has lower priority than Rx Quality
demultiplexing HO)
▪ if UL Rx Level Difference (between paired DHR calls) is greater than or equal to
OSC Demultiplexing UL RxLevel Margin, the connection with higher UL RxLev is
demultiplexed to non-DHR mode

• Inter-cell HO
– DHR connection may be handed over to the other cell but only to AMR HR/FR
channel mode (DHR to DHR inter-cell handovers are not possible)
– Inter-cell HO for DHR connections are controlled with new Rx Quality
thresholds (Threshold Dl Rx Qual DHR and Threshold Ul Rx Qual DHR) and
legacy Rx Level thresholds (Threshold Level Downlink Rx Level and
Threshold Level Uplink Rx Level are re-used)

45 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Customer Confidential
Estimating Potential OSC utilization
46 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Customer Confidential
Will OSC gains be uniform across the network?
Cell area where
OSC calls are
not supported
Cell
range
Cell area
where OSC
calls can be
supported
De-multiplexing
Multiplexing
AMR HR AMR FR DHR
AMR HR DHR
DHR
DHR
C/I
~8 dB ~12 dB
Maximum capacity gains delivered for areas with
1) High SAIC penetration 2)Low profile sites with good dominance (eg. Hotspots)
47 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Customer Confidential
SAIC penetration
Measuring SAIC penetration using MS_Capability measurement counters
SAIC %= 100 *



(071040 ) TCH_RESERV_BY_SAIC_MS:
Number of TCH reservations made by SAIC subscribers.
Measurement: MS_CAP

(001010 )TCH_REQUEST:
Total number of requests for a TCH (successful and unsuccessful).
Measurement: Traffic

48 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Customer Confidential
OSC usable area
Results can be shown on TRX, BTS or BSC level
Database table: P_NBSC_RX_STATISTICS
UL RxQual: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
UL RxLev:
0-10 12 87 56 45 12 12 12 12
11-15 88 88 7 21 11 9 0 0
16-20 92 87 54 12 13 0 0 0
21-30 56 54 34 23 11 0 0 0
31-40 123 123 99 9 0 0 0 0
41-63 234 222 79 34 0 0 0 0
DL RxQual: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
DL RxLev:
0-10 12 87 56 45 12 12 12 12
11-15 88 88 7 21 11 9 0 0
16-20 92 87 54 12 13 0 0 0
21-30 56 54 34 23 11 0 0 0
31-40 123 123 99 9 0 0 0 0
41-63 234 222 79 34 0 0 0 0
number of samples
with UL RxQual=0
and UL RxLev
between 41 and 63
Example distribution of correlated UL RxLev and RxQual measurements
probability of RxLev >-85dBm and RxQual=<1 equals 50%
assuming 50% penetration of SAIC MSs and their uniform distribution the percentage of calls
that could be classified as 1
st
OSC multiplexing candidates in the context of UL criteria would
be 25%

In Dense Urban areas the DHR realisation can be higher than 25%

49 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Customer Confidential
OSC capacity gain estimation
OSC DHR utilisation = SAIC penetration % x OSC usable area %

OSC gain ~ 50% DHR utilisation
Channle mode distribution
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23
Cell Id
DHR utilization AHS utilization AFS utilization
50 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Customer Confidential
Solve hotspot “bottlenecks” with OSC
Eg. 1 X 1
Sq. km
Soft capacity augumentation at hotspots with OSC = lesser hardware
Microcells
Solution:
Traditional approach
OSC Enabled
OSC approach
Problem:
Blocked calls
51 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Customer Confidential
Dimensioning aspects & guidance
52 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Customer Confidential
HW and dimensioning impacts
* Flexi EDGE BTS
* Flexi Multi Radio BTS
* RX diversity
BTS
BSC TC/MGW
Abis
Ater
8k AMR HR TRAU
8k AMR HR TRAU


x
x
x
x
* CSDAP
* Packet Abis
More calls per TRX:
-> # TRX reduced
-> # sites reduced
-> More power to HSPA
with MCPA
More calls per E1 More calls per TRX
Optional:
* Soft Channel Capacity

* AMR HR
AMR HR pools
53 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Customer Confidential
BSS Dimensioning impacts
Element Item Dimensioning impact with OSC
BTS Site density Reduced
BTS #TRX Reduced per call
BTS Site equipments ~ #TRX
BTS Energy ~ # TRX
BTS Signalling SDCCH, CCCH ~ # Calls
Abis Capacity More calls per E1
BSC Capacity ~ #Calls
Ater, A Capacity ~ #Calls
Transcoder or MGW # CH ~ #Calls (AMR HR pools)
Served
with good quality
Offered
Blocked

