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Persuasive Writing & Presentations

(Re)interpret problem
Develop key question and approach
Form hypotheses
(Write proposal and work plan)
Desk research/interviews/analysis
(Test hypotheses)
Structure presentation/paper/memo
Write P/P/M
Deliver P/P/M
Answer questions and solicit feedback
Plan and Propose
Get the information
Analyse and recommend
Present and get buy-in
Stage Skill/Process
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Today
Identify the key question
Decide your approach
(Develop a work/research plan; do the work)
Structure your Answer

Next Session
Acquire and practice good oral presentation skills

Last Session
Deliver the results compellingly and professionally



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Ill introduce one step or element of the process

Ill demonstrate one way to address and/or
accomplish this step

Youll do a short exercise to calibrate your
understanding of what weve just covered

You can decide for yourself whether the way Ive
presented is helpful. Some approaches dont
suit everyone!
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If you have to answer a call of nature, dont ask--go right ahead! Ill
try to give you adequate breaks

If you dont understand, ask a question, or ask me to slow down

You may not get each step of the process immediately. I urge you
to try it yourself before you decide you dont like it. These skills
take lots of practice to master

There are a ton of how-to books and websites out there. Rather
than try to read more, try to practice what you learn here in your
coursework (papers, class presentations, theses, etc.)

Most importantly, try something new and get outside your comfort
zone. Theres no grade to worry about. All you risk is becoming a
better writer and presenter!


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Today
Identify the key question
Decide your approach
(Develop a work/research plan; do the work)
Structure your Answer

Next Session
Acquire and practice good oral presentation skills

Last Session
Deliver the results compellingly and professionally



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Use the Situation-Complication-Question (SCQ)
framework (goes by many names and acronyms)

Fill it in with information and analysis

Then, revisit the key question, since your analysis
could raise an entirely different question




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Situation


Complication


(Key) Question


Facts, data, context
Things that can not be changed
Known goals

Whats stopping the people
involved from achieving what they
want to do?
What is unsatisfactory?

Of everything that could be done,
whats the overall, highest level
question that must be addressed?



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The client is active in several European markets, and wants
to expand further. He is contemplating acquiring SuperCo, a
local manufacturer in a new market.
The client is uncertain about the risks involved, given the
volatility of the market, and isnt sure about the fit with
SuperCo.
Should the client acquire SuperCo?
Situation
Complication
Question
A Consulting Example

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Situation Complication
Client wants to
enter the market
Unsure about
acquisition
Who should we
acquire in this
market?
Client wants to
enter the market
Concerned about
the risks
What alternatives
do we have?
Revised Question
(after analysis and
discussion)
Client wants to
enter the market
Lead time is long
and increasing
Should we launch
this product?
Original Question
How should we
acquire a
company in this
market?
What should be
our entry
strategy?
How can the
client shorten
time to market?
Today
Identify the key question
Decide your approach
(Develop a work/research plan; do the work)
Structure your Answer

Next Session
Acquire and practice good oral presentation skills

Last Session
Deliver the results compellingly and professionally



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Make sure that your key question captures all the
elements you need to study and solve

To make your research easier, break down the key
question into sub-questions by using an issue tree
(or anything that facilitates this process for you)


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Problem Solving Issue analysis 2
Issue
Situation Complication
Original
Question
Revised
question
Key Question
that captures all
elements
Client wants
to enter
phosphates-
free cleaners
market
Uncertain whether
entry alone or by
acquisition will help
meet strategic
growth targets for
2015
What should
be our entry
strategy?
Should client
enter the
market?
Will investing $XX million
on our own in production,
distribution and
marketing of phosphates-
free cleaners help
achieve strategic growth
targets for 2015?
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Key Question
Sub-Q.1 Sub-Q.2 Sub-Q.3
Sub-Q.2-1 Sub-Q.2-1

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Generic Characteristics
of Logic Trees
Hierarchical
breaks question down into
sub-issues
Logically robust
the answer to each sub-
issue will help answer the
higher level issue
Comprehensive
all the (major) necessary
sub-issues are there
Sub-issues Key question / issue
Do we know what
is driving our poor
performance?
Has overall market
demand declined?
Is our market share
declining?
Are prices falling?
Are our costs too
high?
Has the relative
competitiveness of
the proposition
deteriorated?
Have new players
entered the market?
Example
Do we know what
is driving our poor
performance?
Has overall market
demand declined?

