Filipino Psychology

Concepts and Methods


What is Filipino Psychology?
 It is an Indigenous Psychology

The scientific study of the ethnicity, society
and culture of a people and the application
to psychological practice of indigenous
knowledge rooted in the people‟s ethnic
heritage and consciousness.

Virgilio G. Enriquez (1994). Pagbabangong-Dangal: Indigenous
Psychology & Cultural Empowerment. Akademya ng Kultura at
Sikolohiyang Pilipino: Lungsod ng Quezon.
Distinctions among the forms of
Psychology in the Philippines
 Sikolohiya sa Pilipinas
Psychology in the Philippines
 Sikolohiya ng mga Pilipino
Psychology of Filipinos
 Sikolohiyang Pilipino
Filipino Psychology

Virgilio G. Enriquez (1976) in Sikolohiyang Pilipino: Teorya, metodo
at gamit. Rogelia Pe-Pua (Ed.) (1989) University of the Philippines
Press: Quezon City.
Sikolohiya sa Pilipinas
 Psychology in the Philippines

refers to a series of events related to the
field of psychology in the Philippines.
(e.g. number of degree programs and
journals, the amount of research conducted)

ang pinakamalaki o kabuuang anyo ng
sikolohiya sa kontekstong Pilipino.
Sikolohiya ng mga Pilipino
 Psychology of Filipinos

refers to any theories or knowledge of
Filipino nature regardless of source,
Western or local

palasak na anyo sapagkat pinakakaraniwan
o madaling makita.

Sikolohiyang Pilipino
 Filipino Psychology

refers to a psychology based on the
Filipino‟s true thoughts, feelings, behaviors
and must derive from indigenous Filipino
sources, language, and methods.

nilalayong anyo, sikolohiyang bunga ng
karanasan, kaisipan at oryentasyong Pilipino
Limits of Western Concepts & Methods
 Issue

Applicability of the Western theories
and principles taught as well as the
research concepts and methods used in
the Philippine setting.

Timothy Church (1985) in Indigenous Psychology: A Book of
Readings. V.G. Enriquez (Ed.) Akademya ng Sikolohiyang
Pilipino: Quezon City.
Limits of Western Concepts & Methods

 The limits of Western social research
methods in rural Philippines: The need for
innovation

Gloria D. Feliciano (1965) in Sikolohiyang Pilipino: Teorya, Metodo at
Gamit. Rogelia Pe-Pua (Ed.) (1989) University of the Philippines
Press: Quezon City.

Limits of Western Concepts & Methods

 The limits of applicability of Western
concepts, values and methods in the social
sciences to the concrete realities of Asian
societies.

Augusto C. Espiritu (1968) in Indigenous Psychology: A Book of
Readings. V.G. Enriquez (Ed.) (1990) Akademya ng Sikolohiyang
Pilipino: Quezon City.

Sikolohiyang Pilipino
from a movement to an academic discipline
 Principal emphasis in psychology

Identity and national consciousness
Social awareness and involvement
Psychology of language and culture
Applications & bases of Filipino psychology
(health practices, agriculture, art, religion)

Virgilio G. Enriquez (1992). From colonial to liberation psychology:
The Philippine experience. University of the Philippines Press. QC
Primary areas of protests of
Sikolohiyang Pilipino
 It is against

a psychology that perpetuates the colonial
status of the Filipino mind

a psychology used for the exploitation of
the masses

the imposition of psychologies developed in
foreign countries
Positions of Sikolohiyang Pilipino
 On psychological practice

conceptualization of psychological practice
in a Philippine context (industriya vs.
kabuhayan; klinika vs. kalusugan)

concerned with folk practices, indigenous
techniques of healing, popular religio-
political movements
Positions of Sikolohiyang Pilipino
 On Science – Humanism issue

utilizes scientific methodology in the study
of psychological phenomena

concerned not only with the universal
validity of psychological science but also in
utilizing such for the purpose of serving the
interest of all mankind, affording protection
to the disadvantaged
Positions of Sikolohiyang Pilipino
 On Mentalism - Behaviorism issue

uses both phenomenological & behavioristic
concepts, but lesser emphasis on individual
experience and greater emphasis on the
collective experience

attaches greater importance to kamalayan,
subsidiary importance to ulirat
Positions of Sikolohiyang Pilipino
 On Analysis – Wholeness Issue

methodologically leans on the side of
analysis but interprets the result of analysis
with a bias for wholeness
(social context, political implications,
cultural meaning of the study)

Sikolohiyang Pilipino is a „taong-bahay‟
 Metaphor

Sikolohiyang Pilipino can be explained
through a metaphor: (a characteristic way of
clarifying concepts) – difference between
tao sa bahay (person in the house) and
taong-bahay (house person).
Sikolohiyang Pilipino is a call
 for the exercise of care in the adoption of
foreign theories… “uncritical rejection is
just as dangerous as uncritical acceptance
of Western theories”

 for example: psychological problems are
the same anywhere however, the sources of
such problems differ greatly

Lines of filiations in
Philippine psychological thought

 Academic-scientific psychology: Western
 Academic-philosophical psychology: Clergy
 Ethnic psychology: Indigenous psychology
 Psycho-medical system: Religion - cohesive
element and explanation.