D
r
o
p
p
e
d

54 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Customer Confidential
When OSC activation in BTS is feasible?
Take AMR HR
in use
AMR HR usage?
End
No
Try OSC DFR
to improve (RG20EP1)
Normal
Low (due to quality)
Start
Activate OSC
DHR
High blocking?
Yes
Room in Abis ?
Yes
No
When OSC DHR is applicable?
SAIC penetration >30%
Blocking > 2%
HR usage > 40%
RX Level > -95 dBm
RX Quality < <3
Free Abis / site > 64 kbps
Reduce #TRX
(& combiner)
No
Add or use e.g.
PAbis
55 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Customer Confidential

Estimated OSC- HR traffic share
(RX Quality Class 0 = 60-90%)
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%
SAIC MS penetration
O
S
C
-
H
R

t
r
a
f
f
i
c

s
h
a
r
e
Rx_Qual (class0)=60%
Rx_Qual (class0)=90%
Measured at 65% RXQUAL share
Peak OSC-HR traf f ic share
What OSC-HR traffic share can operators expect?
Estimated achievable OSC-HR traffic share in busy hour:
OSC-HR share = SAIC MS penetration * RX_Qual = 0 share
Note: values to be measured in busy hour before OSC-HR activation. Indeed other KPI‟s need to be healthy.

Rule of thumb: OSC-HR traffic share in busy hour 50-60%* of SAIC MS penetration
Note:
• Multiplexing RX QUAL threshold may be e.g. 0 upto 3 and RX LEV threshold e.g. -85dbm...-95dBm
• Peak OSC traffic share may equal to SAIC MS penetration.
* Depending on Rx_Qual and Rx_lev distribution in network
56 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Customer Confidential

What capacity gain can operators expect?
Relative capacity gain improves with growing SAIC MS penetration
Estimated relative OSC-HR capacity gain:
- With typical MS penetration of 40-60%, 14-22% capacity gain can be expected.
Estimated Capacity Gain vs SAIC MS penetration
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%
SAIC MS penetration
O
S
C
-
H
R

C
a
p
a
c
i
t
y

G
a
i
n
60% QUAL<1 & LEV>-90dBm
90% QUAL<1 & LEV>-90dBm
Measured
OSC-HR peak gain
57 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Customer Confidential
OSC capacity gain estimation
OSC DHR utilisation = SAIC penetration % x OSC usable area %

OSC gain ~ 50% of DHR utilisation
Channle mode distribution
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23
Cell Id
DHR utilization AHS utilization AFS utilization
Simulations indicate that DHR utilisation @ cell level can vary from 40 to 80%
58 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Customer Confidential
How many OSC calls need to be handled in Busy Hour?
1.SAIC
Penetration %
2.OSC usable
area %
Input Reqd:
OSC DHR util(X) %
Strategy 2:
OSC deployment to support
Projected traffic growth across
network to minimise HW expansions
Projected gains
Existing
Traffic
+ Projected
Traffic Growth
Total
Traffic
OSC Traffic (Y)
= X% * Total Traffic
# of OSC calls in NBH = Y * 3600/ Mean Call Holding Time
Strategy 1:
Selective OSC Hotspot deployment
1.Given the existing HW,
how much more traffic can
be supported ?
2.Do I need to add additional
OSC activated TRX‟s to
remove blocking?
Immediate
gains
Input for OSC capacity license calculation
59 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Customer Confidential
Process to calculate OSC capacity license per BSC
1. How Many OSC calls* need
to be catered to in the Busy
Hour per BSC(A)?
2. What is the current mean
Call holding Time* in your
Network?
3. OSC calls per Erlang (B):
3600
(secs)
Mean Call Holding Time (secs)
4. # of simulataneous OSC
calls(C) = roundup(A/B,0)