MECE
Mutually exclusive: is there overlap between tree elements?
Comprehensively exhaustive: are all the necessary tree elements there?

Relevance:
is each sub-question necessary to support the conclusion?
Is each sub-question significant in nature?

Logically robust:
Can the higher level question be concluded from the sub-questions?
Will answering the sub-questions answer / prove the higher-level question?

Actionable:
Can each question practically be proved or answered?
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Today
Identify the key question
Decide your approach
(Develop a work/research plan; do the work)
Structure your Answer

Next Session
Acquire and practice good oral presentation skills

Last Session
Deliver the results compellingly and professionally



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Decide the message and build logical support
for it -- use pyramid


Develop the story line and illustrate it -- use
SCQA
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Identified the key question using SCQ

Selected the right approach to solve the problem

Gathered the evidence

Analyzed the evidence

Come up with the answer to the key question
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Sort and group ideas
logically



Focus on whats
relevant



Verify your thinking



The Answer
NB: This is further explained in Barbara Mintos, The Pyramid Principle
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Write your main message in one sentence at the
top of the pyramid

Decide what type of question the message raises
and answer it logically

Fill in the rest of the structure the same way

Check your logic



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Invest in the BizWiz
solution for key
business segments

Use induction: A logical grouping of ideas for
what, why or how questions


Use deduction: A logical argument for why
questions only
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Invest in the BizWiz
solution for key business
segments
WHAT SEGMENTS?
Mobile
Office
Global
Corporates
Working
Women
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Invest in the BizWiz
solution for key business
segments
WHY?
To enhance your
image among
business users
To ensure $50
million additional
revenue from
business market
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Invest in the BizWiz
solution for key business
segments
HOW?
Build new
micro-
segmentation
Pilot tailored
solutions for key
micro-segments
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To convince a skeptical reader

To deliver a difficult message

To include qualifications in your answer




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WHY?
So, invest in
BizWiz
BizWiz is the only
solution that will
get you there
You need to
reestablish your
leadership in the
business market
quickly
Invest in the BizWiz
solution for key business
segments
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Close your factories
in the northeast
region
WHY?
So, close those
factories
Your operations
in the northeast
region are to
blame
Your share of the
national market
is declining


WHY?
Company X looks
promising, but we need to
confirm the viability of the
new distribution strategy
Company X is a
strong candidate
in a recovering
market
However, its
innovative
distribution
strategy has been
difficult to
implement
So, we need to
confirm the
viability of
Company Xs
distribution
strategy
Use deduction to include qualifications
in your answer
Readers response to
your message
Type of document you
need to write
Document structure to
use
What? Description Inductive
How? Implementation Inductive
Why? Justification Inductive or Deductive
Dont mix how?, what? and why? responses at the same structural level
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Situation
Complication
Information to Include
One-sentence summary of your answer
Whats stopping her from getting there -- whats
unsatisfactory in this situation, and what would be
satisfactory instead -- which triggers ...
... the key question on her mind
Where the client is now and where she wants to be
Question
Answer

Keep jargon to a minimum

Avoid redundant expressions




each individual site commonly agreed upon
future potential specifically catering to
three different choices as stated before
currently existing ambitions for the future

Before we meet again (two weeks from today,) please
choose a topic youd like to write up and present at our
last class
You can choose anything youd like (e.g. current event,
MALD thesis topic, dissertation proposal/defense) as
long as its of substance (e.g. not Should I have tuna
or egg salad for lunch?)
You can select one of two approaches:
Answer a question (a final presentation)
Recommend a way to answer a question (a proposal)
What youll present is your SCQ, with either the
answer, or the proposed approach, in a short (4-5
minute) presentation


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Id like to see your initial stab at the SCQ(A) before our
next class, so please email it to me. Ill respond with brief,
directional comments
Ill have office hours on the next two next Wednesdays if
youd like to discuss it
For our next class on presentations prepare two three-
minute presentation without visual aids on one of the
following three topics:
Presenting yourself
What you want to be/do 20 years from now
Why you chose Fletcher
And one on
A controversial topic of your choice, i.e. one that is likely to
trigger questions
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