Zeus A. Salazar (1981) in Sikolohiyang Pilipino: Isyu, pananaw, at
kaalaman. Allen Aganon at Ma. Assumpta David (1985). National
Bookstore, Inc.: Manila.
Psychology: the Western tradition
 Academic-scientific psychology:
Wilhelm Wundt, the German tradition
University of the Philippines (1908)
and other American traditional schools

 Academic-philosophical psychology:
Thomistic philosophy and psychology
University of Santo Tomas (1611)
Ethnic psychology
Native psychological thought
 Indigenous psychology: kinagisnan and
katutubong sikolohiya.

 Psychology of Filipinos - perceived ethnic
traits, as observed by foreigners or as felt
and expressed by Filipinos.

 The practice of psychology by Filipinos –
techniques of enculturation, socialization.
Psychology: the Filipino tradition
Ethnic psychology

 Kinagisnang sikolohiya
the subconscious psychology imbedded in
the native language, art, music, culture and
religion (one has been born into; unaware).
e.g. kaluluwa at ginhawa

Zeus A. Salazar (1977) in Sikolohiyang Pilipino: Teorya, metodo, at
gamit. Rogelia Pe-Pua (Ed.) (1989). University of the Philippines
Press: Quezon City.
Psychology: the Filipino tradition
Ethnic psychology

 Katutubong sikolohiya
psychology worked out by Filipinos with
indigenous elements as basis (innate to the
Filipino) e.g. Kartilya of the Katipunan, Jose
Rizal, Hermano Pule, Isabelo de los Reyes.

Katutubong sikolohiya and Kinagisnang
sikolohiya constitute Katutubong sikolohiya
Psychology: the Filipino tradition
Ethnic psychology

 Psychology of Filipinos- based on mainly
Western system of thought e.g. Spanish:
Pigafetta‟s quite objective observation of
the Filipinos in the Visayas (impressed by
them); American: Worcester‟s view of the
Filipinos as distinct ethnic groups different
from one another as Christian and non-
Christian (pagans and Moros).

Psychology: the Filipino tradition
Ethnic psychology

 Practice of psychology by Filipinos:
a. indigenous techniques of enculturation/
socialization, e.g. myths for social control,
or as affected by Christianity or Islam.
b. proto-clinical practice, e.g. tagapayo,
manghuhula, ancient techniques of group
therapy that are still present (alternating
chants during wakes, poetry, consensus).
Psychology: the Filipino tradition
 Ethnic psychology

Psycho-medical system: religion as cohesive
element and explanation.
(1565) Babaylan or Catalonan techniques of
healing; disease theory, causation, therapy.
(1650) Messianic movements
(1730) Herbolaryo
(1900) Espiritista
Filipino psychological knowledge
 Filipino Language

use as a tool for identifying/rediscovering
indigenous concepts

e.g. study of diwa (psyche), refers to the
wealth of ideas implied by the philosophical
concept of “essence”
Filipino Language
“Enriquez does his theorizing in Filipino and
does his writing in Pilipino; merely as a
heuristic device, a discovery procedure…
returning to the „deep structure‟ of the
language… Enriquez worked in an area
where Filipinos are most adept, where the
language has a rich vocabulary of feeling
and sentiment.”

Andrew B. Gonzales (1982) in Indigenous Psychology: A book of
readings. V.G. Enriquez (Ed.) Akademya ng Sikolohiyang Pilipino:
Quezon City.

Language, a Heuristic Tool
 Methods: Ethnography, Language Analysis,
Semantics, Introspection

Language provided the instrument to refine
the tools of research so as to discover
categories and subcategories which would
be lost to a Western English-speaking
researcher…

Filipino, the Philippine lingua franca
The issue of national language has long
been resolved by the Filipino masses
through their use and propagation of a
language based on the Manila lingua franca,
Manila being the seat of government, the
business hub, melting pot, center of history.