OSC calls/ Erl = 3600/90 eg.= 40
5. # of Capacity license reqd:
= roundup(( C – 200**)/ 200))
** calls supported by OSC activation license
1 OSC call pair = 2 AMR HR calls
60 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Customer Confidential
Process to calculate traffic supported with OSC (1/3)
OSC DHR utilisation estimated based on SAIC penetration &
good Quality area
OSC DHR utilisation is a subset of AMR-HR utilisation.
Based on simulations the % of AMR HR increases with traffic
but at very high frequency load tends to reduce because of
quality degradation
61 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Customer Confidential
Process to calculate traffic supported with OSC (2/3)
Known inputs: Max HR utilisation, DHR utilisation
Post-OSC HR utilisation: Max HR utilisation – DHR utilisation.
If calculating at NW level, limit Max HR util to 75%,
@ cell level use the max (75%,existing HR util)

Next step
For cell level OSC traffic support calculation
1)Calculate the number of Trunks supported with the above
DHR, HR & FR utilisation.
2)Based on the total trunks>calculate Traffic supported for reqd
GOS

62 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Customer Confidential
Process to calculate traffic supported with OSC (3/3)
Trunk calculation‟s in OSC
The number of trunks for a given HR & DHR penetration can be derived by means of
the following formulas (result of set of equations solution by means of discriminant
method):

 
DHR trunks HR trunks FR trunks trunks
N N N N
_ _ _
  
PDCH signalling TRX CS
N N N N    8
) , (
_ CS trunks mix served
B N ErlangB L 
63 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Customer Confidential
Trunk & Traffic calculations with OSC
TRX‟s supporting OSC
DTRX ver-B only
64 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Customer Confidential

CSDAP size depends on site configuration and OSC penetration










example:
site configuration
#BCCH/CCCH/CDED per cell
codec distribution
% FR = …
% HR = …
% OSC = …
#RTSL available for CS
# Abis trunks for FR
# Abis trunks for HR
# Abis trunks for OSC
Erl / site (and codec)
FR/HR trunks actually do not need
to be computed because their resources
are anyway available on Abis permanently
Dynamic Abis – CSDAP size
Orthogonal Sub-channel
Abis dimensioning aspects


33 OSC Abis trunks => 9 subchannels => 3 TSL
Site configuration: 3 TRX/cell, 3 BCCH+SDCCH/cell, 1 CDED/cell => 20 RTSLs available for CS/cell
codec penetration: 50% FR, 25% HR, 25% OSC

Calculations:
#FR trunks/cell = 14
#HR trunks/cell = 7
#OSC trunks/cell = 7
28 trunks@2%

20.15 Erl/cell
60.45 Erl/site
30.23 FR Erl
15.12 HR Erl
15.12 OSC Erl
GOS:0.005%
Traffic per site
65 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Customer Confidential
Each and every TRX has its own physical LAPD link (TRXSIG) created
 TRXSIG can have capacity of 16 kbps or 32 kbps or 64 kbps
Before introduction of OSC:
 FR/HR typically requires 16k TRXSIG
 AMR typically requires 32k TRXSIG
 term “typically” is related to the impact of traffic profile on signaling load
 e.g. portion of SMS/sub/BH: if heavy SMS traffic goes together with moderate HR penetration then
32k TRXSIG is needed rather than 16k one
With OSC enabled:
 introduction of OSC enables more users to be served by TRX therefore we have
proportionally more signaling transactions as well as measurement reports to handle
 the higher OSC penetration the more users to be served
 increase in signaling load depends on OSC penetration
 TRXSIG capacity recommendation:
in initial deployment OSC requires 32k TRXSIG unless heavy SMS traffic occurs
 LAPD load should be observed as OSC penetration growth may cause the need for TRXSIG
capacity extension
 “heavy SMS traffic” becomes critical when happens together with high OSC penetration which is
not the case for early projects
Orthogonal Sub-channel
Abis dimensioning aspects
Dynamic Abis – TRXSIG capacity
66 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Customer Confidential
Feature Impact Analysis/ Performance
Monitoring
67 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Customer Confidential
BSS21309: Orthogonal subchannel with SAIC MS
OSC_AMR_HR_475_UL_RXQUAL_0
122000
OSC_AMR_HR_475_DL_RXQUAL_0
122001

OSC_AMR_HR_475_UL_RXQUAL_7
122014
OSC_AMR_HR_475_DL_RXQUAL_7
122015
OSC_AMR_HR_515_UL_RXQUAL_0
122016
OSC_AMR_HR_515_DL_RXQUAL_0
122017

OSC_AMR_HR_515_UL_RXQUAL_7
122030
OSC_AMR_HR_515_DL_RXQUAL_7
122031
OSC_AMR_HR_590_UL_RXQUAL_0
122032
OSC_AMR_HR_590_DL_RXQUAL_0
122033

