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7QC Tools

2

Check Sheets

Pareto Diagram

Cause and Effect Diagram.

Stratification.

Scatter Diagram.

Histogram.

Graphs and Control Charts.

7QC Tools

3

Check Sheet

Purpose

How often are certain events happening

Translating Opinion into Fact

Aid to the limited memory

Making information collection easy from data

(Format)

Good point to start most problem solving tools

4

Mark defect by

SN Class Mean Value Tally Marks Total

1 950-955 952.5 IIII 4

2 955-960 957.5 IIII III 8

3 960-965 962.5 IIII IIII IIII 15

4 965-970 967.5 IIII IIII 10

5 970-975 972.5 IIII I 6

Diagram type check sheet

Frequency check sheet

Sn Parameter Spec Judgement Remark

1 2 3 4 5

Part No: Process: Machine:

Sample No

Inspection check sheet

Types of Check Sheet

5

Pareto Diagram

A bar chart that helps to prioritize actions by

arranging elements in descending order of

occurrence

Sorts out the vital few from the trivial many

Separates important from non-important causes

contributing to a problem

6

How to make Pareto Diagram?

Define a problem and collect data on the factors that

contribute to it.

Historical records generally provide sufficient

information.

Classify the data by type, cost , percent, number of

occurrences, or whatever is appropriate for the

situation.

7

How to make Pareto Diagram?

Arrange the data in descending order

Calculate % contribution of each item

Calculate cumulative % of each item

Defect Defect Qty % Cum

Code description Rej Contribution %age

A Drill Broken 70 46.60% 46.60%

B Serration Mismatch 45 30% 76.60%

C Runout more 25 16.60% 93.20%

D Dia U/S 6 4% 97.20%

E Dia O/S 4 2.80% 100%

Total 150

Rejection details of Pinion

8

How to make Pareto Diagram

Draw bar graph showing constituent ratio on vertical

axis.

Connect cumulative percentage of each bar graph to

obtain Pareto curve.

75%

50%

25%

100%

n=150

A B C D E

Nos.

70

25

45

6

4

46.6%

76.6%

93.2%

97.2%

75%

50%

25%

100%

n=150

A B C D E

Nos.

70

25

45

6

4

46.6%

76.6%

93.2%

97.2%

n=150

A B C D E

Nos.

70

25

45

6

4

46.6%

76.6%

93.2%

97.2%

9

Types of Pareto Diagrams

1. Pareto Diagrams by Phenomenon

Quality: defects, faults, failure, complaints, RW etc.

Cost: amount of loss, expenses

Delivery: delay in delivery, stock shortages etc

Safety: accidents, mistakes, breakdowns etc

2. Pareto Diagrams by Causes

Operator: shift, group, age, experience, skill etc

Machine: machines, equipments, tools, instruments etc.

Material: manufacturer, plant, lot, kind etc

Process: conditions, orders, arrangements,methods etc.

10

Hints on Making Pareto Diagrams

1. Check various classifications and construct many kinds

of Pareto diagrams

Essence of a problem can be grasped by observing it from

various angles

2. It is undesirable that others represents a higher

percentage

A different method of classification should be considered

3. It is best to draw Pareto diagrams by assigning

monetary value

Cost is an important scale of measurement in

management. If financial implications of a problem are not

properly appreciated, the research itself may end up as

ineffective.

11

Hints on Using Pareto Diagrams

1. If an item is expected to be amenable to a simple

solution, it should be tackled right away even if it is of

relatively small importance.

It will serve as an example of efficient problem solving, and

the experience, information and incentives to morale

obtained through this will be of great assets for future

problem solving.

2. Do not fail to make Pareto diagram by causes

After identifying the problem by making a Pareto diagram

by phenomenon, it is necessary to identify the causes in order

to solve the problem. It is therefore vital to make a Pareto

diagram by causes if any improvements are to be effected.

12

Cause and Effect Diagram

A graphic tool used to represent the relationship

between an effect and the cause that influence it

Identifies various causes affecting a process

Helps groups in reaching a common understanding of a

problem

Helps reduce incidence of subjective decision making

13

How to make Cause & Effect

Diagram?

Define the problem or effect clearly and explicitly.