Virgilio G. Enriquez & Elizabeth P. Marcelino (1984). Neo-colonial
politics and language struggle in the Philippines. Akademya ng
Sikolohiyang Pilipino: Quezon City.
Language & Knowledge
 System of communication
summing-up our lived experiences

 Social interaction
expressing our thoughts and feelings

 Spoken language
from bodily gestures to linguistic acts
specialized speech apparatus
primary medium of communication

Thinking & Language
 Interdependence of knowledge & language,
i.e. the thinking process cannot work
independently of language

 Language is not a neutral system of signs
nor is it value-free, i.e. it is partisan to the
values, perspectives, and rules of cognition
of a particular class or society

Language, history, and
socio-economic-cultural life
 Specific historical features and socio-
economic-cultural conditions shape the
thinking and language of a people, giving
distinctive meanings and value judgments
to their words.

 Indigenous language, genuine vehicle of the
innermost thoughts and intimate feelings of
a people bound by a common historical
heritage and a specific socio-economic-
cultural environment.
Psychological concepts and
human behavior
 The formation of psychological concepts is
the more important stage in the entire
process of understanding human behavior.

 These concepts lay the foundation for the
formation of indigenous psychological
theories and models of analysis that
correspond more fully to the realities of the
life and culture of a society.
Development of technical terminology in
Filipino Psychology
 System of affixation in the Filipino language
a resource for terminology development

 The meaning changes because of the use of
affixes (suffixes, prefixes, infixes, postfixes)
paki, mang, mapa, ika, ipang, ma, ka, maka

Zeus A. Salazar (1981) in Sikolohiyang Pilipino: Isyu, pananaw, at
kaalaman. Allen Aganon at Ma. Assumpta David (1985). National
Bookstore, Inc.: Manila
Development of technical terminology in
Filipino Psychology
 Direct borrowing (saling-angkat)
perception (L) persepsyon
psicologia (S) sikolohiya
 Surface assimilation (saling-paimbabaw)
reinforcement - reimporsment
 Grammatical translation
(saling-panggramatika)
social interaction – interaksyong sosyal
Development of technical terminology in
Filipino Psychology
 Loan translation (saling-hiram)
defense mechanism
mekanismong pananggalang
 Word invention (salitang likha)
masturbation – mag-isang pagpaparaos
 Abbreviated words (salitang daglat)
STM short term memory
PUP Panukat ng Ugali at Pagkatao
Development of technical terminology in
Filipino Psychology
 Parallel translation (salitang-tapat)
relationship = pakikisalamuha
 Indigenous-concept oriented translation
(salitang taal)
kapwa: hindi ibang-tao, ibang-tao
 Amalgamated translation (salitang sanib)
mahay (Cebuano), nagmamahay

Development of technical terminology in
Filipino Psychology
Categorization of words and concepts
 Foreign concepts (konseptong banyaga)
home for the aged
 Superficial assimilation
(paimbabaw na asimilasyon)
reinforcement – gantimpala, „may napala‟
 Labeling (pagbibinyag)
utang-na-loob - reciprocity
hiya - shame
pakikisama - comradeship
Development of technical terminology in
Filipino Psychology
Categorization of words and concepts
 Semantic indigenization (pag-aandukha)
paniniyansing, tambayan (stand by)
 Semantic delimitation (pagtatakda)
gunita – recall, alaala – memory
personality is personalidad not pagkatao
 Indigenous concepts (katutubong konsepto)
saling-pusa (informal member)
pagka-pikon (to be peeved)
Kapwa, a core concept in
Filipino Psychology

 The Filipino language provides a conceptual
distinction in several levels and modes of
social interaction (antas ng pagtutunguhan).

 Eight behaviorally recognizable levels under
two general categories in Filipino were
identified (ibang-tao; hindi ibang-tao).

Carmen E. Santiago and Virgilio G. Enriquez (1976) in Sikolohiyang
Pilipino: Teorya, metodo at gamit. Rogelia Pe-Pua (Ed.) (1989)
University of the Philippines Press: Quezon City.
Kapwa, a core concept in
Filipino Psychology
 Ibang-tao (outsider)
pakikitungo (amenities, civility)
pakikisalimuha („mixing‟)
pakikilahok (joining, participating)
pakikibagay (conforming)
pakikisama (adjusting)
 Hindi ibang-tao (one-of-us)
pakikipagpalagayang-loob (mutual trust)
pakikisangkot (getting involved)
pakikiisa (full trust, oneness, fusion)
Kapwa, the shared inner self
 Kapwa (English: both, fellow being, others)
others is used in opposition to the „self‟
implies the recognition of the „self‟
„self‟ as a separate identity
 Kapwa in Filipino
a recognition of shared identity
an inner self shared with others
the „ako‟ (ego) and the „iba sa akin‟ (others)
are one and the same in kapwa psychology

Kapwa, a core concept in
Filipino Psychology
 Pakikitungo, pakikipagkapwa are mutually
replaceable in taxonomic analysis, either
covers the entire lexical domain.