OSC_AMR_HR_590_UL_RXQUAL_7
122046
OSC_AMR_HR_590_DL_RXQUAL_7
122047
OSC_AMR_HR_670_UL_RXQUAL_0
122048
OSC_AMR_HR_670_DL_RXQUAL_0
122049

OSC_AMR_HR_670_UL_RXQUAL_7
122062
OSC_AMR_HR_670_DL_RXQUAL_7
122063
OSC_AMR_HR_740_UL_RXQUAL_0
122064
OSC_AMR_HR_740_DL_RXQUAL_0
122065

OSC_AMR_HR_740_UL_RXQUAL_7
122078
OSC_AMR_HR_740_DL_RXQUAL_7
122079

„122 OSC RX Quality measurement‟ collects statistics of
received signal quality both in uplink and downlink directions
for each AMR HR bit rate for double half rate calls. The
information is collected from each transceiver (TRX)
separately.
The Bit Error Ratio (BER) based signal quality counters
correspond to the eight RX Quality bands. The counters are
updated by the RX Quality values as measured by the MS
(downlink) and BTS (uplink) and reported in the radio link
measurement messages. The RX Quality reports are
collected on the traffic channels (TCHs).
KPIs:
OSC DL/UL
Rx Quality
Distribution
„1 Traffic Measurement‟
DHR_MULTIPLEXING_ATTEMPTS 001263
DHR_MULTIPLX_FAIL_DUE_TCH_RES 001264
CSDAP_RES_ALLOC_ATT_FOR_DHR 001265
DHR_MPLX_FAIL_DUE_CSDAP_RES 001266
DHR_MPLX_FAIL_DUE_OTHER 001267

„2 Resource Availability Measurement‟
AVE_BUSY_DHR_TCH 002094
AVE_BUSY_DHR_TCH_DENOM 002095
PEAK_BUSY_DHR_TCH 002096




„4 Handover Measurement‟
HO_ATTEMPT_FROM_AMR_HR_TO_DHR 004235
HO_ATTEMPT_FROM_AMR_FR_TO_DHR 004236
HO_FROM_AMR_HR_TO_DHR_SUCC 004237
HO_FROM_AMR_FR_TO_DHR_SUCC 004238
UNSUCC_HO_TO_DHR_DUE_MISMATCH 004239
HO_ATT_FROM_DHR_DUE_RX_QUAL 004240
HO_ATT_FROM_DHR_DUE_RXLEV_DIF 004241
HO_FROM_DHR_DUE_RX_QUAL_SUCC 004242
HO_FROM_DHR_DUE_RXLEV_SUCC 004243
HO_ATT_FROM_DHR_DUE_RX_LEV 004251
HO_FROM_DHR_DUE_RX_LEV_SUCC 004252

BSS21309: Orthogonal subchannel with SAIC MS‟ introduce a set of counters in „1
Traffic Measurement‟ „2 Resource Availability Measurement‟ and „4 Handover
Measurement‟ for feature performance monitoring.
KPIs:
Total DHR Multiplexing Failure Rate
DHR Multiplexing Failure Rate due to Lack of Suitable Pair
DHR Multiplexing Failure Rate due to CSDAP
DHR Multiplexing Failure Rate due to Other Reasons
CSDAP Allocation Failure Rate
KPIs:
AMR HR-to-DHR HO Success Rate
AMR HR-to-DHR HO Rate
AMR FR-to-DHR HO Success Rate
AMR FR-to-DHR HO Rate
RxQual DHR Demultiplexing HO
Success Rate
UL RxLev Difference DHR
Demultiplexing HO Success Rate
RxLev DHR Demultiplexing HO Success
Rate
DHR Demultiplexing HO Success Rate
DHR Demultiplexing HO type (due to
RxQual) Distribution
DHR Demultiplexing HO type (due to UL
RxLev difference) Distribution
DHR Demultiplexing HO type (due to
RxLev) Distribution

KPI s:
Average DHR Traffic
DHR Usage
68 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Customer Confidential
OSC Field results
69 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Customer Confidential
Overview of Testing Environment
Abis
Ater
x
x
x
x
•CSDAP
• BSC3i 1000
• BSC SW: 1.19-0+Corr3
• RX Diversity
• FlexiEDGE BTS
• DTRX-B
• BTS SW EX4_IR2BL039
• 22 MS
• SAIC% = 60%
• MGW
70 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Customer Confidential
TCH drop call ratio (%)
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
1
5
.
0
6
.
2
0
1
0