Generate the potential causes of the problem

through brain storming.

Encourage wild ideas

Quantity rather than Quality of ideas

Suspend judgment on Good or Bad

Ride on anothers idea

Do not interrupt

Record all responses

Categorize all causes into major causes and give

suitable names

14

How to make Cause & Effect

Diagram?

Construct the cause and effect diagram by:

Place problem statement in a box on right hand side

Draw the major cause category boxes on the left

hand side. Commonly used categories are man,

machine, method, material and measurement

Put all brainstorming ideas at respective major cause

category in Cause and Effect Diagram

Identify likely root cause(s) and circle them

Collect data to verify the most likely root causes

Cause and Effect Diagram

Nurses

Many patients

Long waiting

time after

completion of

ultrasonic scan

Methods Environment

People

Reception

work

Medical charts

hard to tell apart

Many charts to input

Shortage of

numbers

Inexperience

Patients

Two or more booked

in at same time

Record

findings

Charts all

returned together

Handling

Data input

takes time

Calculation

of bill

Charts from all

departments

come together

Test

Rooms

Far away

Busy

Computer

terminal

slow

Reception

16

Hints on Making Cause and Effect

Diagrams

Identify all the relevant factors through

examination and discussion by many people

Express the characteristic as concretely as possible

Make the same number of cause and effect

diagrams as that of characteristics

Choose a measurable characteristic and factors

Discover factors amenable to action

17

Hints on Using Cause and Effect Diagrams

Assign an importance to each factor objectively on the

basis of data

Examination of factors on the basis of your own skill and

experience is important, but it is dangerous to give importance

to them through subjective perceptions or impressions alone

(would have been solved by now if so). Assigning importance to

factors objectively using data is both more scientific and more

logical.

Try to improve the cause and effect diagram

continuously while using it

Actually using a cause and effect diagram will help in

seeing those parts which need to be checked, deleted or

modified. This will be useful in solving problems, and at the

same time, will help improve your own skill and to increase your

technological knowledge

18

Stratification

Stratification is a statistical technique of breaking down

values and numbers into meaningful categories or

classification

To identify the cause of problem if they come from a

particular source

To analyze root cause in conjunction with other

techniques like Pareto diagram, histogram and graphs

19

How to use Stratification

Regroup original data as per the source of data

(e.g. Machine wise, shift-wise, model-wise, supplier-

wise)

If required collect data afresh after making the

source from which they come.

Recreate histogram, Pareto charts and graphs on

classified data

20

Month Model A Mode B

Apr 10 50

May 8 32

Jun 15 65

Jul 10 50

Aug 8 42

Sep 7 28

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep

Month

R

e

j

N

o

s

Mode B

Model A

Stratification

21

Impurity Amount

V

i

s

c

o

s

i

t

y

After Stratification

Impurity Amount

V

i

s

c

o

s

i

t

y

Before Stratification

Stratification

22

Scatter Diagram

A tool used to study the possible relationship between

two variables (Cause and Effect)

Diagram makes it clear whether a relationship exists

and shows the strength of that relationship

If data points are scattered very close to a trend, it

shows strong relationship otherwise it is weak

relationship

23

How to make Scatter Diagram

Collect 50 to 100 paired samples of data

believed to be related.

Construct a data sheet.

Draw the horizontal and vertical axis of the

diagram.

Label the axes.

Causeis usually plotted on the horizontal axis

and the effect variable on the vertical axis.

Plot the data on the diagram. If values repeat,

circle that point.

24

A. Randomly scattered points - No correlation

B. Possible Positive correlation

C. Strong positive correlation

Interpretation

n=15 r=0.06

n=18 r=0.54 n=14 r=0.96

A B

C

25

Interpretation

D. Possible negative correlation

E. Strong Negative correlation

n=22 r=- 0.5 n=18 r=-0.92

D

E

26

S(xy)

S(xx).S(yy)

r=

S(xx) = (x -x)

i

2

n

i=1

S(yy) = (y -y)

i

2

n

i=1

S(xy) = (x -x) (y y)

i

n

i=1

i

If r=0 No correlation

If r=1 Very strong correlation

If r=-1 Very strong negative

correlation

If 0<r>1 Possible correlation

Correlation Coefficient

27

Significance of r

If calculated value of r is more than the table

value of r at 1% or 5% significance level at (n-2)

degrees of freedom, then at 99% or 95%

confidence we can say that correlation exists

between two or vice-versa.