 Pakikipagkapwa, more theoretically fertile
concept when analyzed semantically;
much deeper and profound in its
implications as it means accepting and
dealing with the other person as an equal.


Pakikiramdam:
the pivotal aspect of kapwa
 refers to heightened awareness, sensitivity
 „feeling for another‟
 a kind of emotional a priori
 an active process involving great care and
deliberation manifested in „hesitation to
react, inattention to subtle cues, and non-
verbal behavior in mental role-playing

Rita H. Mataragnon (1987) in From colonial to liberation psychology:
The Philippine Experience. Virgilio G. Enriquez (Ed) (1992) UP Press.
Pakikiramdam:
the pivotal aspect of kapwa
 Pakiramdam is necessarily tied to the
operation of all Filipino surface values:
pakikisama, hiya, utang na loob
 The improvisatory character of
pakikiramdam is operative in bahala na
lakas ng loob, pakikibaka
 The centrality of pakiramdam in behavioral
and interpersonal domains:
biro-lambing-tampo.
The Development of
Sikolohiyang Pilipino Knowledge
Major goals of Sikolohiyang Pilipino

 pagsasakatutubo (indigenization)
 pagka-agham (science)
 pagka-Pilipino (Filipino identity)

Mario San Buenaventura (1983) in Sikolohiyang Pilipino: Isyu,
pananaw, at kaalaman. Allen Aganon at Ma. Assumpta David (1985).
National Bookstore, Inc.: Manila

The Development of
Sikolohiyang Pilipino Knowledge
The project of Sikolohiyang Pilipino

 development of indigenous psychological
concepts
 utilization of indigenous research methods
 creation of authentic and appropriate social
scientific psychology

Steven Rood (1985) in Sikolohiyang Pilipino: Isyu, pananaw, at
kaalaman. Allen Aganon at Ma. Assumpta David (1985). National
Bookstore, Inc.: Manila

Research Approaches
 Experimental - adherence to predetermined
set of procedures
 Survey – conform to an informal agreement
with respondents
 Participatory – negotiate issues jointly as
they arise
 Indigenous – seek to enhance awareness as
one-with-the-other
Indigenous Research
 Cross-Indigenous Psychology fuses the
modern and the traditional i.e. using
scientific methods and ensuring that they
are culturally appropriate.

 Sikolohiyang Pilipino utilizes and borrows
concepts from both the modern and
traditional cultural systems.
Approaches in the development &
utilization of indigenous viewpoints
 Indigenization from within
basis: the indigenous
direction: outwards
culture-as-source

 Indigenization from without
basis: the exogenous
direction: inwards
culture-as-target
Indigenization from without
 Content indigenization
translation of imported materials

 Theoretic indigenization

 Indigenization as strategy

 Culture assimilation
indigenous versions of imported systems
Indigenization from within

 Identification of indigenous concepts,
methods, theories
 Semantic elaboration
 Indigenous codification re-codification
 Systematization/explication of implied
theoretical frameworks
 Application/use
Using the culture as source
 Indigenization from within

necessarily implies the need for cultural
revalidation

a demand for concepts and methods which
are culturally appropriate, scientifically valid
Traditional Filipino indigenous
psychology and culture
 Language
ethnolingguistic groups, multilingual people
 Leisure
laro, laruan, palaro (patintero, sipa, piko)
 Cuisine
adobo, bistik, dinuguan at puto, halo-halo
 Law


Traditional Filipino indigenous
psychology and culture
 Religion

belief in a supreme being (Batlaya)

respect for nature (spirits dwell in nature)

reverence for ancestry (bulol, anito, ninuno)


Traditional Filipino indigenous
psychology and culture
 Religion

underscores the importance of establishing
close interpersonal relations with one‟s
family, relatives and fellowmen (kapwa)

highly-developed sense of values: courage,
cleanliness, courtesy, control and the family
Traditional Filipino indigenous
psychology and culture
 Religion

indigenous morality: profound concept of
pagkamakatao

babaylan (priestess), dambana (shrine)

rituals and symbols for good (benevolent
diwata) and evil (malevolent aswang)
Traditional Filipino indigenous
psychology and culture
 Manuscripts, memories, mummies lost

bell of Balangica, baybayin (alibata),
burial grounds in Sagada

 Misa, mesa, mamimista, mamimis kita

Foreign words subsumed in the structure
of the Filipino language

Traditional Filipino indigenous
psychology and culture
 Names: Sinag Liwayway (T), Dawani Paros
(B), Janatyan Ahaddas (Y), Hamili Ayo (C),
Sudi Amor (I)