0
9
:
3
0
1
5
.
0
6
.
2
0
1
0

1
0
:
0
0
1
5
.
0
6
.
2
0
1
0

1
0
:
3
0
1
5
.
0
6
.
2
0
1
0

1
1
:
0
0
DHR Usage (%)
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
1
5
.
0
6
.
2
0
1
0

0
9
:
3
0
1
5
.
0
6
.
2
0
1
0

1
0
:
0
0
1
5
.
0
6
.
2
0
1
0

1
0
:
3
0
1
5
.
0
6
.
2
0
1
0

1
1
:
0
0
Summary for blocking limited case with 60% SAIC
Key Findings
Capacity:
Average DHR usage was
50% of SAIC penetration
Availability:
Blocking was improved
from 12% to 0.9%

Drop Call Ratio was maintained in
2%

Quality:
Call Quality was maintained.
Bad quality calls increased only
by 0.2% in Downlink and by 0.6%
in uplink.
OSC ON OSC OFF
HR AMR usage (including DHR) (%)
95
96
97
98
99
100
1
5
.
0
6
.
2
0
1
0

0
9
:
3
0
1
5
.
0
6
.
2
0
1
0

1
0
:
0
0
1
5
.
0
6
.
2
0
1
0

1
0
:
3
0
1
5
.
0
6
.
2
0
1
0

1
1
:
0
0
Bad DL cumulative quality ratio in classes 6,7 (%)
0
1
2
3
1
5
.
0
6
.
2
0
1
0

0
9
:
3
0
1
5
.
0
6
.
2
0
1
0

1
0
:
0
0
1
5
.
0
6
.
2
0
1
0

1
0
:
3
0
1
5
.
0
6
.
2
0
1
0

1
1
:
0
0
Bad UL cumulative quality in class 6,7 (%)
0
1
2
3
1
5
.
0
6
.
2
0
1
0

0
9
:
3
0
1
5
.
0
6
.
2
0
1
0

1
0
:
0
0
1
5
.
0
6
.
2
0
1
0

1
0
:
3
0
1
5
.
0
6
.
2
0
1
0

1
1
:
0
0
TCH call blocking (%)
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
1
5
.
0
6
.
2
0
1
0

0
9
:
3
0
1
5
.
0
6
.
2
0
1
0

1
0
:
0
0
1
5
.
0
6
.
2
0
1
0

1
0
:
3
0
1
5
.
0
6
.
2
0
1
0

1
1
:
0
0
71 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Customer Confidential
Preliminary MOS comparison for MS to MS call
• R&S ROMES MOS measurement
system was used in drive tests.
•FR (12.2) codec was used as source
signal for all FR, HR and DHR.
• 60 x 10s calls were analyzed
• With DHR MOS degradation was
found negligible, e.g., median MOS
degraded only by 0.05 compared to
HR.

Median MOS
FR 3.41
HR 3.18
DHR (OSC) 3.13
Δ HR->DHR -0.05
MOS (CDF)
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
2
.
0
2
.
2
2
.
4
2
.
6
2
.
8
3
.
0
3
.
2
3
.
4
3
.
6
3
.
8
4
.
0
FR
HR
OSC
Laptop PC
Audio
player
Voice
Call
FR FR / HR / DHR
Laptop PC
ROMES
Analyser
fixed location mobile
72 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Customer Confidential
Pilot in India successfully delivered quality improvement and
traffic increase from OSC usage
• Objectives
• Pilot of OSC feature
• Project Information
• Scope: Cluster of 26 sites in Goa, India (20 of which
were activated with OSC)
• Spectrum Bandwidth: 6.2MHz
• One BTS site carried up to 293 Erl
(i.e. 47 Erl/MHz/site) – Average 5 TRX per cell
• OSC Usage Observations
• Average OSC usage at cluster level is 10%
• In 10 active OSC cells traffic share is 14%
and in best cell 27.4%
• Normalized OSC traffic (OSC out of SAIC
traffic) was over 65%
• Achievements
• Traffic increase: 7.3% at cluster level, 16%
in good quality cells
• Blocking: 9.6% reduction
• Drop Call rate: 32% improvement
• Average C/I with OSC: 14dB
• Average MOS with OSC: 3.13
• UL Quality: No change in bad quality samples
• DL Quality: Increase in Class 5 samples
32% Improvement!
9.6% Improvement
73 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Customer Confidential
Usage of HR and DHR
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Erlangs
%
HR%
HR% w OSC
DHR%
Norm_DHR%
Poly. (HR%)
Poly. (HR% w OSC)
Poly. (DHR%)
Poly. (Norm_DHR%)
More than half of SAIC handsets in OSC mode
Norm_DHR%
= DHR% / SAIC%
74 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Customer Confidential
Blocking
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Erlangs
%
HR%
DHR%
Poly. (HR%)
Poly. (DHR%)
Capacity gain
Highest DHR traffic carrying cell
75 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Customer Confidential
OSC KPIs: OSC cluster level – 10 most active
cells
Blocking with same traffic level has improved after OSC activation and more with
aggressive parametrization. Also DCR has improved.
Presentation / Author / Date
Hours 17-20
76 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Customer Confidential
OSC KPIs: OSC cluster level – 10 most active
cells
For OSC connections DL quality share of class 5 is slightly higher than for
connections on average. In classes 6-7 there is no difference.
For UL quality OSC connections are performing clearly better than connections
on average. Changing OSC demultiplexing to 5 decreased the DL quality slightly
(6&7 share) 6% -> 7%.
Busy hour 18-19
OSC demux to more aggressive
77 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Customer Confidential
Expected Benefits
78 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Customer Confidential
Cheapest Coverage & Capacity

