BUSHRA ZAFAR. BILAL AHMAD. HAJRA MASOOD. SADAT IFTIKHAR. BSIT 3RD SEMESTER. MESTER 2006_2010.

Introduction of topics
INPUT OUTPUT VIA EXTERNAL DEVICES. I/O MODULES AND THEIR FUNCATIONS I/O TECHNIQES I/O CHANNEL AND PROCESSOR

External devices that provide a means of exchanging data between the external environment and the computer (both input and output.

Types of external devices.
Human readable: communicating with the computer user Example: Monitor, printer, keyboard, mouse.

Machine readable:
communicating with equipment Example: Hard drive, CD ROM

Communication:
Communicating with remote devices. Example : network interface card or modem

Variable of I/O devices.
 I/O

devices contain and transfer different types of data as text, Graphics, video, audio The speed of data transfer (receive or send) of devices varies as e.g. laser printer = 106 bps

Why we use I/O modules?
CPU clock speed is greater ass compare to speed of I/O. An interface is needed to link the I/O devices with system. I/O modules act as interface between system (CPU/ memory) and I/O devices .

Bus

Functions of I/O modules.
The basic function of I/O modules are.  Control and timing.  Devices communication.  Processor’ s communication.  Error detection.  Data buffering.

I/O module coordinate the timing. Control andflow of data b/w external devices and internal resources (CPU,RAM).
  check status of devices. (operating well or not). Data transfer.

Device communication.
I/O devices communicate with system via I/O

module. I/O device receive control signal and send interrupt signal to CPU via I/O module. I/O send status information to I/O module.

Processor’ s communication.
 I/O module communicate with I/O devices  Accepting commands from CPU.  Exchange data.  Check status of device (ready or busy).  Recognize address of I/O devices in memory.

(read, write, seek, scan, record address).

Error detection.
I/O module check I/O devices for error detection

periodically. Mechanical errors as paper jam. Electrical error as fluctuating power supply.

Data buffering.
Data is buffered (temporarily stored) in I/O modules. I/O module receive data from memory ,buffered it, send to I/O

device at it’s rate. I/O module receive data from I/O device and send to memory at it’s rate.

Input output techniques.
Programmed I/O.

CPU transfer data between I/O device and memory.
 Interrupt driven I/O.

CPU transfer data and also execute other programs.
Direct memory access.

DMA controller transfer data independently.

Programmed I/O.
CPU issues I/O command to I/O module.

Control signals. Check status of I/O. Read and write commands. I/O modules performs tasks. CPU waits for completion of task Status registers of i/o is updated after completion of task. CPU check status of I/O .

Programmed I/O.
CPU ISSUE COMMNADS I/O MODULE PERFORM TASK I/O MODULE UPDATE STATUS REGISTER. CPU CHECK STATUS

Issues of programmed I/O.
The CPU needs waits for completion of data transfer. CPU check the status of I/O module.  programmed I/O waste time and misuse CPU. Ultimately degrade system performance.

Interrupt driven I/O.
CPU issues I/O commands to I/O module.

(does not wait for completion , it continues executing subsequent instructions.)
I/O modules upload data from I/O devices. I/O modules send interrupt to CPU. (device is ready) CPU send commands for data transfer. I/O modules transfer data.

Interrupt driven I/O.
CPU ASSIGN TASK I/O MODULE LOAD DATA I/O SEND INTERUPPT TO CPU CPU SEND COMMANDS

DATA TRANSFER COMPLETED

Direct memory access.
CPU assign task to DMA controller.

(Execute other programs) DMA controller take over control of bus from CPU. (cycle stealing). DMA controller perform data transfer. DMA send interrupt when completed.

Direct memory access.
CPU ASSIGN TASK

DMA CONTROLER TAKE OVER BUS

DMA CONTROLER TRANSFER DATA

DMA SEND INTERRUPT TO CPU.

Structure of Programmed I/O and DMA.

DMA

Evolutions of I/O techniques.
Processor directly controls device. Processor uses Programmed I/O. Processor uses Interrupts. Processor uses DMA. Some processing moved to processors in I/O module

that access programs in memory and execute them on their own without CPU intervention (I/O Module referred to as an I/O Channel). in its own right(I/O Module referred to as an I/O Processor).

Distributed processing where I/O module is a computer

Types of I/O channels
(a) Selector: Each device or a small set of device is handled by a controller. (b) Multiplex channel : Multiplex devices are handled by a single controller. controller is called multiplexer

Types of I/O

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Thanks for your Attention.

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