 Literature: Francisco Balagtas, Ka Amado

 Theater and Film: Fernando Poe Jr.
Tagalog movies shown in theaters from
Batanes to Jolo

Traditional Filipino indigenous
psychology and culture
 Medicine
lason vs. gamot, synthetic pesticides have
gone semantic transformation- result of
massive promotion during the Marcos‟
Green Revolution project

herbal medicine, medicinal plants, hilot,
concepts attributing illness to displaced
organs that have to be massaged back into
its correct position
Traditional Filipino indigenous
psychology and culture
 Music and Arts: Sarong Banggi (B), Ati Cu
Pung Singsing (P), Pamulinawen (I), Pobreng
Alindahaw (C), Dandansoy (H), Salidumay
(S); Kulilal Ensemble of Palawan, Kutyapi
Artists of Maguindanao

 Rituals and Ceremonies: agimat (talisman),
mutya (charm), gayuma (spell), anting-
anting (amulet); bulong (whisper); sapi
(spirit possession)
Traditional Filipino indigenous
psychology and culture
 Methods: doing diagnosis

psychodiagnostician determine culturally-
defined cause of affliction through patawas,
pagbatbat/pag-usisa, pagpakot, pamulso.

beliefs in sapi, matanda, nuno, dwende.
Traditional Filipino indigenous
psychology and culture
 Meanings:

Hiyang – (compatible, suited) in indigenous
medical practice, it means compatibility of
the treatment and medicine with the
individual.

Lagnat laki („growing-up‟ fever); Lugaw is
perceived as „food for the sick‟
Traditional Filipino indigenous
psychology and culture
 Genetic diversity of indigenous plants
e.g. varieties of rice grains nurtured
through centuries by indigenous people

 Herbal knowledge
e.g. pito-pito, herbal tea from seven leaves:
bayabas, banaba, alagao, kulantro, mango,
pandan – use to detoxify the body.
Philippine cultural studies
 Perspectival and Interpretive Models

absolutist position - assumes the basic
congruence of psychological phenomena
across humankind

relativist position – assumes differences
across cultures, if not the uniqueness of
each one
Philippine cultural studies
pangkami (reactive relativist), assumes the
utility of an alien frame of reference

pantayong pananaw (ethnocentric), assumes
the absolutist indigenous perspective

universalist position implied by the kapwa
and cross indigenous orientation of
Sikolohiyang Pilipino

Philippine cultural studies
 Universalist position

assumes that basic psychological processes
are likely to be common features of human
life everywhere, yet their manifestations are
likely to be influenced by culture


Philippine cultural studies

 Emic approach (phonemic)
the need to understand a culture from its
own perspective (using natural taxonomies)

 Etic approach (phonetic)
the discovery of psychological universal
Filipino intellectual tradition
 Philosophical traditions and paradigms of
science as neither Eastern nor Western

 The West does not have a monopoly of
scientific standards, in fact science evolved
from Eastern intellectual traditions

 Filipino intellectual traditions: the Ma‟aram,
si Pilosopong Tasyo
Filipino intellectual tradition
 Filipino philosophy of science incorporates
the demands of empirical validation from
reliability and validity to affirmability and
authenticity.
 Levels of validity & scientific standards
katatagan (replicability, reliability)
katapatan (multiple operationism, validity)
patibay (certification)
patotoo (affirmability, attestability)
patunay (authenticity)
Filipino indigenous theories
 Filipino concepts and models of personality

The five elements of the Ma‟aram concept
of pagkatawo (personhood):
ginhawa (vital principle)
buot (perception)
isip (mind)
dungan (sleep spirit)
kalag (life spirit)
Filipino indigenous theories
 Filipino concepts and models of personality

Three elements in Baltazar‟s model:
bait (sanity)
muni (reflection)
hatol (judgment)
Filipino indigenous theories
 Filipino concepts and models of personality

The four elements in Covar‟s concept of
Filipino personhood:

kaluluwa (spirit)
budhi (conscience)
katauhang panlabas, external appearance
katauhang panloob (innermost being)
Filipino indigenous theories
 Filipino social interaction theory
Levels and modes of social interaction
rooted in Filipino collectivist culture which
have been identified using ethnoscientific
field methods.