28

Notes on Correlation Analysis

1. Coordinate Axes:

Effect of choosing scale of axes

2. Stratification:

Stratify the data and then see the

correlation

3. Range of variables:

Select range of variables carefully as it

affects correlation

29

Regression Analysis

Estimating the exact relationship between

dependent and independent variables

Line of best fit joining data

points on a scatter diagram is a

regression line having equation

y=a+bx

where y is dependent

variable, x is independent

variable, a is a constant and b is

regression coefficient

y

x

30

Regression Analysis

Calculations:

1. Calculate x and y

2. Calculate S(xx) and S(xy)

3. Calculate b

b=S(xy)/S(xx)

4. Calculate a

a=y-b x

Then, equation of line is y=a+bx

Note: For both Correlation and Regression

Analysis, draw scatter diagram first

31

Histogram

A bar chart that displays the variation within the

process

Also called a frequency distribution because the

frequency of occurrence of any given value is

represented by the height of the bars

Allows one to quickly visualize whats going on within

a large amount of data

Provides clues to causes of problems

May be used to show the relationship between the

engineering tolerance and the capabilities of the

process

32

How to make Histogram?

Collect measurements(variable data)from a process or

key characteristic.

Thirty or more measurements are preferred.

Construct check sheet to record the data.

Find the range by subtracting the smallest

measurements from the largest.

Using this guide determine the proper number of class

intervals.

33

Observations No. of classes(K)

25 to 50 5 to 8

51 to 100 6 to 11

101 to 250 9 to 13

251 and over 11 to 15

K=R/h +1 (R = Range)

Select h such that K is between 5~8

How to make Histogram

34

Class Class limits Tally Number of observations

1 0.51 to 5.50

IIII IIII

10

2 5.51 to 10.50

IIII IIII IIII IIII

20

3 10.51 to 15.50

IIII IIII IIII IIII IIII

25

4 15.51 to 20.50

IIII IIII IIII IIII

20

5 20.51 25.50

IIII IIII IIII

15

6 25.51 to 30 .50

IIII IIII

10

How to make Histogram

Construct a frequency table by properly making class

boundaries. Tally the number of observations found in

each class.

35

0.5 5.5 10.5 15.5 20.5 25.5 30.5

5

10

15

20

5

25

How to make Histogram

Taking the class interval on horizontal axis, draw the

height of the bar corresponding to frequencies in

interval on the vertical axis.

36

General Type Comb Type Positively Skew Type

Left-hand

Precipice Type

Plateau Type Twin Peak Type

Isolated Peak

Type

Types of Histogram

READING HISTOGRAMS

A. General Type

Shape symmetrical (Bell shaped). If your vendor has less variability but

centre is shifting you can help him to do right setting.

B. Bimodal or Twin Peak Type

Two Distributions with widely different mean values mixed.

C. Comb Type Multimodel

Number of units of data included in class varies from class to class.

Rounding off. Incorrect least count of measurement system

D. Positive Skew

Occurs when lower limit is controlled either theoretically or by

specification value or when values lower than certain value do not occur

E. Left Hand Precipice Type

100% screening has been done because of low process capability or when

positive skewness becomes more extreme. (Check your vendor if in receipt

supply having such pattern)

F. Plateau Type

Mixture of several distributions having different mean values, or 100%

screening on both sides

38

Normal Distribution

x

f(x)

Frequency is the highest in the middle and becomes gradually lower towards the tail.

It is symmetrical

It is denoted by N (, o

2

)

: The centre of the distribution (the mean)

o : The spread of the distribution(the standard deviation)

To obtain a probability in a normal distribution, we standardize by transforming x to a

variable, u= x-

o , We then have a standard measure u, which is distributed as the

standard normal distribution N(0, 1

2

). The normal distribution table gives probabilities in the

standard normal distribution.