Site
Density
Flexi BTS
Legacy
BTS
Flexi BTS + OSC
..-50%
..-50%
S
i
t
e

/

E
r
l

/

k
m
2

• Largest cell size with lesser combiner losses
• Lesser sites per km
2
with increased site capacity
• Mast top installation with smaller site configuration
RG20
Mast top
installation
Up to 6/6/6 with 1 Radio Module
2 way diversity, 6 antenna ports/module
1 x Pol antenna per sector
Output Power
1/1/1 @ 60W per TRX
2/2/2 @ 30W per TRX
3/3/3 @ 20W per TRX
4/4/4 @ 15W per TRX
6/6/6 @ 10W per TRX
79 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Customer Confidential
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
95
100
105
110
115
120
125
130
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220
Load [bps/BH/user]
A
v
e
r
a
g
e

u
s
e
r

t
h
r
o
u
g
h
p
u
t

[
k
b
p
s
]
FR 100%
HR 40%
HR 80%
FR 20%, DHR 20%
FR 20%, DHR 40%
FR 20%, DHR 60%
FR 100% (dual carrier)
Capacity increase
Throughput increase
4 TRXs / cell
21 Erl voice
Increases data throughput and capacity
RG20
80 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Customer Confidential
OSC for Improved data performance
Requested vs allocated TS‟s per user
Increased Timeslots allocation per User
= “Better Throughput/ User ”
Impact of reduced
Hardware utilisation
on end user
througput in a real
network

Eg. MS data capability 4TS
MS request>4TS
Avg TS‟s allocated per user: 2
,ie. Only 50% of MS capability

After HW utilisation reduced
Avg TS‟s allocated per user: 3.6
Ie. Increased to upto 90% of MS
capability
81 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Customer Confidential
~ 5 %
~ 9 %
~ 86 %
DTRXs
DDUs
ESMA ~ 5 %
~ 9 %
~ 86 %
DTRXs
DDUs
ESMA
Increased Energy Efficiency
BTS power consumption per day
0
300
600
900
1200
1500
1800
FR 100% HR 40% HR 80% FR 20%,
DHR 20%
FR 20%,
DHR 40%
FR 20%,
DHR 60%
[
W
]
24 Erlangs / site
63 Erlangs / site
2
+
2
+
2

2
+
2
+
2

2
+
2
+
2

2
+
2
+
2

2
+
2
+
2

2
+
2
+
2

4
+
4
+
4

4
+
4
+
4

3
+
3
+
3

3
+
3
+
3

3
+
3
+
3

3
+
3
+
3

Savings in BTS power consumption
0%
10%
20%
30%
FR 100% HR 40% HR 80% FR 20%,
DHR 20%
FR 20%,
DHR 40%
FR 20%,
DHR 60%
S
a
v
i
n
g
s
24 Erlangs / site
63 Erlangs / site
2
+
2
+
2