 Kapwa, a core concept in Filipino social
psychology. Pakikipagkapwa is accepting,
dealing with the other person as an equal.
Filipino indigenous concepts

 Filipino concept of justice
Tagalog, Ilongos, Cebuanos, Pampangos
use a common word for justice, katarungan,
derived from the Visayan root tarong means
straight, upright, appropriate, correct, and
for right, we use karapatan, whose root is
dapat signifying fitting, appropriate, correct
i.e. justice is related to right
Jose W. Diokno (1983) in Sikolohiyang Pilipino: Isyu, pananaw, at
kaalaman. Allen Aganon at Ma. Assumpta David (1985). National
Bookstore, Inc.: Manila

Research Models
 Models of data collection
Self-orientation
Experimenter-orientation
Reactive-orientation
Mutual-orientation

Linda L. Viney (1988) in Pagbabangong-dangal: Indigenous
psychology and cultural empowerment. Virgilo G. Enriquez (Ed.)
1994. Akademya ng Sikolohiyang Pilipino. Quezon City.
Research Models
 Models of data collection

Self-orientation Model:
the data collector and contributors relate to
the other only to the extent of waiting until
the other stops responding, e.g. laboratory-
based studies of memory. Communication
is not taking place between them through
socially shared interpretations or common
constructs.
Research Models
 Models of data collection

Experimenter-orientation Model:
the data collectors appear to influence while
only the data contributors appear to be
influenced, e.g. Asch‟s person perception
study; an imbalance of power in favor of
data collectors who appear to define the
experimental situation.
Research Models
 Models of data collection

Reactive-orientation Model:
the participants in the data collection are
reacting to what is currently taking place
between them, e.g. verbal conditioning
research; yet the capacities of both data
contributors and collectors to construe are
assumed to be unimportant and are
ignored.

Research Models
 Models of data collection

Mutual-orientation Model:
the data collector and contributor give
something to, and gain something from the
data collection, e.g. Piaget‟s early research
on conservation. Indigenous psychology
research uses this model as the cultural
researcher is a culture bearer himself.
Research Models
Researcher-Researchee Relationship Model
 Scale of the Researcher
Iskala ng Mananaliksik
 Scale of the Relationship or Interaction
between the Researcher and the Researchee
Iskala ng Pagtutunguhan ng Mananaliksik at
Kalahok

Carmen E. Santiago & Virgilio G. Enriquez (1975) in Sikolohiyang
Pilipino: Teorya, metodo, at gamit. Rogelia E. Pe-Pua (Ed.). UP Press.
Santiago-Enriquez Research Model
Researcher-Researchee Relationship Model
 Scale of the Researcher
Iskala ng Mananaliksik

These are methods used by the researcher
in generating data that are tried and tested
and are culturally sensitive and appropriate
in doing research with Filipinos.
Santiago-Enriquez Research Model
Researcher-Researchee Relationship Model
 Scale of the Relationship or Interaction
between the Researcher and the Researchee
Iskala ng Pagtutunguhan ng Mananaliksik at
Kalahok

The level of interaction between the
researcher and the researchee significantly
determines the quality of data obtained.
Santiago-Enriquez Research Model
Researcher-Researchee Relationship Model
 Levels of Relationship

There are eight levels of interaction which
range from the relatively uninvolved civility
of pakikitungo to the total sense of
identification in pakikiisa. These eight
levels of interaction can be divided into two
categories: the ibang-tao (outsider) and the
hindi ibang-tao (one-of-us).
Santiago-Enriquez Research Model
Researcher-Researchee Relationship Model

 Levels of Relationship
Ibang-tao category (outsider)
pakikitungo (amenities, civility)
pakikisalimuha (interaction)
pakikilahok (participation, joining)
pakikibagay (conforming)
pakikisama (adjusting, being along with)
Santiago-Enriquez Research Model

Researcher-Researchee Relationship Model

 Levels of Relationship
Hindi ibang-tao category (one-of-us)
pakikipagpalagayang-loob (mutual trust)
pakikisangkot (active involvement)
pakikiisa (full trust)
Filipino indigenous research methods
Collective indigenous method
 partakes of the characteristics of:
a community dialogue
focused group discussion
natural cluster interview
group attestation
 puts premium on:
cultural appropriateness
an ordinary get-together
Filipino indigenous research methods
Approaches & Techniques

 Pakapa-kapa („groping,‟ a field method)
 Pagtatanong-tanong (asking questions)
 Pakikiramdam (shared sensitivities)
 Pakikialam (concerned interference)
 Pakikilahok (participation)
 Pakikisangkot (integral involvement)
 Pagdalaw-dalaw (casual but repeated visits)
Sikolohiyang Pilipino research
approaches and techniques
 Pakapa-kapa
an approach characterized by groping,
searching, probing into an unsystematized
mass of social and cultural data to be able
to obtain order, meaning, and directions for
research.