1o :- 68.3% of area

2o :- 95.4% of area

3o :- 99.7% of area

39

Process Capability Index

After Histogram shows that it follows normal distribution, a study of

process capability is often undertaken. This is to find out whether the process

can meet specifications or not

Both-sided specifications (S

U

and S

L

)

C

P

= S

U

- S

L

/6s

One-sided specification (S

U

or S

L

)

C

P

= S

U

- x

/3s

Evaluation of process:

1) 1.33 <

C

P

Satisfiable enough

2) 1.00 < C

P

< 1.33 Adequate

3) C

P

< 1.00 Inadequate

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN Cp & Cpk

1. Cp is a ratio of tolerance and six sigma.

It does not talk about process setting. This can be

appreciated that even if variability is small & setting is

out we will have Cp very high. This is therefore not an

effective indicator.

Even though process setting may be totally out, Cp value

could be well above 1.33. Therefore, Cp can be best

described as process potential index.

2. Cpk takes care of setting as well as

variation. Therefore Cpk describes the actual condition

41

Graphs

Graphs are among the simplest and best techniques to

analyze and display data for easy communication

Y e a r R e j C o s t

1 9 9 6 5 0

1 9 9 7 4 5

1 9 9 8 7 0

0

2 0

4 0

6 0

8 0

1 9 9 6 1 9 9 7 1 9 9 8

Y e a r

R

e

j

.

c

o

s

t

Bar Graph

42

Graphs

Mont h Rej

A pr 0. 2

May 0. 6

Jun 0. 2

Jul 0. 2

A ug 0. 15

S ep 0. 2

0

0. 2

0. 4

0. 6

0. 8

Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep

Month

R

e

j

e

c

t

i

o

n

%

a

g

e

Rej

Trend Chart

43

Graphs.

OTHERS

5.56%

RBS STRG.

ASSY.

10.83%

R&P ASSY.

17.62%

POWER

STRG.

4.92%

AXLE ASSY.

28.67%

PROP.SHAFT

ASSY.

6.15%

COLUMN

ASSY.

26.25

Pie Chart

44

Control Charts

A control chart is a line graph used to display variation

on time ordered fashion

A centerline and control limits are placed on the graph

to help analyze the pattern of the data

Purpose is to separate common causes from special

causes of variation and to help assign causes of

variation

45

How to make Control Charts

Define process parameter to be measured.

Define wherein the process the control characteristics

will be measured.

Select where control chart is to be used.

Determine sample size and frequency.

Take measurements.

Plot measurements on graph.

Connect dots.

After 20 plot points calculate center-line and control

limits.

Analyze pattern for special cause of variation

46

Chance Cause

Assignable Cause

Upper Control Limit

Lower Control Limit

Upper Specification Limit

Lower Specification Limit

Control Charts

47

LCL ( x - A

2

R )

UCL ( D

4

R )

LCL ( D

3

R )

x R Chart:

30

50

40

20

0

60

40

20

x

R

UCL ( x + A

2

R )

x

R

Control Charts

48

Coefficients for x-R Charts

Size of Sub-group X-Chart R Chart R Chart R Chart

n A

2

D

3

D

4

d

2

2 1.880 - 3.267 1.128

3 1.023 - 2.575 1.693

4 0.729 - 2.282 2.059

5 0.577 - 2.115 2.326

6 0.483 - 2.004 2.534

49

pn Chart Number of Defective

p Chart Fraction Defective

c Chart No. of Defects on a

fixed sized Product

u Chart No. of Defects on a

varying sized product

Other Charts

50

How to Read Control Charts

1. Out of Control Limits: Points outside the limits

2. Run: Continuously on one side of center line

Seven-Point length of run is abnormal

10 Out of 11 consecutive points on one side

12 Out of 14 consecutive points on one side

16 Out of 20 consecutive points on one side

3. Trend: Continuous upward or downward curve

51

How to Read Control Charts

4. Approach to the Control Limits

Two out of three points occur outside of 2-sigma

limits is abnormal

5. Approach to the Center Line

When most of the points are within central 1.5-sigma

lines, this is also abnormal. It indicates mixing odd

data in sub-groups

6. Periodicity

When the curve repeatedly shows an up and down

trend for almost same interval, this is also abnormal

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