2
+
2
+
2

2
+
2
+
2

2
+
2
+
2

2
+
2
+
2

4
+
4
+
4

3
+
3
+
3

3
+
3
+
3

3
+
3
+
3

3
+
3
+
3

•DHR significantly reduces TCH TSL occupation
•Lower TSL occupation  lower energy consumption
82 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Customer Confidential
OSC Savings + Added Revenue
OSC-HR/FR Savings
Hardware:
•Less TRX‟s
•Less TRX related BTS site HW (e.g. batteries)
Software:
•No SW License keys for saved TRX
Transport:
•Less TDM transport capacity for traffic growths due
to CSDAP, 8k-TRAU
Infrastructure:
•Additional BTS sites avoided
•Less installation space in site
OPEX:
•Energy related savings
•BTS Site Rental
Spectrum:
•Traffic can be squeezed into existing spectrum
•Spectrum carve out for refarming

Additional revenue:
•More call minutes xxx min/month/TRX
•Improved PS usage
•Improved blocking for OSC-HR  Less churn
•Improved MOS quality for OSC-FR  Less churn

Increased Energy Efficiency:
• Up to four users per timeslot
• Lower CO2 emissions
AMR
HR
6+6+6
OSC-HR
4+4+4
OSC
HR
2149 W
1520 W
29%
Energy
Savings
Increased Spectrum Efficiency:
• Same traffic with less frequencies
• 28% less spectrum required with OSC-HR


AMR
HR
6+6+6
2.4 MHz
more for
3G and
LTE
OSC-HR
8.6MHz
6.2MHz
4+4+4
OSC
HR



83 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Customer Confidential
OSC evolution and roadmap
84 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Customer Confidential
OSC support for AMR FR with SAIC MS

• OSC with AMR FR provides two voice channels in one slot like HR
• Voice quality and spectral efficiency can be improved
• Backhaul capacity can be kept intact by 8k TRAU



Improved spectral efficiency and call quality (MOS).
2.9
3.1
3.3
3.5
3.7
3.9
4.1
0 5 10 15 20
C/I [dB]
M
O
S
EFR
HR
AMR FR
AMR HR
AMR DFR
RG20 EP1
85 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Customer Confidential
DFCA support for OSC
• OSC has bit higher demands on C/I which DFCA is able to optimize also
in loaded network conditions.
• OSC introduces more channels for DFCA to play with

• Selection of optimal training sequence is also crucial for OSC
performance.



NW Efficiency with combination of two innovative features.
RG20 EP1
86 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Customer Confidential

Estimated OSC- HR traffic share
(RX_Qual (class0) improved from 60 to 90% due to DFCA)
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%
SAIC MS penetration
O
S
C
-
H
R

t
r
a
f
f
i
c

s
h
a
r
e
OSC-HR & DFCA
OSC-HR
Peak OSC-HR traf f ic share
DFCA impact on OSC-HR gains
DFCA leads to substantial OSC-HR gains
DFCA support for OSC (planned for RG20 EP1):
DFCA dramatically decreases interference. Rx_Qual (class 0) improves, leading to an
growing OSC-HR traffic share*
Assumption:
DFCA will increase Rx_Qual_0 from 60% to 90%
* No test results available
87 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Customer Confidential
Orthogonal Sub-channel
Overview

RG(BSS) features with reference to 3GPP VAMOS
RG feature
Handset compatibility
in OSC allocation
Comments
OSC Half Rate with SAIC MS
(BSS21309); RG20
DARP (SAIC)*
VAMOS I
VAMOS II
OSC Half Rate with SAIC MS is the NSN proprietary
feature which also motivated 3GPP to start VAMOS
standardization activities.
OSC Full Rate with SAIC MS (BSS
21534); RG20 EP1
DARP (SAIC)*
VAMOS I
VAMOS II
OSC Full Rate with SAIC MS is the NSN proprietary
feature extending the concept of BSS21309
Orthogonal Sub-channels to full rate mode.
OSC support for VAMOS mobiles
(BSS 21313); RG30
DARP (SAIC)*
VAMOS I
VAMOS II
Feature adds signaling support for new training
sequences supported by VAMOS handsets. New
training sequences are optimized for simultaneous
use.
VAMOS II handset utilizes advanced receiver
providing further link gains over VAMOS I or SAIC.
AQPSK for VAMOS II (BSS
21537); RG30
Rel 99 (non-SAIC)
DARP (SAIC)*
VAMOS I
VAMOS II
Introduces sub channel power control in DL allowing
also non-SAIC mobiles to be paired in OSC mode
with VAMOS II handsets.
*using 3GPP terminology, in RG20 and RG20EP1, OSC supports DARP MSs only and not SAIC ones
88 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Customer Confidential
AQPSK with VAMOS 2 handsets
• Different Sub Channel powers are provided by AQPSK.
• Advanced receiver in VAMOS 2 handsets is needed to cope with lower
sub channel power.
• Higher power sub channel may be used for legacy handset if coexists
with VAMOS2