Carmen E. Santiago (1975) in Sikolohiyang Pilipino: Teorya, metodo,
at gamit. Rogelia R. Pe-Pua (Ed.) (1989) UP Press

Amaryllis T. Torres in Sikolohiyang Pilipino: Teorya, metodo, at
gamit. Rogelia R. Pe-Pua (Ed.) (1989) UP Press
Sikolohiyang Pilipino research
approaches and techniques
Pakapa-kapa
 implies an exploration into cultural, social
or psychological data without the chains of
overriding theoretical framework borrowed
from observations outside the focus of
investigation.
 can be related to unobtrusive techniques
because the actual procedures for collecting
information may range from observation,
documentation, intervention, participation.
Sikolohiyang Pilipino research
approaches and techniques
Panunuluyan approach

 interaction techniques, levels of relationship
mula paninimbang hanggang malalimang
pakikipagpalagayang-loob.


Erlinda Nicdao-Henson (1977) in Sikolohiyang Pilipino: Teorya,
metodo, at gamit. Rogelia R. Pe-Pua (Ed.) (1989). UP Press: QC.

Josefina B. San Juan & Resurrecion Soriaga (1985) in Sikolohiyang
Pilipino: Isyu, pananaw, at kaalaman. Allen Aganon & Ma. Assumpta
David (Ed.) (1985) National Bookstore Inc.: Manila.
Sikolohiyang Pilipino research
approaches and techniques

Panunuluyan approach

 Panunuluyan: ang kontekstong pisikal at
teknolohikal.

 Pakikipagkapwa: ang batayang panlipunan
ng pakikipanuluyan.

Sikolohiyang Pilipino research
approaches and techniques
Panunuluyan approach

 Makataong pakikipag-ugnayan: pagdalaw,
paninirahan, pananahanan, pakikisuno.

 Pakikibagay: pakikitulog at pakikikain.

 Pakikiramdam at paninimbang: paraan at
batayan ng pakikipagpalagayang-loob.
Sikolohiyang Pilipino research
approaches and techniques

Panunuluyan approach

 Pakikiramdam, paggamit ng damdamin,
mata at pandinig upang maintindihan o
mabasa ang ibig ipahiwatig ng kausap na
ipinahahayag sa pamamagitan ng kilos,
parinig at matalinhagang salita (talas ng
pakiramdam).
Sikolohiyang Pilipino research
approaches and techniques
Panunuluyan approach

 Pakikiramdam could serve as a personality
disposition, as a situational behavior, as a
coping mechanism; closely related to many
general psychological concepts such as
empathy and sensitivity.

Rita Mataragnon (1982) in Sikolohiyang Pilipino: Isyu, pananaw, at
kaalaman. Allen Aganon and Ma. Assumpta David (Ed.) (1985).
National Bookstore Inc.: Manila
Sikolohiyang Pilipino research
approaches and techniques

Panunuluyan approach

 Paninimbang: damdamin at isipan (sentido
komon) ang pinaiiral dito at anuman ang
namasid, nadama, o napakiramdaman ay
aangkupan ng tugong-kilos, subalit iniisip
ang kahalagahan at kabutihang maidudulot
ng katugunang ito (pagtutumbas).
Sikolohiyang Pilipino research
approaches and techniques
Panunuluyan approach

 Pamamaraan
panimulang pagsasanay
paglalakbay at pakikisuno
paghimpil sa pook
pagtingin-tingin sa maaaring panuluyan
paghanap ng tulay
pagdalaw sa pakikipanuluyan
Sikolohiyang Pilipino research
approaches and techniques
Panunuluyan approach
 Pagsasakatuparan
pagbati at pagpapakilala
pag-aayos ng mga dala-dalahan
pakikipagpalagayan
pagtulong-tulong
pagpalit-palitang paggamit ng mga metodo
paggawa ng pananaliksik
pamamaalam at pasasalamat
Sikolohiyang Pilipino research
approaches and techniques
Panunuluyan approach
 Suliraning etikal
pagsasabi ng layunin ng pananaliksik
pagkasangkapan sa pagkakaibigan
pagsasabi sa kinalabasan ng pananaliksik
paghingi ng pahintulot
pagtanaw ng utang na loob/pamemerwisyo
pagbubunyag ng natuklasang katiwalian
Sikolohiyang Pilipino research
approaches and techniques
Pagtatanong-tanong Method

 Pagtatanong-tanong, Filipino word for
“asking questions,” the repetition of
„tanong‟ to „tanong-tanong‟ indicates
seriousness of purpose, one is truly
determined to get answers to ones
questions.

