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Serial Data Transfer schemes

What is Serial Communications
Serial data transfer Types
Half duplex
Full duplex
Transfer Types
Eg:- tv, radio
Eg:- wlakie-talkie
Eg:- mobile phones
Serial Data Transmission Methods
Synchronous Transmission

Asynchronous Transmission
With Synchronous communications, the two devices
initially synchronize themselves to each other, and then
continually send characters to stay in sync.
Synchronous communications allows faster data transfer
rates than asynchronous methods, because additional bits
to mark the beginning and end of each data byte are not
The serial ports on IBM-style PCs are asynchronous
devices and therefore only support asynchronous serial

Since digital data are transmitted as a stream
of bits, synchronization is required between
the source and destination of the data.
Synchronous transmission transmits a block
of data and a clock signal or known bit
pattern that can be used for synchronization.
Synchronous Data format
Synchronous Transmission
Asynchronous Data Framing
Idle (high): Mark
Low: Space
Overhead? (parity, start, stop)
Asynchronous means "no synchronization between sender and
receiver .

The start bit indicate when the data byte is about to begin and the
stop bit signals when it ends. The requirement to send these
additional two bits cause asynchronous communications to be
slightly slower than synchronous.

An asynchronous line that is idle is identified with a value of 1, (also
called a mark state).

When a character is about to be transmitted, a start bit is sent. A start
bit has a value of 0, (also called a space state).
Asynchronous communication transmits one character at a
time by adding start and stop bits to the character code.

The most used form of character encoding is the American
Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII).

This is a seven bit code which allows for 128 characters.

Serial Communications
Comparison of transmission modes
suitable for data transmitted at random intervals (e.g.
keyboard to computer)
large overhead (20% or more)
low data rates (up to 115.2 kbps, practically 38.4 kbps)
simplicity and availability: UART and RS232 are present
in any PC
used in the great majority of dial-up connections
low overhead (long frames)
high data rates
less prone to errors

8251 USART Block Diagram
8251 USART
The data buffer interfaces the internal bus of the circuit with
the system bus.

The read write control logic controls the operation of the
peripheral depending upon the operations initiated by the

The modem control unit handles the modem handshake
signals to coordinate the communication between the
modem and the USART.

The transmit control transmits the data byte received by the
data buffer from the cpu for further serial communication.

The transmit buffer is a parallel to serial converter that
receives a parallel byte for conversion into a serial signal.

The receive control unit decides the receiver frequency as
controlled by the RXC input frequency.

8251 USART pins

Txc transmitter clock input this input controls the rate at which
the character is to be transmitted.
Rxc- Reciever clock input this input pin controls the rate at which
the character is to be received.
Dsr-data set ready this status can be checked by the cpu using a
status read operation.this normally used to check if data set is ready
when communicating with a modem.
Dtr-data terminal ready this is used to indicate that the device is
ready to accept data when the 8251 is communicating with a modem.
Rts request to send data If this pin is low is to indicate the modem
that reciever is ready to receive a data byte from the modem.
Cts clear to send if this input is low the 8251 is enabled to transmit
the serial data.
Txe-transmitter empty if the 8251,while transmitting has no
character to trnasmit ,the txe output goes high and it is goes low
when a character is received from the cpu.
Syndet/bd- synch detect/break detect

8251 Registers
Mode Instruction
Mode Instruction
Command Register
Search mode for synchronous
Status Register
RS-232 Standard
Specifies the interface between DTE and
Even used in applications where there is no
e.g. connecting computer to printer, magnetic card
reader, robot, etc.
Introduced in 1962 but is still widely used
Stand for Recommended Standard
data terminal equipment
e.g. computer, terminal
data communication equipment
connects DTE to communication lines
e.g. modem
DTE Connections
9-Pin RS232 Connector

9-Pin RS232 Connector
TxD and RxD
The TD (transmit data) wire is the one through
which data from a DTE device is transmitted to a
DCE device.

The RD (receive data) wire is the one on which data
is received by a DTE device, and the DCE device
keeps this line in a mark condition when idle.

The RTS and CTS signals coordinate the
communication between DTE and DCE. Whenever
the DTE has a data to send, it activates the RTS
line and if the DCE is ready to accept the data, it
activates the CTS line.

DTR signal is activated by DTE when it is ready to
accept data.
DSR is activated by DCE when it is ready for
establishing a communication link.
Data carrier detect control signal is used by the
DCE to indicate the DTE that a good signal is being
RI is a modem specific signal line for indicating an
incoming call on the telephone line.
25-Pin RS232 Connector
RS-232 Frame Format

Start bit
Stop bit
RS232 Logic Waveform
RS-232 TTL block diagram

RS-232 TTL conversion
RS-232 TTL conversion
RS-232 TTL conversion
TTL to RS-232 schematic

TTL to RS-232 converter


Universal Serial Bus (USB) is a hardware interface for low-
speed peripherals such as keyboards, joysticks,
scanners, printers, telephone devices, and touch pads.
The electrical design of USB limits the maximum cable
length to 5 meters for full-speed devices and up to 3
meters for low-speed devices.
A USB communication system consists of three basic units
USB is a metallic medium of communication.
It consists of four conductors:
1. The VBUS conductor is a power supply pin and carriers voltage from 4.2v
to 5.25v

2. The gnd connector extends the system ground to the device.

3. There are two data pins D+ and D- for differential signaling of the logic
USB Power

The USB bus supplies 5V DC regulated power
(maximum 500mA)through each port on pins 1 and 4.
These pins are longer than the data pins to ensure that
the power connections mate first and un-mate last.
Low-power devices that might normally require a
separate AC adapter can therefore be powered via the
USB cable, eliminating the need for associated AC
Port-switching USB hubs isolate all ports from each
other so that a faulty device will not cause all other the
devices on the same bus to also fail.

The data is transmitted in the form of packets containing
start , data, parity and stop bits.