Modulation /
Sub-Channel
Power
Sub-
Channel
Power
relative to
GMSK
Applicability for GSM handset types
Rel5/4,
R99
AMR
Rel6
DARP
(SAIC)
Rel9
VAMOS-
1
Rel9
VAMOS-
2
QPSK - 3 dB No Yes Yes Yes
AQPSK+ -0.7 Yes *) Yes *) Yes *) Yes
AQPSK- - 8.3 dB No No No Yes
*) VAMOS-2 MS is needed in Low power sub channel
(0,0) (1,0)
(0,1) (1,1)
Enables multiplexing legacy handsets in OSC.
Example with 8PSK sub constellations
RG30
89 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Customer Confidential
OSC support for VAMOS
• 3PP Rel9 VAMOS handsets will include support for new training
sequences (set 2) providing some link gains over current set 1.
• When allocating to OSC BSC checks handset Classmark3 and allocates
training sequence accordingly.






New MS capability is exploited with OSC.
MS capability OSC sub-
channel 0
OSC sub
channel 1
DARP Set-1 Set-1‟ (best pair)
VAMOS (1 or 2) Set-1 Set-2
Selection of training sequence for OSC
RG30
90 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Customer Confidential
OSC Capability Test for handsets
• AMR handsets not indicating DARP support (=SAIC support) can be
allocated to an OSC channel, if they pass a capability test
• Based on control from BSC the BTS transmits QPSK for a while to
determine if RX Quality reports for DL from MS shows just little or no
degradation.
• Added capacity gain may be substantial as long as non-DARP but SAIC
capable handsets exist.

Better NW utilization with more handset types supported.
Estimated SAIC and DARP
Handset penetrations and added
gain due to OSC Capability Test
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
2010 2011 2012 2013
SAIC%
DARP%
Gain
Feature ID(s): BSS21542
RG30
91 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Customer Confidential
OSC gain evolves with penetration of MS types
Global penetration of handset capabilities
SAIC shipment data 2003..2013 from Yankee Group, 4 years MS renewal period assumed
0
20
40
60
80
100
2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 2016 2018 2020
EOY
P
e
n
e
t
r
a
t
i
o
n
%Non SAIC
SAIC
DARP
VAMOS
Measured DARP%in India
OSC gain evolution with SAIC, DARP and VAMOS1&2
All 3GPP improvments APSK, new TSC ,Shifted-SACCH and non SAIC multiplexing included for VAMOS. 50%
gain is measued gain for OSC with SAIC handsets.
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 2016 2018 2020
EOY
C
a
p
a
c
i
t
y

G
a
i
n
%
with SAIC
with DARP
with VAMOS
Total
Measured in demo
Assumptions:
• Just global shown. But e.g. India is
almost a year ahead in penetration vs.
global
•VAMOS2 handsets in 2012 (in volume)
• VAMOS2 provides maximum OSC gain
of 10% over SAIC. [3GPP 45.914]
• 50% gain for OSC is measured gain
without KPI or MOS degradation.
RG30
RG20
MS Type Applicability for OSC
non-SAIC • Only with VAMOS2 handsets.
SAIC • Only with QPSK or positive AQPSK
DARP = SAIC with capability indicator
VAMOS1 • New TSC
•+ 4% gain over SAIC
(MS vendors may skip this)
VAMOS2 • Better receiver
• Shifted SACCH.
• Enables non-SAIC in OSC
• 10% gain over SAIC
10% over SAIC by VAMOS in 2019
92 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Customer Confidential
OSC calls over shared EDAP



High efficiency through common PS and OSC CS Abis pool
• OSC voice calls share same pool as PS
data
• Maximized OSC voice capacity gains
• Common pool can be reserved either for
OSC voice (CSDAP) alone or PS data
(EDAP) alone – or anything between
• Smooth OSC roll-out as existing Abis
capacity can be utilized

v

CSDAP

EDAP
v


CSDAP
EDAP
E1 E1
RG30 EP1
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Customer Confidential
Thank You