 Rogelia R. Pe-Pua (1989). International Journal of Intercultural
Relations, Vol. 13, pp 147-163. Pergamon Press: USA

Sikolohiyang Pilipino research
approaches and techniques
Pagtatanong-tanong Method

Major Characteristics

– Participatory in nature
– Equality of status
– Appropriate and adaptive
– Integrated with other indigenous methods
Sikolohiyang Pilipino research
approaches and techniques
Pagtatanong-tanong Method

 Preparation: pagtatanong-tanong is part of
everyday casual interaction, researcher must
plan very well for certain conditions,
consider convenience and comfort of
informants, their language, norms, values,
and background (history, within/between
group differences, activities, policies).
Sikolohiyang Pilipino research
approaches and techniques
Procedure of pagtatanong-tanong

Get to know the people, place, lifestyle
Greet informants, give credentials (name the
go-between)
Go tell them the purpose of the study
Give an estimate of the expected length of the
session
Guide questions are used when necessary
Goodbye and thank you is not abrupt
Sikolohiyang Pilipino research
approaches and techniques
Principles of pagtatanong-tanong

The level of the relationship that exists
between the researcher and the informant
significantly influences the quality of data
obtained (Santiago-Enriquez Model).

The language of the respondent is used in
the conduct of pagtatanong-tanong.
Sikolohiyang Pilipino research
approaches and techniques
Principles of pagtatanong-tanong

The use of pakikiramdam as „feeling for
another‟ (cultural sensitivity), through this
the researcher knows when to ask or avoid
questions, interprets a „yes‟ for a „no‟.

The equality of status is maintained, as it is
a dialogue (informant is a kausap or person
spoken with) not an interview.
Sikolohiyang Pilipino research
approaches and techniques
Principles of pagtatanong-tanong

The issue of reliability: consistency of
response can be checked by repeating the
question in a different way.

The problem of investigator bias and data
contamination can be solved by having
more than one person do the pagtatanong-
tanong.
Sikolohiyang Pilipino research
approaches and techniques
Principles of pagtatanong-tanong

Repeated sampling from as many
informants as possible can produce
commonalities of lexical domain which can
then constitute a „construct.‟

Familiarity with the language, values,
cultural norms, will optimize accuracy and
relevance of interpretations.
Sikolohiyang Pilipino research
approaches and techniques
Pakikipagkwentuhan Method

Kuwentuhan is an occasion for exchange of
information, ideas, insights, and opinions
also it is a sharing of beliefs, thoughts, and
experiences.

Roberto E. Javier Jr. (2004). Methodological Properties of
Pakikipagkwentuhan. DLSU-URCO Research Project Report.

Sikolohiyang Pilipino research
approaches and techniques
Pakikipagkwentuhan Method

Oral (pasalita)
Written (pasulat)

Transmitted (pasalin-salin) through time

Request (paki – paghingi ng pahintulot)

Sikolohiyang Pilipino research
approaches and techniques
Pakikipagkwentuhan Method

Pakikipagkwentuhan is an informal, free, as
well as a social process of exchanging
information, thoughts, and knowledge that
is part of human daily activities.


Grace O. Oteza (1997). Pakikipagkwentuhan: Isang pamamaraan ng
sama-samang pananaliksik, pagpapatotoo, at pagtulong sa
Sikolohiyang Pilipino. PPRTH Occasional Papers Series 1997, No. 1.
Sikolohiyang Pilipino research
approaches and techniques
Procedure of pakikipagkwentuhan

 initially make visits (padalaw-dalaw) before
living-in the community (panunuluyan)
 introduce yourself to the community
 invite yourself to community gatherings
 initiate a conversation when in a natural
cluster
 invest time in story sharing sessions
Sikolohiyang Pilipino research
approaches and techniques
 Principles of pakikipagkwentuhan

may pakikipagkapwa sa kwentuhan
may „paki‟ ang kalahok sa kwento
may pakinabang sa kwentuhan
libangan
linangan ng kaalaman
lunas sa karamdaman
Sikolohiyang Pilipino research
approaches and techniques
 Principles of pakikipagkwentuhan

collective orientation
(pananaliksik na sama-sama)
contains the process of validation
(pagpapatotoo)
construction of social reality (pagbubuo)
cluster as unit of analysis
(pagsali sa likas na umpukan)
Sikolohiyang Pilipino research
approaches and techniques

 Principles of pakikipagkwentuhan

with a topic to talk about but without a
theme (may pakay pero walang paksa)

worth or value of story produced from the
kwentuhan session (kwenta ng kwento)
Sikolohiyang Pilipino research
approaches and techniques
 Principles of pakikipagkwentuhan

Validity: trustworthiness not truth
(mapagkakatiwalaan kaysa makatotohanan)

Reliability: certification not consistency
(process of pakikipagkwentuhan-indicator)
(pagpapatotoo, pagpapatibay)

Sikolohiyang Pilipino research
approaches and techniques
 Ginabayang Talakayan Method

collective discussion technique
„sama-sama‟ orientation


Roberto Galvez

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.